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Full text of "The New Catholic Dictionary"

PIUS XI 



THE NEW 

CATHOLIC 
DICTIONARY 

A COMPLETE WORK OF REFERENCE ON EVERY SUBJECT IN THE 
LIFE, BELIEF, TRADITION, RITES, SYMBOLISM, DEVOTIONS, 
HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, LAWS, DIOCESES, MISSIONS, CENTERS, 
INSTITUTIONS, ORGANIZATIONS, STATISTICS OF THE CHURCH 
AND HER PART IN PROMOTING SCIENCE, ART, EDUCATION, 
SOCIAL WELFARE, MORALS AND CIVILIZATION 

Compiled and Edited Under the Direction of 
CONDE B. PALLEN, Ph.D., LL.D. JOHN J. WYNNE, S.J., S.T.D. 

Assisted by 

CHARLES F. WEMYSS BROWN 
BLANCHE M. KELLY, Litt.D. ANDREW A. MacERLEAN, LL.B. 

Under the Auspices of 
THE EDITORS OF THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA 




NEW YORK 
THE UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOUNDATION 



NIHIL OBSTAT 

JOHN J. WYNNE, S.J., S.T.D., 

Censor deputatus 

IMPRIMATUR 

+ PATRICK CARDINAL HAYES, 

Archbishop of New York 
October 1, 1929. 



Copyright 1929 
The Universal Knowledge Foundation 1929 



All Rights Reserved 



Copyright in England 

Copyright under the articles of the Copyright 
Convention of the Pan-American Republics 
and the United States August 11, 1910 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

BY 

VAN REES PRESS, NEW YORK 



Preface 




JHIS Dictionary is not an ordinary compilation of knowledge, but 
a book of life, of Catholic life, past and present, in every part 
of the world. It contains not only definitions and explanations 
of every subject in Religion, Scripture, tradition, doctrine, 
morals, sacraments, rites, customs, devotions and symbolism, 
but also accounts of the Church in every continent, country, diocese ; mis- 
sions, notable Catholic centers, cities, and places with religious names; 
religious orders, church societies, sects and false religions. It has brief 
articles also on historical events and personages, on the Old Testament 
and New, and on popes, prelates, priests, men and women of distinction, 
showing what the Church has done for civilization and correcting many 
errors which have hitherto passed for history. 

This volume contains articles on matters in philosophy, psychology 
and education, of special interest, on which there is a Catholic teaching 
or position; law, the laws of the Church, or canon law, and the influence 
of religion on civil law; ethics, social and political science; the arts which 
have served and derived inspiration from religion: painting, architecture, 
sculpture, music, literature, Catholic artists and authors. The relation of 
science with religion is treated in a special manner. Neat articles on each 
science tell what Catholics and Christians generally have done for it, and 
thus show the impossibility of conflict between the two. 

If it be asked: why so many subjects? It should be remembered that 
the Catholic religion has a long history of its own, and that this history is 
rooted in the ages preceding its foundation. It is rich in doctrine, elaborate 
in ceremonial, regulated by laws which reflect the best there is in the 
civil and church jurisprudence of centuries. Its constitution is world-wide, 
organized by dioceses and missions in every part of the world. For almost 
every doctrine it teaches there is an error to correct. It has its enemies as 
well as its champions. It reaches into every field of human life, into 
philosophy, psychology, morals, education, art, and the sciences, physical 
and social. 

This Dictionary is entitled "New" because it is entirely different from 
every other dictionary hitherto published in any language, and this part 
of the title will be retained permanently because the editors propose to 

iii 



PREFACE 



publish at intervals new editions which will contain whatever is new con- 
cerning the topics treated. It is entitled "Catholic" because it is universal 
in scope so far as concerns religion, and all that is connected with it — and 
what of any importance in life is not so connected? It is Catholic also in 
the sense that it aims at giving as correctly as language can express the 
traditions, teachings, customs, pious practises and history of the Catholic 
Church, and its position on every question that affects human life. This 
will appear in the number of titles of ancient and of foreign origin. The 
Church is of all times, of all peoples, of every tongue. For all such titles 
the derivation is given, and derivations are as a rule the best definitions. 

The chief merits of a dictionary are precision, accuracy, simplicity, 
and brevity. Fortunately, precision and accuracy are characteristic of 
Catholic theology, philosophy, literature and history. These qualities help 
to put an end to controversy. They make the truths of faith more intel- 
ligible and inspirational. Simplicity and brevit^ were the aims of the 
greatest of masters, Thomas Aquinas, to whom Catholic scholars since 
his time have all looked for guidance. He deplored that "beginners are 
greatly impeded by the writings of various authors, partly because of the 
heaping-up of useless questions, articles, and arguments; partly because 
the knowledge necessary for them is not presented in a strictly methodical 
sequence." In religion and whatever goes with it we are all beginners. 
The writers and editors of this Dictionary have used no waste words, 
and only such that all may understand. Moreover they have given much 
attention and space to the symbolism by which the Church everywhere and 
at all times has known how to express what language often obscures. 

For readers who need further information than the articles contain, 
there is sufficient reference to well-selected books after each important 
article, and the complete bibliographical lists at the end of the volume 
are of exceptional value. 

The compilation of this Dictionary has been the work of years. Over 
two hundred writers have contributed articles for it. We are pleased 
to express our gratitude to these scholarly and generous assistants. We are 
grateful also to the 10,000 who subscribed in advance for this Dictionary, 
and to the 650 patrons who kindly acted as underwriters to enable us to 
publish it. Since it would be impossible to produce without defect a work of 
so much variety and multitudinous detail, we shall welcome every criticism 
and suggestion that will enable us to make it as well-nigh perfect as a human 
production may be. 

All regret profoundly that as the work neared completion one of the 
special editors, Dr. Pallen, was called unexpectedly from his labors, though 
no one will question that a spirit like his has continued to inspire and assist 
his devoted collaborators. 



Maps 



FACING PAGE 

Africa 80 

Australia 81 

Canada 160 

China 161 

Crusades 260 

Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 261 



FACING PAGE 

England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland 322 

France, The Netherlands, Belgium, and Holland 323 

Italy 494 

Spain and Portugal 982 

United States 983 



Subjects of Full Page Illustrations 



Pius XI 



FACING PAGE 

. Frontispiece 



Archeology 

Eucharistic Symbol, 2nd Century 
Orante (Mosaic) 
Statuette of the Good Shepherd 
Glass Bowl: Moses Smiting the Rock 
Crypt of St. Cecilia, Catacomb of St. Callistus 60 
Christ and His Apostles, 4th Century 
Papal Crypt, 3rd Century 
Mosaic, Narthex of St. Sophia 
From the Tomb of Pope Anterus, 3rd Cen- 
tury 
Stone Tablet from Herod's Temple 61 



Architecture 

Barocco: S. Maria della Salute, Venice 
Gothic : Cathedral of St. Stephen, Vienna 
Romanesque: Cathedral, Speyer 

French Gothic : Cathedral, Amiens 

Byzantine : St. Mark's, Venice 

Basilican: St. Paul-Without-the-Walls, Rome 

Renaissance: St. Peter's, Rome 

English Gothic : Lincoln Cathedral 



62 



63 



Catacombs 

Ivory Chair of Bishop Maximian 
Stone: The Last Judgment 
Monogram from St. Agnes 
Catacomb of St. Sebastian 
Graffito on Marble 

Eucharistic Symbol 

Symbolical Painting 

Loaves and Fishes 

Sacrifice of Isaac 

Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes. 



176 



177 



India 

Sumaree Temple, Benares 488 

Ireland 

Ruins of Ardfert Abbey 489 

Italy 

Cathedral, Albenga 494 

Jerusalem 

Valley of the Cedron, and Mt. Olivet 495 



facing page 
Maya 

Carving, Governor's House, Chichen-Itza 
Tablet with Hieroglyphic Inscription 
Doorway, Governor's House 
Stucco Altar-Piece 624 

Metal-Work 

Bronze Doors, Ravello (1179) 625 

New Discoveries (map ) 720 

Painting 
Zurbaran 

A Bishop's Funeral 
St. Gregory 
St. Bonaventure 
St. Benedict's Vision, Madrid 721 

Pulpits 

Cathedral, Trier, Germany 

Cathedral, Alzano Maggiore 802 

Rood -Loft 

Rood-loft with Organ, Hofkirche, Innsbruck 803 

Rome 

Bridge and Castle of Sant' Angelo 834 

Spain 

Chapel in the Cathedral of Sigiienza, 1520 

Library of the Escorial, 1563-84 

Fountain in the Cathedral Cloister, Bar- 
celona 

Interior of the Transept, Cathedral of Bur- 
gos 835 

Sculpture 

Joan of Arc, Chapu 

David, Verrocchio 876 

St. John Baptist, Donatello 

King Arthur, Vischer 877 

United States 

New York: St. Patrick's Cathedral 

Boston : Cathedral of the Holy Cross 984 

Cincinnati: St. Peter q Cathedral 

Seattle : Cathedral of St. James 985 

Versions of the Bible 

Complutensian Polyglot 998 

Hamburg Bible 999 



A archdiocese 

A.A administration Apos- 
tolic 

Abd Abdias 

Abp Archbishop 

Agg Aggeus 

Ala Alabama 

A.N abbey nullius 

Apoc Apocalypse 

Ar Arabic 

Ariz Arizona 

Ark Arkansas 

Archiep. . . .archbishop 

A.-S Anglo-Saxon 

A.U.C Lat., Anno Urbis con- 
duce, in the year of 
the founding of the 
City (Rome) 

b born 

Bait Baltimore 

Bar Baruch 

Bl Blessed 

Bost Boston 

Bp bishop 

B.W.I British West Indies 

c Lat., circa, about 

Cal California 

can canon 

Camb Cambridge 

Cant Canticle of Canticles 

Card cardinal 

Card.-bp. . . cardinal-bishop 

Cath Catholics 

Celt Celtic 

Ch. ; Chs. . . chapter ; churches 

Cinn Cincinnati 

Co county 

Col Colorado ; Epistle to 

the Colossians 

Conn Connecticut 

Cor Epistle to the Corin- 
thians 

d died 

D diocese 

Dan Daniel 

Dec December 

Del Delaware 

Deut Deuteronomy 

Dub Dublin 

e east 

eccl., eccles.ecclesiastical 

Eccles., Ecclesiastes 

Ecclus Ecclesiasticus 

ed edited, edition, editor 

Edin Edinburgh 

e.g Lat., exempli gratia, 

for example 

Eng England ; English 

Eph Epistle to the Ephe- 

sians 

Esd Esdras 

est. pop. . . . estimated population 

Esth Esther 

etc Lat., et cetera, and so 

forth 

Ex Exodus 

Ezech Ezechiel 

Feb February 

fl Lat., floruit, lived 

Fla Florida 

Fr. ; Frs. . . Father, French ; Fa- 
thers 

ft feet 

Ga Georgia 

Gael Gaelic 



GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 

Gal Epistle to the Gala- 

tians 

Gen Genesis 

Ger German 

Gr Greek 

Hab Habacuc 

Heb Hebrew ; Epistle to 

the Hebrews 

la Iowa 

i.e Lat., id est, that is 

111 Illinois 

Tnd Indiana 

Is Isaias 

It Italian 

James Epistle of St. James 

Jan January 

Jer Jeremias 

Job Job, Book of 

Joel Joel, Book of 

John Gospel of St. John 

I John . . . . T Epistle of St. John 

II John . . . TI Epistle of St. John 

III John . . Ill Epistle of St. John 
Jon Jonas 

Jos Josue 

Jud Judith 

Jude Epistle of St. Jude 

Kan Kansas 

Ky Kentucky 

La Louisiana 

Lam Lamentations 

Lat Latin, latitude 

Lev Leviticus 

L.L Late Latin 

Lond London 

long longitude 

Luke Gospel of St. Luke 

m miles 

Mac Machabees 

Mai Malachias 

Mark Gospel of St. Mark 

Mass Massachusetts 

Matt Gospel of St. Matthew 

Md Maryland 

Me Maine 

M.E Medieval English 

Mgr Monsignor 

Mich Micheas; Michigan 

Minn Minnesota 

M.L Medieval Latin 

Mo Missouri 

Mont Montana 

,M.P Member of Parliament 

MS. ; MSS. Manuscript ; man- 
! uscripts 

Mt Mount 

N north 

Nah Nahum 

N.B New Brunswick 

N.C North Carolina 

N.D North Dakota 

Neb Nebraska 

Nev Nevada 

N.H New Hampshire 

N.J New Jersey 

N. Mex. . . . New Mexico 

Nov November 

N.S Nova Scotia 

N.T New Testament 

Num Numbers 

N.Y New York 

Ohio 

Oct October 

O.E Old English 

O.F Old French 

Okla Oklahoma 



Ore Oregon 

Osee Osee, Book of 

O.T Old Testament 

p page 

Pa Pennsylvania 

P.A prefecture Apostolic 

Par Paralipomenon 

I Peter I Epistle of St. Peter 

II Peter . . .II Epistle of St. Peter 

Phil Epistle to Philemon 

Phila Philadelphia 

Philip Epistle to the Phil- 

lipians 

P.N prelature nullius 

pop population 

Port Portuguese 

Pp priests 

Pr Priest 

Pro., Prov. .Proverbs 

Ps Psalms 

Q Question (in the 

"Summa Theolo- 

gica" of St. Thomas ) 
q.v.; qq.v. . Lat., quod vide, which 

see 

R. Cal Roman Calendar 

Rev Reverend 

R.I Rhode Island 

Rom Epistle to the Romans 

Rt. Rev. . . . Right Reverend 

S south 

S Saint 

S.C South Carolina 

S. Dak South Dakota 

Sept September 

Sess session 

Skt Sanskrit 

S. Off Congregation of the 

Holy Office 

Soph Sophonias 

S. Pcen Tribunal of the Sa- 
cred Penitentiary 
sq. ; sqq. . . . Lat., sequentes, and 

following 

sq. m square miles 

Srs Sisters 

St. ; Ste. ; 

Sts Saint; Fr., female 

Saint ; Saints 

St. L St. Louis 

s.v Lat., sub verbo or 

voce, under the title 

Tenn Tennessee 

Teut Teutonic 

Tex Texas 

Thess Epistle to the Thessa- 

lonians 

Tim Epistle to Timothy 

Tit Epistle to Titus 

Tob Tobias 

tr translated 

transl translation 

U.S.A United States of 

America 

Va Virginia 

V.A vicariate Apostolic 

Ven Venerable 

viz Lat., videlicet, namely 

vol volume 

Vt Vermont 

W west 

Wash Washington 

Wis Wisdom ; Wisconsin 

W. Va West Virginia 

Wyo Wyoming 

Zach Zacharias 



ABBREVIATIONS OF REFERENCE WORKS 

Britt The Hymns of the Breviary and Missal, M. Britt, N. Y., 1924. 

Butler Lives of the Saints, A. Butler, Bait., 1844. 

C.E Catholic Encyclopedia, N. Y., 1914. 

Gigot General Introduction to the Studies of the Holy Scripture, F. Gigot, N. Y., 1912. 

Grannan A General Introduction to the Bible, C. Grannan, St. L., 1921. 

Grisar History of Rome and the Popes in the Middle Ages, H. Grisar, Lond., 1911. 

Kirchenlex Kirchenlexikon, ed. Wetzer and Welte, Freiburg, 1911. 

Koch-Preuss A Handbook of Moral Theology, A. Koch and A. Preuss, St. L., 1925. 

Mann The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages, H. Mann, Lond., 1925. 

Augustine A Commentary on Canon Law, P.C. Augustine, St. L., 1926. 

Pastor The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, L. Pastor, St. L., 1923. 

Pope Aids to the Study of the Bible, H. Pope, Lond., 1926. 

Schumacher A Handbook of Scripture Study, H. Schumacher, St. L., 1925. 

Shea History of the Catholic Church in the United States, J. Shea, N. Y., 1902. 

U.K Universal Knowledge, N. Y., 1927 — 

Woywod A Practical Commentary on the Code of Canon Law, S. Woywod, N. Y., 1925. 

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION 



a 


as 


in ate, sale. 


a 


" 


" dare, state. 


a 


" 


" am, fat. 


a 


" 


" art, farm. 


a 


lf 


" ant, finance. 


a 


11 


" all, fall. 


a 


t( 


" loyal, regal. 


e 


a 


" me, evil. 


e 


a 


" get, end. 


e 


c< 


" her, fern. 


e 


it 


" judgment. 



T as 
l " 


in ice, kite. 
" it, fill. 


6 " 
6 " 
o " 
o " 
o " 


" go, cold. 
" or, cord. 
" not, cod. 
" do, move. 
" atom, lion. 


oi " 

00 " 

do " 

ou " 


" oil, coin. 
" boot, food. 
" book, foot. 
" house, out. 



u as m cure, use. 

u " " burn, hurt, 

u " " but, cud. 

u " " full, put. 



rule, alure. 



ch 


a 


" 


charm, chin. 




£ 


a 


a 


ffet, 


give. 




£ 


" 


ch 


in 


ich, loch 


( German ) 


n 


" 


m 


son 


en (French). 


y 


" 


in 


yet, 


yield. 




zh 




z 


m azure, s m 


pleasure. 



The New 
Catholic Dictionary 



A 




CHRIST, 

CORNER-STONE 

OF THE CHURCH 



AQ (Alpha, Omega), first and last letters of 
the Greek alphabet, used by St. John in the Apoc- 
alypse ( 1 ; 2 ; 22 ) to designate, 
once, the Eternal Father and, 
three times, Christ. In Exodus, 
3, 14, God calls Himself "the 
beginning and the end," that is, 
the One by whom and for 
whom all things are made. 
Used of Our Lord it clearly 
implies His Divinity. The let- 
ters are often found on early 
coins, rings, paintings in cata- 
combs, in frescoes of ancient churches, and on cor- 
ner-stones to designate Christ. — C.E. (w. s. E. ) 
A. A. = August! nians of the Assumption, or As- 
sumptionists. 

Aachen. See Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Aaron, brother of Moses and high priest of the 
Old Law; chosen by Moses to be his spokesman 
before Pharaoh (Ex., 4; 7; 8). He caused the cast- 
ing of the golden calf which the Israelites wor- 
shiped in the wilderness ( Ex., 32 ) , but at the 
prayer of Moses he was 
spared the fate of the 
three thousand worshipers 
(Dent., 9). The rod of 
Aaron blossomed as a sign 
that he had been chosen 
by God to be first high 
priest (Lev., 8). He was 
not allowed to enter the 
Land of Promise, but died 
on Mount Hor (Num., 
20). His son Eleazar and 
descendants, Aaronites, were consecrated as an 
hereditary priesthood. — C.E. 

Aaron of Caerleon, Saint, martyr in Wales 
during the Diocletian persecution in 303. He was 
the companion of St. Julius and is possibly Britain's 
proto-martyr. Feast, 1 July. 
A.B. = Bachelor of Arts. 




ABACUS, 
WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL 



Abacus (Gr., abaoc, counting-table), the square, 
tile-like upper member of a Norman capital from 
which the arch immediately springs. 

Abaddon, Hebrew word meaning ruin, place of 
destruction, realm of the dead (Job, 31); also 
prince of Hell, evil angel of death and disaster 
(Apoc, 9); same as Apollyon, Destroyer. (ed.) 

Abandonment or Self-abandonment, in mys- 
tical theology, the first stage of the union of the 
soul with God by conformity to His Will, involving 
passive purification through trials and sufferings, 
together with desolation following upon the sur- 
render of natural consolations ; the darkness of the 
soul in a state of purgation. — C.E.; Caussade, 
Abandonment, tr. McMahon, N. Y., 1887. 

Abba (Aramaic, father), title given to bishops 
in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic Churches. With 
translation subjoined, it is used by Mark and Paul 
in the N.T. as a form of address to God. It is used 
as a title of honor for Hebrew scholars and forms 
part of many Hebrew names. 

Abban, Saint, abbot (c. 570-620). The son of 
Cormac, King of Leinster, and nephew and disciple 
of St. Tbar, he founded many churches in Wexford 
and the monasteries of Magheranoidhe (now 
Adamstown), New Boss, famous as a school, and 
Kilabbain. Feast, 27 Oct.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Abba Salama (Aramaic, father of peace), title 
given to Frumentius, first Bishop of Abyssinia; 
still used by the head of the Abyssinian Church. 

Abbe, a-ba' (Syriac, abba, father), French title 
applied primarily to an abbot, eventually to all 
wearing secular ecclesiastical dress; and to clerics, 
often not in Holy Orders, engaged as tutors or in 
other occupations. 

Abbess (feminine of abbot), spiritual and tem- 
poral superior of a community of twelve or more 
nuns, signifying that the superior is like a mother 
to the community. The title is in use among Bene- 
dictines. Poor Clares, and certain colleges of canon- 
esses. An abbess as a rule has a right to wear a 
ring, and bears the crosier as a symbol of her rank, 



ABBESS : 

but has not the jurisdiction belonging to abbots. 
— C.E. 

Abbey, monastery canonically erected and inde- 
pendent, ruled by an abbot, if occupied by monks, 
and if by nuns, by an abbess. The community must 
number at least twelve religious. Principal parts of 
an abbey are: almonry, calefactory, cellars for 
stores, cells, chapter-house, choir, cloister, confer- 
ence-room, dormitory, guest-house, infirmary, 
kitchen, novitiate, oratory, parlor or locutorium, 
refectory, and workshops. The chief abbey buildings 
are constructed around a quadrangle; in the more 
usual English plan the church is on the northern 
side. Monasteries of the Carthusians differ from 
those of other orders. Three sides of their quad- 
rangular cloister are flanked by small three-room 
cottages occupied by in- 
dividual monks. The 
church, refectory, and 
other buildings used in 
common enclose the 
fourth side. — C.E. 

Abbeylubber, term 
of reproach for a monk 
after the Reformation, 
introduced in England 
to convey the impres- 
sion that* monasteries 
harbored lazy and good- 
for-nothing inmates. 

Abbey N u 1 1 i u s 
[Lat., of no (diocese)], 

a territory belonging to no diocese, i.e., separated 
and distinct by proper boundaries from surround- 
ing dioceses. It is ruled by a prelate, who exercises 
active jurisdiction over the clergy and people living 
in his territory. In the United States, Belmont 
Abbey, North Carolina, is an abbey nullius; in 
Canada, the Abbey of St. Peter, Muenster; in Aus- 
tralia, New Norcia; in Africa, Lindi. — C.E.; P.C. 
Augustine. ( R. R. m. ) 

Abbo of Fleury, Saint, abbot and martyr (945- 
1004), b. near Orleans, France; d. Fleury. He en- 
tered the Benedictine monastery at Fleury, and was 
appointed director of the school at Ramsey Abbey, 
England, 985-87, and Abbot of Fleury, 988. He was 
energetic in protecting the interests of the Church, 
and introduced into his monasteries the reform of 
Cluny. To restore discipline in the monastery of 
La Reole, Gascony, he transferred thither several 
monks of Fleury. In a conflict which ensued between 
French and Gascons he was mortally wounded. 
Feast, 13 Nov.— C.E., I, 15. 

Abbot (Aramaic, abba, father), title definitely 
fixed by St. Benedict and given to the superior of 
a monastery of monks having the nature of a pri- 
vate family and settled location, as the several 
branches of the Order of St. Benedict, including 
the Black Monks of St. Benedict, the Cistercians 
of the Three Observances, the Camaldolese, Vallum- 
brosans, Silvestrines, Olivetans, some houses of 
Canons Regular, of the Antonians, of the Armenian 
Benedictines, and of the Basilians, and the Pre- 
monstratensians. The office is elective and for life, 
the choice being made by secret ballot of the pro- 
fessed members of the community. The authority of 




ABBEY OF SAINT GERMAIN-DES-PRES 



ABBOT 

an abbot in his monastery is twofold: one, paternal, 
by which he administers the property of the abbey 
and maintains discipline and the observance of the 
rule and constitutions of the order; the other, 
quasi-episcopal. 

— Abbot, Lay, a layman to whom either a king or 
someone else in authority assigned an abbey in 
consideration of services rendered. The estate of the 
monastery was thus placed in the charge of the lay 
abbot, who received part of its income. The custom 
obtained chiefly in the Frankish Empire, from the 
8th to the 11th century. 

— Abbot, Regular, a prelate canonically elected 
and confirmed and exercising the duties of his office. 
There are three grades: those who preside only over 
members of their monasteries, and are under the 

jurisdiction of the 
bishop (non-exempt) ; 
those who are immedi- 
ately subject to the 
Holy See, with juris- 
diction beyond the limit 
of their abbeys over the 
people, clergy and laity, 
of a territory forming 
an integral part of a 
bishop's diocese (ex- 
empt) ; those whose 
jurisdiction extends 
over a territory which 
is no part of any diocese 
(abbey nullius). These 
last, called abbots nullius, have quasi-episcopal 
jurisdiction and the right to assist at oecumenical 
councils, with decisive vote. All regular abbots 
elected for life are obliged, after their ecclesiastical 
confirmation, to receive the blessing, at which they 
are invested with the miter, crosier, pectoral cross, 
ring, and other insignia of their office. 
— Abbot, Secular, cleric with the title and some 
of the honors of the office of abbot, who holds 
benefices which originally belonged to monastic 
houses, but which, since the suppression of the 
latter, are now secularized and transferred to other 
churches. There are three classes : those who pos- 
sess quasi-episcopal jurisdiction and the right to 
wear the pontifical insignia; those who have only 
the abbatial dignity; those who hold the title of 
abbot and the privilege of precedence in choir and 
assemblies in a church to which a suppressed mon- 
astery's benefice has been transferred. 
— Abbot, Titular, one who holds the title of a 
suppressed or destroyed abbey. 
— Abbot President or Abbot General, one who 
presides over a federation of monasteries or abbeys. 
By virtue of privilege they have a decisive vote in 
oecumenical councils. 

— Abbot-Primate, the title of the Abbot President 
of the Black Monks of St. Benedict, according to a 
decree of 16 Sept., 1893. The title is attached to 
the Abbey of St. Anselm, Rome. 
— Archabbot, an honorary title bestowed upon su- 
periors of such monasteries as are noted for their 
antiquity or preeminence, e.g., St. Vincent's Arch- 
abbey, Beatty, Pa. 
— Butler, Benedictine Monachism, N". Y., 1919. 



ABBOT 



ABDON AND SENNEN 



Abbot, The, novel by Sir Walter Scott, sequel 
to "The Monastery," dealing with Scotland during 
the Kef ormation ; a book which enlightened many 
as to the beauty of the pre-Reformation Church. 

Abbot of Unreason, title given to the leader of 
Christmas revels in Scotland before the Reforma- 
tion. 

Abbreviations (Lat., abbreviare, to shorten), 
the use of a single letter for the entire word, or 
a sign or mark for a word or phrase, a custom com- 
mon from early days, especially in Greece and 
Rome, and adopted by Christians first as a means 
of keeping their secrets from enemies and then as 
a matter of economy in transcribing manuscripts. 
The abbreviations used by the Papal Chancery, the 
theological schools of Paris and Oxford, and the 
Bologna school of civil law became from the ninth 
century the standards for Europe. They abound 
in manuscripts of Roman and canon law, theology, 
civil and ecclesiastical documents, and chronicles. 
The invention of printing greatly influenced the use 
of abbreviations. Ecclesiastical abbreviations are: 
administrative, as used in pontifical documents, 
once numerous, but all abolished by Leo XIII in 
1878, except for the names of sees, forms of ad- 
dress, and titles of Roman Congregations and 
individual ecclesiastical authorities; liturgical, as 
in the description of or directions for liturgical 
acts; scholastic, as for academic titles and degrees; 
chronological, for the civil or ecclesiastical year. 
Well-known examples of abbreviations are: A.D., 
Anno Domini, Year of the Lord; B.C.. Before 
Christ; A.M.D.G., Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam, For 
the greater glory of God; I.H.S., usually inter- 
preted Jesus Hominum Salvator, Jesus Saviour 
of Men; R.I.P., Requiescat in Pace, May he (or 
she) rest in peace. The various titles of religious 
orders, priests, and congregations have each their 
abbreviations, e.g., O.P., Ordo Prcedicatorum, Order 
of Preachers. Abbreviations in general ecclesiastical 
use and in titles of religious orders are given in 
their proper alphabetical places. — C.E. 

Abbre viators, Ecclesiastical, officials of the 
Holy See employed in abbreviating papal docu- 
ments, organized into a college under Pius II 
(1458-64), reduced by Pius VII (1800-23) to seven- 
teen prelates, six lay or clerical substitutes and 
one sub-substitute, and let disappear entirely under 
Pius X.— C.E. 

A. B.C., An, prayer-poem to the Blessed Virgin 
by Chaucer, each stanza beginning with a different 
letter, from A to Z. The first reads: "Almighty, 
all merciful Queen, to whom all this world fleeth 
for succor, to have release from sin, sorrow and 
trouble, Glorious Virgin, flower of all flowers, to 
thee I fly, confounded in error! Thou mighty, gra- 
cious lady, help and relieve me, pity my perilous 
malady! My cruel adversary hath vanquished me." 
— Complete Works of Chaucer in Modern English, 
ed. Tatlock-MacKaye, N. Y., 1926. 

Abdas, Saint, martyr (421 ), Bp. of Susa, Persia. 
During the reign of Yezdegerd, he destroyed a Zoro- 
astrian fire-temple; in retaliation a general destruc- 
tion of all churches was ordered, followed by per- 
secution, and Abdas was clubbed to death. Feast, 
5 Sept. 



Abdenago, Babylonian name for Azarias, one 
of the three companions of the prophet Daniel at 
the Court of Nabuchodonosor. 

Abdias or Obadiah (Heb., servant of Jehovah). 
The Book of Abdias is limited to a single chapter 
of twenty-one verses. It is the shortest book in the 
O.T. Its literary unity has been contested; yet 
the arguments in its favor are more solid. Abdias is 
the prophet of the God of Armies coming for 
judgment upon Edom. God calls to arms (verse 1). 
Edom shall be humbled and despoiled (2-7), no 
wisdom can save her (8-10), because she has re- 
joiced in the distress of Israel (11-14), God will 
punish all nations (15-16); while Israel shall be 
saved, Edom shall perish (17-18). The land of 
Israel will be widened (19-20), and on Sion shall 
be established the kingdom of God (21). Its 
canonicity is based on the following considerations: 
though never cited in the N.T., it was ever em- 
bodied in the lists of Prophets; it is quoted by 
Jeremias, in chapter 49; it is comprised in the 
commendation of Ecclesiasticus, 49, 12; it was ever 
recognized by the Church. It is in the Breviary on 
Friday the fourth week in November, but not in 
the Missal. The name of Abdias alone is known to 
us. The time when he lived is put by some as 
the first century A.D., while others regard him as 
the most ancient of minor prophets. Conservative 
opinion wavers between the ninth and fifth cen- 
turies B.C. The decision hinges on the interpretation 
of verses 10-14, prophesying a destruction of Jeru- 
salem. If this passage refers to its destruction by 
the Chaldeans in 587 B.C., the book was written in 
post-Exilic times. However, a closer study seems to 
favor the view that these and other verses refer 
to an earlier event, such, for instance, as is nar- 
rated in 2 Paralipomenon, 21, 16, where is de- 
scribed the pillage of Jerusalem under Joram, king 
of Juda (849-842 B.C.). Furthermore, the woes 
invoked upon Edom may well suit the historic 
situation which confronted King Amasias (797- 
789) on the eve of his war with Edom. Then 
Abdias may well be identified with the man of God 
who assured the king of his victory. — C.E.; Seisen- 
berger, tr. Buchanan, Practical Handbook for the 
Study of the Bible, N. Y., 1911. (J. z.) 

Abdication, act of resigning or renouncing a 
benefice or clerical dignity; every such office may be 
resigned by the incumbent. The benefice must be 
resigned into the hands of the proper ecclesiastical 
superior. Abdication must be voluntary, and free 
from simony. Papal abdication should be made into 
the hands of the College of Cardinals, since that 
body must elect a successor (Ferraris). The follow- 
ing popes abdicated: Marcellinus; Liberius; Bene- 
dict IX; Gregory VI; St. Celestine V; and Gregory 
XII. Pius VII signed a conditional abdication in 
1804, before setting out for France to crown 
Napoleon, to take effect if he were imprisoned. — C.E. 

Abdon and Sennen, Saints, martyrs (c. 250), 
Persian noblemen, d. Home. They were tortured 
and beheaded in the persecution under Decius. 
First buried in the house of Quirinus, their bodies 
were later translated to the cemetery of Pontianus. 
Patrons of coopers. Belies according to Bollandists 
at Borne. Feast, R. Cal., 30 July.— C.E. ; Butler. 



ABDUCTION 



ABNER 



Abduction (Lat., alducere, to lead away), also 
known as Rape, Force, or Violence, a diriment 
matrimonial impediment. It consists in the forcible 
carrying off or detention of a woman against her 
will, and it renders a marriage with her invalid so 
long as she remains in the power of the abductor. — 
C.E.; Ayrinhac, Marriage Legislation in the New 
Code of Canon Law, N. Y., 1919. 

(J. F. S.) 

Abecedarians, 16th-century German Protestant 
sect, akin to Anabaptists. Despising all human 
knowledge, even of the alphabet (hence their 
name), as sinful, and theology especially as idola- 
trous, they held that God would grant the elect a 
knowledge of all necessary truth. — C.E. 

Abel, second son of Adam, slain by his brother 
Cain because the latter's oblation was not accepted 
favorably by God, as Abel's was. For his death 
in this way he is regarded as a type of Our Saviour. 
His death symbolizes, too, the bloody sacrifice of 
the Cross and the unbloody one of the altar. He 
is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass, and his 
name holds first place in the Litany for the Dying. 
—C.E. 

Abelard, Peter (1079-1142), philosopher and 
theologian, b. Pallet, Brittany, France; d. Chalons- 
sur-Saone. While still quite young, c. 1101, he es- 
tablished schools of his own at Melun and Corbeil, 
and in 1108 at Mt. Ste. Genevieve. Later he taught 
at the cathedral school in Paris, where he enjoyed 
great fame as a teacher of rhetoric and logic. At 
the height of his popularity when still a cleric in 
minor orders, he fell in love with Heloise, niece of 
Canon Fulbert; the discovery of their alliance 
wrecked his academic career. Abelard became a 
Benedictine, while Heloise became a nun. His knowl- 
edge of theology was not as great as his eloquence, 
and his orthodoxy was questioned by St. Bernard, 
who obtained a condemnation at Rome of some of 
his teachings. He was of a restless and quarrelsome 
disposition. His "Story of My Calamities" has in- 
vested his career with romantic interest, but it 
shows how he was constantly provoking opposition. 
Though more brilliant than solid, he was an im- 
portant contributor to Scholastic method, an oppo- 
nent of obscurantism, and a continuator of the 
Carolingian renaissance. He spent his last years at 
Cluny. — C.E.; Turner, History of Philosophy, Bost., 
1903. 

Abelites (Abelonians), sect in North Africa, 
which claimed that Adam's son, Abel, though mar- 
ried, observed continence because there is no men- 
tion of his children in Scripture. They condemned 
marriage, considering it a means of perpetuating 
original sin, but adopted children. — C.E. 

Abercius, Inscription of, authentic second-cen- 
tury Greek inscription; Abercius, Bp. of Hieropolis, 
Phrygia, composed his own epitaph, conveying a 
vivid impression of his visit to Rome, and giving 
valuable information about the importance of the 
Church of Rome in the 2nd century. — C.E. 

Abercorn ( ^Ebbercurnig ) , Linlithgowshire, 
Scotland, ancient bishopric of the Southern Picts, 
with seat at the Benedictine monastery now in ruins, 
whose sculptured remains are visible in the Presby- 
terian church. St. Trumwin was bishop, 081-686. 



Abercromby, Robert (1532-1613), Scottish Jes- 
uit missionary; d. Braunsberg, Prussiao He con- 
verted Anne of Denmark, queen of James I of Eng- 
land, in 1600, and acted as her chaplain until 1603. 

Aberdeen, Diocese of, Scotland, comprises the 
counties of Aberdeen, Banff, Caithness, Cromarty, 
Elgin, Kincardine, Nairn, Sutherland, parts of In- 
verness and Ross, and the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands; suffragan of St. Andrews and Edinburgh. 
Beyn founded the see at Mortlach, 1063; trans- 
ferred to Aberdeen, 1125, under Nectan. The Col- 
lege of the Holy Virgin in Nativity, now Aberdeen 
University, was founded, 1497, by Bp. William 
Elphinstone. See vacant, 1577-1878, when John Mac- 
donald was appointed, succeeded by Colin Grant 
(1889), Hugh Macdonald (1890-98), .Eneas Chis- 
holm (1899-1918), George Bennett ( 1918). Churches, 
60; priests, secular, 48; priests, regular, 24; col- 
lege, 1; high schools, 4; primary schools, 17; in- 
stitutions, 2; Catholics, 13,000. 

Aberdeen, University of. The College of the 
Holy Virgin in Nativity (now called King's Col- 
lege) was erected by papal bull, 1494, and estab- 
lished in 1497 by Bp. William Elphinstone of Aber- 
deen, Hector Boece being its first principal; the 
original chapel still remains. Marischal College was 
founded by the Earl Marischal in 1593 on the site 
of a Franciscan friary. These universities were 
united, 1860. Students (1925), 1800, of whom fewer 
than 20 are Catholics. — C.E. 

Aberdeen Breviary, the Sarum Office in Scot- 
tish form, compiled by Bp. Elphinstone (1483- 
1514), who composed the lessons which, for some 
saints, are all nine devoted to their biographies 
written with great accuracy. It was printed in 
1507. By royal mandate it was to be used generally 
throughout Scotland, but it was never widely 
adopted and its use ceased at the overthrow of the 
Church in Scotland, 1560. — C.E. (ed.) 

Abernethy, Perthshire, Scotland, site of the an- 
cient Scottish primatial see, 865-908, had a 5th-cen- 
tury church dedicated to St. Bridget of Kildare, 
and a house of Culdees (1097), transferred to 
Augustinian Canons, 1272. It has one of the three 
"round towers" of Scotland, 73 ft. high. 

Abilene, tetrarchy in Syria, east of Lebanon, 
mentioned by Luke as being governed by Lysanias 
at the birth of Christ. 

Abingdon, Abbey of, Berkshire, England, estab- 
lished by the Benedictines, 675. It was twice de- 
stroyed by the Danes. St. Ethelwold was abbot, 954. 
It was an important seat of learning before the 
Norman Conquest. The last abbot, Thomas Pente- 
cost, surrendered the abbey to the Crown, 1538. — 
C.E. 

Abjuration, denial or disavowal under oath; 
in canonical language, the renunciation of apostasy, 
heresy, or schism. — C.E. 

Ablution, liturgical washing, especially the 
cleansing of chalice and celebrant's fingers during 
Mass. In the Greek Church, public washing of 
recently-baptized persons. — Fortescue, The Mass, 
Lond., 1914; O'Brien, History of the Mass, N. Y., 
1882. 

Abner, commander of Saul's army and for a 
time enemy of David, afterwards reconciled, but 



ABNER 



ABRAHAM'S OAK 



treacherously slain by David's commander Joab. 
David bewailed his death. — C.E. 

Abomination of Desolation, a portent of the 
ruin of the House of God mentioned by Daniel, 
and referred to by Christ as a sign to the faithful 
to flee from Judea; commonly interpreted as a 
symbol of idolatry in the Temple. — C.E. 

Abortion (Lat., aboriri, to miscarry), in its 
widest sense, the ejection (by natural cause) or 
extraction (by artificial means) of a human fetus 
from the womb of the mother before it has come 
to its full development. A distinction is made be- 
tween a viable fetus, one that is able to sustain 
life outside of its mother's body (usually about the 
sixth or seventh month of pregnancy), and one that 
is not viable, i.e., unable to continue to live, even 
though it may live for a short period. Theologians 
distinguish between a direct abortion when the 
practitioner intends primarily to remove the fetus, 
and an indirect abortion, when the surgeon per- 
forms an operation on the 
mother, and through accident 
the child is injured or expelled. 
A further distinction is made 
between a uterine fetus, one 
that is located in the womb 
(uterus) of the mother, the 
normal or natural seat of preg- 
nancy, and an extra-uterine, or 
ectopic (out of place), fetus, 
which for some reason or other 
is lodged outside of the uterus, 
usually within one of the Fal- 
lopian tubes. The moral prin- 
ciples with regard to abortion 
are as follows. Every direct 
abortion, even during the ear- 
liest period of pregnancy, is a 
grievous sin and tantamount to 
homicide. Indirect abortion is 
sometimes permitted, provided 
that there be sufficient and 




BRANCH OF "ABRAHAM'S OAK' 



Abraham (Heb., father of a multitude), patri- 
arch, son of Thare and father of Ismael. He left 
Ur of the Chaldees and came to Haran, where his 
father died. At the command of God he took up his 
abode in Chanaan, the land promised to his seed. 
Famine forced him to Egypt. On his return, he re- 
mained in Chanaan whilst Lot chose the country 
about the Jordan. He rescued Lot, when taken 
prisoner by the King of Elam, and on his return 
was met by Melchisedech, King of Salem, who 
blessed him. God made a covenant with Abraham, 
changing his name from Abram to Abraham and 
promised him that his descendants should be as 
numerous as the stars of heaven. He promised him, 
moreover, a son by the barren Sara. Then followed 
the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha, the escape 
of Lot, the birth of Isaac, and the covenant with 
Abimelech. The faith of Abraham is tried by God's 
command to sacrifice his son Isaac. An angel stays 
his hand, and as a reward of his unbounded confi- 
dence in God, makes known to 
him the greatness of his pos- 
terity. Sara died at the age of 
127. Abraham then married 
Cetura by whom he had six 
children. He died at the age of 
175.— C.E. 

Abraham de Georgiis and 
Companions, Syrian martyrs 
in Mazua, Abyssinia, 30 April, 
1595; cause opened, 30 Jan., 
1899. 

Abraham in Liturgy. The 
patriarch Abraham is specifi- 
cally mentioned in the Roman 
Martyrology (9 October) ; in the 
Litany for the Dying; in the 
Breviary, at Quinquagesima, 
Shrove Tuesday, Passion Sun- 
day, and in the Magnificat, 
Benedictus and Psaltery; in the 
Missal, in the third Prophecy 



grave reason, such as the saving of the mother's | on Holy Saturday, Epistle of the thirteenth Sunday 



life, and that every precaution be taken to save 
the life of the child and, in case the child's life 
be in danger, that it receive timely baptism. The 
Catholic Church has always condemned direct 
abortion as a crime of the most heinous character. 
Pope Sixtus V in his Constitution "Effrenatam" 
(29 Oct., 1588) says that anyone guilty of abortion 
should be punished as an ordinary murderer. His 
Holiness also withdraws all ecclesiastical privileges 
from clerics who might have committed abortion 
and forbids their promotion to Orders. The New 
Code (can. 2350) says: "Persons perpetrating abor- 
tion, not even excepting the mother, incur, if the 
act meets its effect, excommunication reserved to 
the Ordinary, and if such persons are clerics, they 
are to be deposed." Another canon (985, §4) states: 
"Those who have committed voluntary homicide or 
have secured the abortion of a human fetus, and 
all who cooperated thereto, are to. be considered 
irregular e delicto" — C.E.; O'Malley, The Ethics 
of Medical Homicide, N. Y., 1919; P.C. Augus- 
tine, (f. s.) 
Abp. = archbishop. 



after Pentecost, Offertory of the Mass for the Dead, 
blessing in a Nuptial Mass, and in the Canon of 
the Mass; in the Pontifical, in the preface of the 
consecration of an altar, blessing of a cemetery, 
and blessing and coronation of a king. — C.E. 

Abraham=men or Abram-men, name given in 
contempt in Reformation days to the poor who 
were forced to wander and beg alms after the dis- 
solution of the monasteries in England, originating 
probably from the Gospel parable of Lazarus, the 
poor man received into Abraham's bosom. 

Abraham's Bosom, expression used by Luke to 
indicate the abode of the righteous dead before 
their admission to the Beatific Vision after the 
death of the Saviour; the Fathers of the Church 
often use it to mean heaven. It suggests the return 
of the patriarch's posterity to his embrace. — C.E. 

Abraham's Oak, an oak in the vale of Mamre, 
Chanaan (Quercus pseudo-coccifera), alleged to be 
the same near which Abraham camped on several 
occasions, and which is probably the one referred 
to by Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, 1, 10, No. 4). 
Numerous legends have been associated with it. 



ABROGATION 



ABUSE OF POWER 



Abrogation, in law, the total abolition of a 
law, right, or privilege. 

Absalom (Heb., father of peace), beloved son 
of David, renowned for personal beauty (2 Kings, 
13-18). To avenge his sister's dishonor he killed his 
elder stepbrother, Amnon. Ambitious to attain the 
throne, he afterwards plotted against David; pur- 
sued by the royal forces, he was caught by his hair 
to the branches of a tree and there slain. David was 
inconsolable when he heard of his death. — C.E. 

Absolute (Lat., absolutum, entirely free), in 
philosophy: (1) pure actuality; (2) that which is 
complete, perfect and unlimited; (3) that which 
exists by its own nature and is therefore inde- 
pendent of everything else; (4) that which is not 
related to any other being; (5) the sum of all 
being, actual and potential (Hegel). In the first 
three meanings it is a name for God which Chris- 
tian philosophy may readily accept. — C.E.; Mercier, 
Manual of Modern Scholastic Philosophy, tr. 
Parker, St. L., 1917-18; Dubray, Introductory 
Philosophy, K Y., 1923. 

Absolution (Lat., absolvere, to free from), the 
power conferred on the Apostles and their suc- 
cessors to forgive sin: "Whose sins you shall for- 
give, they are forgiven them" (John, 20, 23) ; it is 
exercised by the priest in the Sacrament of Pen- 
ance. It signifies also the remission by the Church 
of certain censures like suspension or excommuni- 
cation. It is also the ceremony of prayers for the 
departed immediately after the Mass of Requiem. 
In the Divine Office, it is a short prayer recited by 
the officiant before each group of lessons at Matins 
implying permission or a request that the lessons 
be recited. The use of such absolutions at Pome in 
the 9th century is attested by Amalarius and mo- 
nastic usage in the same century by Smaragdus. A 
variety of such prayers, including those in the pres- 
ent Poman Breviary, is found in manuscripts of 
the 12th and 13th centuries. — C.E.; Koch-Preuss; 
P.C. Augustine; MacMahon, Liturgical Catechism, 
Dublin, 1926. (j. G. K.) 

Absolution, General, given simultaneously 
without a confession of sin, where such confession 
is practically impossible, for instance, in the case 
of soldiers about to advance under fire, or in case 
of sudden disaster; there remains, however, an obli- 
gation on the part of the persons so absolved to 
mention their sins when they next make confession. 

Abstinence, Law of, regards only quality of 
food, is binding on all those who have completed 
their seventh year, and forbids the eating of flesh- 
meat or soup made from meat, but not the use 
of eggs, milk, butter, cheese, or of condiments 
made from animal fat. The prohibition against eat- 
ing fish and flesh at the same meal has been 
abolished. The regulations do not affect special in- 
dults, or obligations imposed by vow or by the 
rules of religious or of communities not bound by 
vow. Local ordinaries may appoint a special day of 
abstinence for their own territories. They and 
parish priests can for just reasons dispense from 
abstinence persons or families subject to them, and 
also travelers who happen to be within their terri- 
tories. An ordinary can dispense the entire diocese 
or a particular locality for reasons of public health. 



Abstinence is obligatory in English-speaking coun- 
tries on the days mentioned below. United States: 
Fridays; ember-days; vigils of Pentecost, Assump- 
tion, All Saints, and Christmas; Ash Wednesday; 
Saturdays of Lent. The obligation is suspended on 
Holy Saturday at noon and on all feasts of pre- 
cept, except those falling on week-days in Lent; 
and on vigils which fall on a Sunday, there is no 
abstinence on the Sunday or on the preceding Sat- 
urday. Canada: Fridays, except those on which 
may occur the feasts of Circumcision, Epiphany, 
All Saints, Immaculate Conception, and Christmas; 
ember-days; those vigils which are also fast days; 
Wednesdays of Lent; and Holy Saturday until 
noon. England and Wales: Fridays, except holy 
days of obligation and 26 December; Wednesdays 
in Lent; ember Saturday in Lent; ember Wednes- 
days; vigils of Assumption, All Saints, and Christ- 
mas, except when these feasts fall on a Sunday or 
Monday. Scotland: Fridays; ember Wednesdays; 
vigils of Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas, 
except when they fall on a Saturday or Sunday; 
Ash Wednesday; ember Saturday in Lent; up to 
noon on Holy Saturday. Except in Lent a holy day 
of obligation is never a day of abstinence. Ireland: 
Fridays; ember-days; Ash Wednesday; Saturdays 
of Lent; eves of Christmas, Pentecost, Assumption, 
and All Saints. Bishops may transfer the abstinence 
from Saturday to Wednesday during Lent. Flesh- 
meat is allowed at the principal meal on ember 
Saturdays, outside of Lent, and on vigils which 
immediately precede or follow a Friday or other 
day of abstinence. On Holy Saturday the obligation 
of abstinence ceases at midday. If a holy day of 
obligation falls on a day of abstinence, outside of 
Lent, the obligation of abstinence is removed. On 
St. Patrick's Day the obligation of abstinence is 
also removed. — C.E. Suppl. ; Catholic Directories. 

Abthain or Abthane (M. L., abthania, abbacy), 
term referring to territories of churches and mon- 
asteries founded by Celtic monks, chiefly between 
the mountain chain of the Mounth and the Firth 
of Forth. Many of them passed into the hands of 
laymen, who paid tribute to the Church for them. 
—C.E, 

Abundius, Saint, confessor (d. 469), Bp. of 
Como, Italy, b. Thessalonica. As legate of Leo I he 
combated vigorously the heresies of Nestorians and 
Eutychians at the councils of Constantinople (450), 
Chalcedon (451), and Milan (452). He is some- 
times credited with the authorship of the "Te 
Deum." Feast, 2 April.— C.E. 

Abundius, Abundantius, Marcianus, and 
John, Saints, martyrs (c. 304) in the Diocletian 
persecution. They were beheaded near Rome at Mile- 
stone XXVI, Via Flaminia. Pelics of the first two 
in the Gesu, Pome, and of the last two at Civita 
Castellana. Feast, 16 Sept. 

Abuse of Power or Office is taken in canon 
law in the very wide sense of the evil and unlawful 
use of ecclesiastical power or office and the term is 
not restricted to tyrannical use. The Code devotes 
to it an entire title (XIX) of the Fifth Book. The 
first canon of the title states: "Abuse of ecclesias- 
tical power shall, at the prudent judgment of the 
legitimate superior, be punished according to the 



ABUSE OF POWER 



ACCA 



gravity of the fault, the prescriptions of the canons 
which enact a certain punishment for the same 
abuses being observed." The remaining canons give 
the special sanctions decreed against abuses which 
take place in the general government of dioceses and 
of religious communities. Scattered through the 
Code provisions are to be found against other 
abuses, such as those committed in the administra- 
tion of the sacraments, in the bestowing of benefices, 
e t c . — p.C. Augustine; Woywod. (J. Mace.) 

Abyss (Gr-, abyssos, bottomless), primarily an 
adjective signifying very deep (Wisdom, 10); as 
a substantive it means a great cavity, primeval 
waters, or primal chaos, and as used in the N.T., 
the abode of the dead, or limbo, and the abode of 
evil spirits, or hell. 

Abyssinia, independent monarchy in north- 
eastern Africa; area, 350,000 sq. m.; estimated 
pop., 10,000,000. According to legend, Christianity 
was introduced by the eunuch Candace baptized by 
Philip the Deacon, and was firmly established in 
the 4th century under St. Frumentius, the first 
bishop. Since his time the Abyssinians have be- 
longed to the Coptic Church and fell with it into 
the Monophysite heresy. The Abyssinian Church is 
today a debased form of Christianity curiously 
mingled with Judaistic rites. There are a few Cath- 
olics of the Abyssinian Rite in communion with 
Rome, but all attempts at a general reconciliation 
have been frustrated by national feeling. Catholic 
missionaries were not relieved of persecution until 
the reign of Menelek II in the 19th century; the 
Church administration is thus divided: 





Year 


Chs. 


Pp. 


Srs. 


Caths. 


Abyssinia, V.A 


. 1838 


10 


44 




25,000 


Galla, V.A 


. 1846 


44 


28 


ie> 


17,608 


Southern Kaffa, P.A.. . 


. 1913 











Abyssinian Church, a body of Monophysite 
Christians in Abyssinia, governed by the Abuna, 
a vicar of the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria. 
Next in importance to the Abuna, who must be 
an Egyptian monk, is the Etsch'ecfe, a native Abys- 
sinian who rules the monastic orders. Besides 
priests and monks, there is a class called Deftaras 
whose duty is to study the written ordinances. The 
liturgical language, Geez, shows a mixture of Greek 
and Arabic. They claim there is but one nature in 
Christ, reject all the oecumenical councils since 
Ephesus, have some minor heresies of their own, 
and practise probably the lowest type of Chris- 
tianity in the world. Discarded Christian customs, 
as immersion and infant communion, are observed, 
as well as many Judaistic rites, including circum- 
cision and the dedication of children called "Naza- 
renes." Their Canon of Scripture contains many 
apocryphal books. The clergy are poorly, the monks 
better, educated. — C.E., I, 78. 

A.C. = Ante Christum (before Christ) ; Auditor 
Cameras ( Auditor of the Papal treasury ) . 

Academie David, formerly St. Frederick's 
College, Drummondville, Quebec, Canada; con- 
ducted by the Brothers of Charity; professors, 12; 
students, 250; degrees conferred in 1929, 8. 

Academies, Roman, societies founded at Rome 
for the encouragement of scientific, literary, and 
artistic pursuits, and for promoting higher re- 



ligious studies. Those founded by, or under the pro- 
tection of, the popes are: "Pontificia Accademia dei 
Nuovi Lincei" (1847; scientific); "Pontificia Ac- 
cademia degli Arcadi" (1690; literary); "Pontificia 
Accademia Romana di Archeologia" (1816; ar- 
chaeology) ; "Pontificia Accademia dei Nobili 
Ecclesiastici" (1710; diplomacy); "Accademia Ro- 
mana di San Luca" (1577; fine arts) and "Ac- 
cademia di Santa Cecilia" (1583; music), now 
royal academies; and others. There are also the 
academies of art founded at Rome by the French 
(1666), the English (1821), the Spaniards (1881), 
and Americans (1896), and the "Societa di Con- 
ferenze di Sacra Archeologia," founded by De Rossi 
in 1875.— C.E. 

Acadia (Micmac, ahade, abundance), originally 
all North America from 40° to 46° N". lat., later, 
the peninsula of Nova Scotia; now, the small dis- 
trict on south shore of the Bay of Fundy from 
Annapolis to the Basin of Minas. Acadia was 
founded in 1604-05 by De Monts and Champlain. 
Port Royal, the first settlement, was destroyed by 
the British rover, Argall, in 1613. At the Treaty of 
Breda, which restored it to France, there were not 
more than 400 inhabitants. By the Treaty of 
Utrecht in 1713 it was ceded to England. The in- 
habitants were not allowed to emigrate, and were 
forced to take an oath of allegiance, with the clause 
that they should not be required to fight against 
France or her Indian allies. They were known as 
"French Neutrals," and kept their oath faithfully. 
In 1755 the dispersion of the Acadians took place, 
the subject of Longfellow's "Evangeline." All the 
lands were confiscated and the people deported. 
Many of the Acadians have since wandered back to 
their old homes. In 1784 a settlement was formed on 
the upper St. John, and they have also settled in 
Prince Edward Island, and St. Pierre and Miquelon. 
The renaissance of the Acadians took place in 1864. 
At Memramcook, New Brunswick, 1881, they held a 
convention at which the Societe National l'Assomp- 
tion was organized. In 1903 the Societe l'Assomp- 
tion was founded at Waltham, Mass., by New 
England men of Acadian extraction for the purpose 
of uniting in a common bond of brotherhood all 
men and women of Acadian blood, to promote higher 
education among its members through scholarships, 
to pay death and sick benefits, etc. The headquar- 
ters of the society are Moncton, New Brunswick, 
and there are 190 councils in the United States and 
10,000 members. The descendants of the Acadians 
in Canada and the United States number about 
400,000.— C.E. ; Richard, ed. D'Arles, Acadie, Que- 
bec, 1916; Burrage, The Occasion of the Expulsion 
of the Acadians, in Collections of the Maine His- 
torical Society, series iii, vol. I, Portland, 1904. 

Acarie, Madame. See Marie de l'Incarnation, 
Blessed. 

Acathistus. (1) Title of a hymn or office in 
Greek liturgy, in honor of the Mother of God; when 
sung, the people are obliged to stand. (2) Day on 
which this hymn is used, i.e., fifth Saturday in 
Lent.— C.E. 

Acca, Saint, confessor (c. 660-742), Bp. of Hex- 
ham, England. Bede dedicated several works to him. 
Driven from his diocese, 732, he took refuge in Gal- 



ACCA 



ACOLOUTHIA 



loway, but returned in 742. The Celtic cross at his 
grave in Hexham has been restored. Patron of 
learning. Feast, 20 Oct.— C.E. 

Access (Lat., accedere, to approach). (1) The 
tenor of those prayers which are recommended to 
the priest to be said before Mass. (2) In canon law, 
a right at some future time to a certain benefice 
which is in abeyance through lack of age or other 
condition. 

Acclamation (Lat., ad, to; clamare, to cry 
out), manifestation of public feeling; in republican 
Rome, a shout, often limited to 
certain stereotyped forms. These 
were the prototypes of most 
of the liturgical acclamations, 
called laudes, which originated 
when coronations assumed an 
ecclesiastical character and 
were performed in a church. A 
sort of litany was chanted by 
the herald while the people re- 
peated each verse after the 
leaders. The laudes were also 
often repeated on festivals, at 
a bishop's election, and since 
about the eighth century, at 
the papal Mass. Now, after the 
Gloria and Collect of the Mass 
of the Coronation, the senior 
cardinal-deacon, standing be- 
fore the pope enthroned, chants 
the words "Exaudi Christe" 
(Hear, O Christ), to which all 
present reply "Long Life to our 
Lord . . . who has been ap- 
pointed Supreme Pontiff and 
universal Pope." This is re- 
peated three times with other 
invocations and expands into a short litany, to 
which the response is, "Tu ilium acljuva" (Do 
Thou help him). At the early councils the ac- 
clamations usually took the form of a compli- 
ment to the emperor. Other meanings attached to 
the word are: the applause of the congregation 
which often, in ancient times, interrupted the ser- 
mons of favorite preachers ; the prayers and good 
wishes found upon sepulchral monuments; brief 
liturgical formulae, such as "Deo gratias"; a form 
of papal election in which the cardinals without 
previous consultation or the formality of balloting, 
unanimously proclaim one of the candidates Su- 
preme Pontiff. — C.E. 

Accolade (Lat., ad collum, to the neck), cere- 
mony used in conferring knighthood, either by a 
kiss, or by a slight blow on the neck, the second 
form being still used in England; also, a form 
of salutation and farewell used in some countries 
by clerics or religious, like the peace salutation 
among the clergy at solemn Mass. 

Accommodation, Biblical (Lat., accommodare, 
to adapt), the application of biblical words, because 
of some similarity or analogy, to that which was 
not intended by the author. The words, "0 all ye 
that pass by the way, attend, and see if there be 
any sorrow like unto my sorrow" (Lam., 1), are 
spoken of Jerusalem personified, but may be ac- 




CROSS OF ACCA 



commodated by extension to any soul in extreme 
grief. An accommodation is not the sense of the 
text and is not a proof from Scripture. — C.E.; 
Schumacher. (h. j. g. ) 

Achaia, a-ki'ya, Roman province corresponding 
approximately to modern Greece. St. Paul was very 
active here (2 Cor., 1; 9), and founded a flourish- 
ing church in Corinth (Acts, 18). 

Achaicus, Corinthian Christian who carried let- 
ters between Paul and the Corinthians ( 1 Cor., 16). 

Achatius (Agathius), Saint, martyr (306), 
Cappadocian centurion. He was beheaded at Byzan- 
tium. Three churches were dedicated to him in 
Constantinople. Feast, 8 May. 

Achilleus, Saint. See Nereus and Acchilleus. 

Achilli, Giovanni Gtacinto, apostate priest, b. 
Viterbo, Italy, 1803. He was suspended by ecclesi- 
astical authorities for immorality, and later 
imprisoned by the pontifical government for revo- 
lutionary agitation. He gave anti-Catholic lectures 
in London; exposed by J. H. Newman (afterwards 
cardinal) he brought a libel action in 1852, in 
which Newman was fined £100, owing to the 
anti-Catholic prejudices of the judges. Achilli after- 
wards became utterly discredited (Ward, "Life of 
Newman"), and the incident caused a revulsion in 
favor of Newman. 

Achimelech. (1) Priest of Nobe who enter- 
tained David in his flight from Saul. (2) A Heth- 
ite, companion of the outlawed David. (3) "Son of 
Abiathar," and an associate of Sadoc in the priest- 
hood. (4) Name given to Achis, King of Geth, in 
Psalm 33.— C.E. 

Achiropoeta, a-ki-ro-po-e'ta (Gr., acheiropoiete, 
not made by hands), pictures of supposedly miracu- 
lous origin. The Holy Pace of Edessa, in the church 
of the Bartholomites at Genoa, according to legend, 
is a portrait of Christ painted by Himself. The 
picture of Christ preserved in the chapel Sancta 
Sanctorum of the Lateran is supposed to have been 
outlined by St. Luke and completed by angels, and 
is said to have miraculously appeared. — Chandlery, 
Pilgrim Walks in Pome, St. L., 1924; Cabrol, Dic- 
tionnaire d'archeologie chretienne, TV, 2078. 

Achitophel, an able counselor of King David, 
who shared in Absalom's rebellion; being de- 
feated, he withdrew to Gilo and strangled himself. 
—C.E. 

Achonry, ak-on-re', Diocese of, Ireland, in- 
cludes portions of Galway, Roscommon, and Offaly 
Counties; suffragan of Tuam. St. Finiau was an 
early missionary. The long list of its bishops in- 
cludes St. Nathy, reputed first bishop (c. 560); 
Eugene O'Hart, present at the Council of Trent; 
John Lyster; and Patrick Morrisroe, since 1911; 
residence, Ballaghaderreen. Churches, 41; priests, 
45; college, 1; high schools, 3; primary schools, 10; 
trade schools, 8; institutions, 4; Catholics, 76,983; 
others, 1927. 

Acolouthia (Gr., sequence), the arrangement of 
the Divine Office in the Greek Church, beginning 
with Little Vespers before sunset and Greater Ves- 
pers after it; the Orthros (Gr., dawn), in two parts, 
corresponding to Matins and Lauds of the Roman 
Rite, is said at midnight; little Hours are said 
during the day and the Office closes with the Apo- 



ACOLOUTHIA 



ACT OF SETTLEMENT 



AtlCE CELESTI ET AVIA 
SVM TEGTA HlG SAXEA CAVA 

AN ACROSTIC OF MARIA 



deipnon (Gr., after-supper service) as the Roman 
does with Complin. — C.E. (ed. ) 

Acolyte (Gr., akolouthos, attendant, follower), 
an attendant, for subordinate duties, on the minis- 
ters officiating at a sacred rite, e.g., altar-boys; es- 
pecially a member of the highest of minor orders 
in the Latin Church. The chief duties of this office 
are: to light the candles on the altar and to carry 
them in procession and during the solemn singing 
of the Gospel; to prepare wine and water for the 
Sacrifice of the Mass; to assist the ministers at 
Mass and other public services of the Church. — 
C.E. (r. b. m.) 

Acre (formerly Saint Jean d'Acre), seaport, 
Palestine, lying N. of Mt. Carmel, and W. of the 
mountains of Galilee. Under the Romans it was 
called Ptolemais. St. Paul landed here on his way 
from Asia Minor to Jerusalem (Acts, 21). 

Acrostic (Gr., akros, end; stichos, line), any 
composition in which the initial or final letters, 
syllables, or words of each line form Qther words 

or sentences* said to 

Membra fvlgent hig yrna have been in ' ve nted by 
ANVS RELIGIOSE Epicharmus. The poem 

RITE CARNE- DEVICTA / th E thrffian Sih] 

In sobria fama casta ,, J , 1,1 

thus produced the 
Greek words for "Jesus 
Christ, Son of God, 
Saviour," which also in 
turn yielded the letters ICHTHUS (fish), a mys- 
tical symbol of Our Lord. The Acrostic Psalm 9 
(Heb., 9-10) is only appreciable in the original 
Hebrew. The term is also applied to passages in 
Scripture in which the texts begin with letters of 
the alphabet in consecutive order, e.g., Psalms, 110, 
111, 118; Proverbs, 31.— C.E. 

Acta Apostolicse Sedis, a monthly publication 
established by Constitution, "Promulgandi," 29 
Sept., 1908, as official journal of the Holy See; its 
authoritative. and official character is reasserted in 
Canon 9 of the Code. Decrees and decisions pub- 
lished therein are thereby officially promulgated 
and become effective three months from date of 
issue. (t. t. k. ) 

Acta Sanctse Sedis, a monthly published at 
Rome, but not by the Holy See, from 1865 to 
1908, containing principal enactments of the Holy 
Father and Congregations. Its contents were de- 
clared official and authentic in 1904. It was super- 
seded at the end of 1908 by the Acta Apostolicse 
Sedis. (t. t. k. ) 

Acta Sanctorum (Acts of the Saints), fa- 
mous collection of lives of the Saints by the Bol- 
landists (q.v.). 

Acta Sanctorum Hibernise (Lives of the 
Saints of Ieeland), celebrated work, compiled by 
John Colgan, O.F.M., assisted by Hugh Ward and 
Michael O'Cleary of the same order, and Stephen 
White, S.J., and published at Louvain, Belgium, 
1645. It contains lives for January, February, and 
March only.— C.E. 

Acta Triadis Thaumaturgas (Acts of a Won- 
der-Working Trio), the lives of St. Patrick. St. 
Brigid, and St. Columba, published at Louvain in 
1647 by John Colgan. 

Action Frangaise, a movement founded m 



France c. 1897 by Charles Maurras, advocating 
reversion to monarchical government and propa- 
gated through its review the "Action Frangaise." 
Maurras, an atheist, politically nationalistic, seek- 
ing Catholic Royalists' support, inaugurated a de- 
fense of the Church. The movement thus won many 
French Catholics, and grew into an influential 
force. Its paganistic doctrines were recognized by 
the Holy Office which decreed in 1914 to proscribe 
four works of Maurras and the "Action Fran- 
chise. " Pius X approved the decree but delayed 
publication. Aroused by the movement's subse- 
quent activity, Pius XI, after an examination of 
all testimony, disapproved and warned, Sept., 192(1. 
The Action Francaise rebelled into an active op- 
position of defiance, misrepresentation, and cal- 
umny. The vain efforts of the Holy See culminated 
in the pope's expressed purpose, 20 Dec, 192G, to 
condemn the support of activities exalting politics 
above religion and identifying the Church with a 
political movement opposed to established govern- 
ment. A decree of the Holy Office, 29 Dec, 1926, 
condemned Maurras's works and the "Action Fran- 
chise." The one aim of the pope was the protection 
of moral interests involved. The Action Frangaise 
had disclosed its true nature as a school or cabal 
rather than as a mere political party, with a fol- 
lowing mainly Catholic, dominated by atheists, and 
propagating a philosophy exalting politics above 
religion and urging a spirit of nationalistic hate 
and violence. — Cvvynn, The Action Francaise Con- 
demnation, Lond., 1928. 

Act of God, in civil law, an accident which 
arises from some cause beyond the control of man, 
e.g., lightning, cyclones, and therefore attributed 
to God as Author of the laws of nature. 

Act of Settlement (English), the act passed 
in 1701 and still in force, requiring that all future 
rulers of England be members of the Established 
Church. William III and Anne were childless; 
James, the son of James II and nearest heir, was 
Catholic. To keep the throne Protestant, he and 
other Catholic princes and princesses were passed 
over, and Sophia, Protestant granddaughter of 
James I, was named heiress. — Taswall-Langmead, 
English Constitutional History, Lond., 1911. 

Act of Settlement (Irish), passed by the Irish 
Parliament in 1662. In Cromwell's time almost all 
the land in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught had 
been confiscated in such a way that scarcely any 
Catholic or Old Protestant could escape, no distinc- 
tion being made between rebel and royalist. This 
new Act was based on the king's Declaration (1660) 
by which all the land was confirmed to the "ad- 
venturers" (speculators) and, with a few excep- 
tions, to the soldiers. In most cases the estates of 
Protestants were to be at once restored. The Catho- 
lics were divided into "innocent" and "nocent" 
(q.v.). Those who established their claim to belong 
to the former class might be restored if they had 
taken lands in Connaught; the latter, if they had 
taken lands in Connaught, were not to be restored, 
even when they had adhered to the Peace of 1648. 
The Act of Explanation (1665) was intended to 
protect and secure the interests of Protestants; 
thereby the Anglican Church regained its estates 



ACT OF SETTLEMENT 



10 



ACUS 



and its hierarchy was reestablished. The most iniq- 
uitous provision excluded the whole body of 4000 
innocent claimants, with the exception of about 
GOO whose claim had been heard. The Protestant 
landholders received more than two-thirds of the 
good land, and in 1689 two-thirds of them held 
their estates under these Acts. — C.E.; Lecky, His- 
tory of Ireland during Eighteenth Century, Lond., 
1902. 

Act of Supremacy, passed in England, 1534, 
declared the king to be the supreme head of the 
English Church, and gave him full powers to make 
his headship effective. 

Act of Toleration, passed in England in the 
reign of William and Mary, granted freedom of 
religious worship to all, except Catholics and per- 
sons denying the Trinity. 

Act of Uniformity. See Uniformity Acts. 

Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Baron 
Acton (1834-1902), professor of modern history at 
Cambridge, b. Naples; d. Tegernsee, Bavaria. He 
studied at Oscott and under Dollinger at Munich, 
and became Liberal M.P. for Carlow, Ireland, 1859- 
65. At the time of the Vatican Council, he strongly 
opposed the declaration of the infallibility of the 
pope. The "Letters of Quirinus" have been attrib- 
uted to him. The "Cambridge Modern History" was 
begun under his auspices. — C.E.; Gasquet, Lord Ac- 
ton and His Circle, Lond., 1906. 

Actor Ecclesiae (Lat., agent of the Church), 
medieval designation for an official deputed to de- 
fend the rights and revenues of a church or monas- 
tery, often confounded with Advocatus ecclesice. 
It has been practically superseded, in as far as the 
office still exists, by the terms "patron" and "ad- 
vowee." — C.E.; Godfrey, Right of Patronage, Wash., 
1924. (S. B.) 

Acts, Canonical, acts that produce a legal ef- 
fect according to the rules of ecclesiastical law, 
and are either allowed or forbidden. They comprise 
acts of : official administrators of ecclesiastical prop- 
erty; persons employed in ecclesiastical courts, 
judge, auditor, referee, "defensor vinculi" (e.g., for 
marriage), fiscal promotor and promotor of faith 
(for beatification and canonization), courier, 
beadle, lawyer, proxy; sponsors at Baptism and 
Confirmation; voting at ecclesiastical elections, in- 
cluding those held by chapters of religious commu- 
nities; actual exercise of advowson. — Code of Canon 
Law, can. 2256, n. 2. (c. A.) 

Acts, Human, acts of man which are under the 
control of the will and therefore done knowingly 
and willingly; not acts which happen by accident, 
as falling, or by nature, as growing, or by instinct, 
as dodging a missile, but acts performed by choice, 
that is, after deliberation and decision. They 
are imputable to their human author to the ex- 
tent that he has knowledge of his own activity 
and its import, and to the extent that he has 
freedom of election. The moral or ethical charac- 
ter of the human act lies in this, that it is freely 
placed with knowledge of its objective conform- 
ity or nonconformity with the law of rational 
nature, the moral law. — C.E.; Maher, Psychology, 
N. Y., 1919; Cronin, The Science of Ethics, N". Y., 
1909. (b. a. c.) 



< 



Acts, Indifferent, acts that are neither good 
nor bad. All are agreed that deliberate acts per- 
formed without conscious reference to moral norms 
are indifferent; also that many acts, like walking, 
have in themselves no specific goodness or malice. 
St. Thomas is of opinion that acts of a deliberate 
agent, aware of the significance of the circum- 
stances in which he acts and especially of the end 
which his act serves, cannot escape the imputation 
of morality; they will be either good or bad. — C.E.; 
Cronin, The Science of Ethics, N. Y., 1909. (b. a. c.) 

Acts of the Apostles, the name of the book in 
the N.T. which follows the Gospels. It narrates some 
of the important acts of Sts. Peter and Paul, and 
mentions more briefly acts of Sts. John, James the 
Less, James the Greater, and 
Barnabas. Of the 28 chapters, 
12 mainly concern St. Peter, 
and the others St. Paul. The 
author is St. Luke, who was 
physician, .artist, and compe- 
tent historian. As an eye- 
witness, he wrote an authentic 
account of the origins of Chris- 
tianity. The Ascension of 
Christ into Heaven, the Descent 
of the Holy Ghost on the 
Apostles, Peter's first sermon 
and conversions, Paul's conver- 
sions, missions, and journey- 
ings are all told as historical 
events. The Acts were written 
about a.d. 63 in Greek, and 
very likely when the writer was 
in Rome. — C.E.; Madame Ce- 
cilia, Acts, N". Y., 1925; Lynch, 
The Story of the Acts of the 
Apostles, N. Y., 1917. 

Actual Grace, a supernat- 
ural gift from Almighty God, 
received in the human intellect 
or will, accidentally perfect- AC 

ing these faculties and enabling them to elicit acts 
explicitly related to eternal life. Because the power 
thus received is above and beyond all natural ex- 
igencies, it is correctly called supernatural; because 
it lacks permanence and is granted by God solely to 
assist and strengthen the natural faculty while it is 
in operation, it is correctly called actual. — C.E., VI, 
689; Pohle-Preuss, Grace, St. L., 1921. 

Actual Sin, a personal act or omission that does 
not conform to God's will or law. Actual sins may 
be divided into the following catgories : sins of 
commission or omission, according to the precept 
which they violate; interior or exterior sins, ac- 
cording to the manner of committing them; sins 
against God, one's neighbor, and one's self, accord- 
ing to their object; mortal and venial sins, ac- 
cording to their effect on the soul ; sins of ignorance, 
weakness, and malice, according to the cause which 
leads to them; capital or non-capital sins, according 
as they do or do not lie at the root of other sins. — 
P.C. Augustine. (k. g. b.) 

Acus (Lat., needle), pin made of precious metal, 
sometimes jeweled, for attaching the pallium to 
the chasuble over which it was worn. 



A.D. 



11 



AD LIMINA 



A.D. = Anno Domini (year of the Lord). 

Adalard, Saint, abbot (c. 751-827). Grandson 
of Charles Martel, he was prime minister to Pepin 
the Short, and adviser to Louis le Debonnaire. In 
773 he had entered the Benedictine Abbey of Corbie 
and c. 775 was elected abbot. He is honored as a 
patron in many churches and towns in France and 
along the lower Rhine. Patron of gardeners; in- 
voked against fever and typhus. He is represented 
kneeling before a crucifix; giving food to the poor; 
and holding a map. Relics at Corbie. Feast, 2 Jan. 
— C.E.; Butler. 

Adalbert (Teut., nobly bright), Saint, martyr 
(939-997), apostle of Prussia, Bp. of Prague, and 
Abp. of Gnesen. He was twice expelled from his See 
of Prague for his efforts to reform the clergy. At- 
tempting to evangelize the people of Hungary and 
the Poles, he was killed at the instigation of a 
pagan priest. He is thought to be the author of a 
Polish battle-song. Relics at Prague. Feast, 23 
April.— C.E.; Butler. 

Adam (Heb., man), the first man and father of 
the human race. God made him in His own image, 
and placed him in the Garden 
of Eden. He made a woman, 
Eve, from the rib of Adam and 
gave her to him for a wife. 
Adam and Eve were tempted 
by the devil, disguised as a 
serpent, to disobey God by eat- 
ing of the tree of knowledge. 
For their sin God expelled 
them from Paradise and they 
were condemned to pain and 
hardship in the outer world. 
Adam was the father of Cain and Abel, of Seth 
when he was 130 years old, and of many sons and 
daughters. He died at the age of 930 according to 
the scriptural computation. In the N.T. St. Paul 
alludes to Christ as the "last Adam," through whom 
all are saved, as in the first Adam all inherited 
the effect of his sin. — C.E. 

Adam de Marisco (Marsh), Franciscan scholar 
(d. c. 1258), b. probably Somerset, England. Known 
as "Doctor illustris," he helped to organize the 
teaching and discipline at Oxford. — C.E. 

Adamnan (Eunan), Saint, abbot (c. 624-704), 
b. Drumhome, Donegal, Ireland; d. Iona. He en- 
tered the monastery of Iona, 650, and was elected 
abbot in 679. On a visit to Ireland he introduced 
the Roman method of reckoning Easter. He is the 
author of a biography of St. Columba and "Adam- 
nan's Vision." Patron of Raphoe, Ireland. Feast, 23 
Sept.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Adam's Peak, mountain, Ceylon, at summit of 
which is a depression in the rock, 5 ft. long, re- 
sembling a human foot-print, attributed by legend 
to Thomas the Apostle. It is a place of pilgrimage 
of Indian Christians, Brahmins, Buddhists, Chinese, 
and Mohammedans; the last claim the foot-print 
to be that of Adam. 

Ad Bestias (Lat., to the beasts), the sentence 
passed on Christians destined to be mangled by 
beasts in the amphitheaters. 

Addai, Addeus, or Thaddeus, Saint, mentioned 
in the Syriac document, "Doctrine of Addai," as one 




AD BESTIAS 



of the 72 disciples of Christ, who preached at 
Edessa, converting King Abgar V and a great num- 
ber of his people. The "Doctrine" is only a legend. 
No doubt there were Christians in Edessa before the 
end of the 2nd century but its first Christian king 
was Abgar IX (179-214). Feast, various dates. 

Addeus and Maris, Liturgy of, written in 
Syriac. It was the usual liturgy of the Nestorians, 
composed, according to tradition, in the 1st century, 
by Addeus and Maris, who evangelized Edessa and 
Seleucia-Ctesiphon. It is now used chiefly by the 
Nestorians of Kurdistan, and, purged of Nestori- 
anism, by the Chaldean Uniats of Kurdistan and 
Malabar. — C.E. 

Adelaide, Archdiocese of, Australia, comprises, 
east of Spencer's Gulf, that portion of the prov- 
ince of South Australia south of Victoria and 
Burra counties and of the River Murray from the 
Northwest Bend to New South Wales, and Flin- 
ders, Musgrave, and Jervois counties and adjacent 
islands west of the gulf; area, 40,320 sq. m.; suf- 
fragans, Port Augusta and Victoria and Palmerston. 
Established as a diocese 1842, and as an archdiocese, 
1887. Bishops: Francis Murphy 
(1844-58) ; Patrick Geogheghan 
(1859-64) ; Lawrence Shiel 
(1866-72); Christopher Rey- 
nolds (1873-93); John O'Reily 
(1895-1915); Robert Spence 
(1915). Churches, 104; priests, 
secular, 42; priests, regular, 
32; religious women, 473; col- 
leges, 3 ; high schools, 28 ; pri- 
mary schools, 51 ; institutions, 
9; Catholics, 51,698. 

Adeodatus I (Lat., given from God) or Deus- 
dedit, Saint, Pope (615-618). He is said to have 
been the first to use bullw or leaden seals for pon- 
tifical documents, whence the name Bulls. Feast, 8 
Nov.— C.E. 

Adeodatus II, Saint, Pope (672-676). A monk 
of the Roman cloister of St. Erasmus, he was active 
in promoting monastic discipline and in repressing 
the heresy of the Monothelites, who believed that 
there was but one will in Christ, i.e., no human 
will but only the Divine. 

Adeste Fideles, or Come All Ye Faithful, hymn 
used at Christmastide, not in the Breviary or Mis- 
sal. It was written in the 18th century, but it is not 
known by whom. There are 40 translations; the one 
commonly used is by Canon Oakeley. — C.E.; Britt; 
Henry, Catholic Customs and Symbols, N. Y., 
1925. 

Adjuration, an earnest appeal to another to 
act or refrain from acting, under pain of Divine 
visitation or the rupture of the ties of reverence 
and love. — C.E. 

Ad Libitum (Lat., at one's pleasure, choice), 
used in the order for the Divine Office when there 
is a choice of prayer at Mass. 

Ad Limina Apostolorum (Lat., to the thresh- 
olds of the Apostles), a pilgrimage to the tombs 
of Sts. Peter and Paul, canonically required of all 
bishops every three to ten years, according to their 
distance from Rome. There they venerate the 
Apostles and render an account of their dioceses to 



AD LIMINA 



12 



ADOPTION 



the pope. A delegate may fulfill the obligation if 
the bishop is unable to go. 

Ad Metal la (Lat., to the mines or quarries), 
sentence passed on Christians condemned to hard 
labor in mines or quarries. 

Administration Apostolic, a special form of 
diocesan organization of which eight have been 
created in Europe since the World War : Feld- 
kirch, Austria; Ttitz, Germany; Miskolcz, Hun- 
gary; Tirnava, Czechoslovakia; Targul-Siret, and 
Temesvar, Rumania; Subotica, and Veliki Bech- 
kerek, Yugoslavia. In most cases, where a new 
boundary of a country intersected an old diocese, 
the section in the country remote from the diocesan 
seat was erected into an administration Apos- 
tolic, usually under a titular bishop. — P.C. Augus- 
tine. 

Administration of the Sacraments, the act of 
the minister in conferring the sacraments on the 
individual faithful for the sanctification of souls. 
Since the whole efficacy of the sacraments is from 
Christ, the minister administers them in His name 
and by authority. As the chief means of sanctifica- 
tion, they are to be administered to the faithful 
frequently, while the faithful on their part are to 
receive them with reverence and holy dispositions. — 
Pohle-Preuss, The Sacraments, St. L., 1923. 

(r. b. m.) 

Administrator. (1) A cleric, priest or bishop, 
who for grave and special reasons is appointed by 
the Holy See, to administer the diocese for an in- 
definite or for a specified time, which might be 
either till this particular see is vacant or, if vacant, 
until another bishop is appointed. The administrator 
has the same episcopal jurisdiction as the former 
bishop, and in exercising it he is bound by the same 
laws. (2) Head priest of a cathedral in England: 
a priest who is appointed by the bishop to ad- 
minister the affairs of a cathedral for the same 
reasons as those given above for a diocese. (3) 
In the United States, a priest appointed to ad- 
minister the affairs of a parish when an irremov- 
able pastor makes an appeal to Rome against his 
removal from his benefice by the bishop; this ad- 
ministrator holds the office until a decision is given 
by the higher superiors. In Europe, a priest ap- 
pointed by the superior of a convent to attend 
to the affairs of parishes which are under his 
jurisdiction. (4) The administrator of ecclesiastical 
institutions, as seminaries, colleges, hospitals, asy- 
lums, convents, is usually a priest who attends to 
both the spiritual and material affairs of these in- 
stitutions. Laymen are frequently appointed ad- 
ministrators of Church property and ecclesiastical 
institutions, but usually they are co-workers of the 
clergy. — C.E.; P.C.Augustine. (d. r. ) 

Admonitions, Canonical, a preliminary means 
used by the Church towards a suspected person as 
a preventive of harm or a remedy of evil. A pater- 
nal admonition is a secret remonstrance addressed 
either by a prelate or his confidential delegate to 
a cleric suspected of misconduct on a basis of 
public rumor. A third paternal admonition having 
failed of effect, the way is paved for canonical or 
legal admonition, which is to a great extent akin 
to a summons to judgment and a recognized part 



of the "acts" of future procedure. In religious 
orders or congregations, admonitions are given 
by a competent religious superior, or by one dele- 
gated by him, to a religious who has com- 
mitted serious, external misdemeanors, which, if 
not amended, will give sufficient grounds for insti- 
tuting the judicial process of dismissal. — C.E.; P.C. 
Augustine. 

Ado, Saint (c. 800-875), Abp. of Vienne, Bene- 
dictine, author of the "Martyrology" which bears 
his name. Feast, at Vienne, 16 Dec. — C.E.; Butler. 

Adonai, lord, ruler, lord of lords, a name be- 
stowed upon God in the O.T. (Ex., 6). It is the per- 
petual substitute for the name Yahweh. 

Adoption, Canonical. In a legal sense adoption 
is an act by which a person, with the cooperation 
of the public authority, takes as his own the child 
of another. Under Roman law legal relationship 
was established, based on the natural relationship, 
and it was a bar to marriage. Its degrees were : 
civil fatherhood, between the adopter and the 
adopted and the latter 's legitimate children; civil 
brotherhood, between the adopted and the legiti- 
mate children of the adopter; affinity, arising from 
the tie of adoption between the adopted and the 
adopter's wife, and between the adopter and the 
adopted's wife. The Church, receiving this law as 
her own, recognized adoption as a diriment impedi- 
ment of marriage. The modification of the Roman 
law by the compilation of new codes led to discus- 
sions as to what extent this diriment impediment 
of legal relationship still exists in the eyes of the 
Church, and the principle was laid down by Bene- 
dict XIV that, wherever the elements of the Roman 
law are retained in the new codes, the Church recog- 
nizes this relationship as a diriment impediment. 
In Great Britain and the United States legal 
adoption in the sense of the Roman law does not 
exist. In the United States it is regulated by State 
statutes and is generally accomplished by mutual 
obligations assumed in the manner prescribed by 
law. Adoption by private authority or under private 
arrangements is not recognized by the Church as 
productive of this legal relationship. Hence, in the 
United States, adoption is not generally a diriment 
impediment of marriage, nor in the eyes of the 
Church in any way preventive of it. — C.E. ; Ayrin- 
hac, Marriage Legislation in the New Code of 
Canon Law, N. Y., 1919. 

Adoption, Supernatural, the act by which God 
takes us as His own children and makes us heirs 
to the happiness of heaven. Unlike natural or legal 
adoption which alters the standing of the adopted 
one externally or socially, supernatural adoption 
affects our very life by transforming our soul into 
the likeness of Jesus Christ and making us His co- 
heirs to the kingdom of heaven. This is repeated in 
various terms, as by St. Paul in his Epistle to the 
Romans, 8, 15, "You have received the spirit of 
adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba (Father)," 
and by Sts. John, Peter, and James. It occurs fre- 
quently in the early liturgies and the Fathers stress 
the fact of our deification, i.e., of our God-given 
and godlike life by virtue of this adoption which 
is the result of sanctifying grace. — C.E.; Pohle- 
Preuss, Grace, St. L., 1921. (ed.) 



ADOPTIONISM 



13 



ADRIAN I 



Adoptionism, a heresy originating in tlie 8th 
century claiming that Christ as Man was only the 
adoptive Son of God. It was advocated by Elipan- 
dus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel, but condemned 
by Pope Adrian I in 785 and 794. Abelard re- 
newed this teaching in the 12th century, and his 
neo-Adoptionism was condemned by Pope Alex- 
ander III in 1177.— C.E.; Pohle-Preuss, Christ- 
ology, St. L., 1922. (ed.) 

Adoration (Lat., ad, to; orare, to pray; or os, 
oris, mouth : from the pagan custom of expressing 
preference for a god by wafting a kiss to the statue), 
an act of religion of- 
fered to God alone in 
recognition of His in- 
finite perfection and 
supreme dominion, and 
[)f the creature's depend- 
ence on Him. It is an 
act of mind and will 
expressing itself ex- 
teriorly by postures of 
reverence and prayers 
of praise. It is loosely 
used to express admira- 
tion and affection for 
creatures. — C.E. ; Koch- 
Preuss. 

Adoration, Perpet- 
ual, exposition of the 
Blessed Sacrament day 
and night in continuity, 
during which time pious 
persons take their turns 
uninterruptedly as ador- 
ers. As a rule the ob- 
ject of this perpetual 
adoration is, reparation 

for the outrages of men against a God of goodness. 
The practise dates probably from the 12th or 13th 
century, when periods of adoration were sometimes 
prescribed by kings in thanksgiving for signal vic- 
tories, and in the 15th century there were adora- 
tions in petition or thanksgiving for some special 
favor. The Forty Hours' devotion, begun in 1534, 
developed the general practise of perpetual adora- 
tion, which is the special object of many pious 
associations and religious congregations established 
since that date. — C.E.; P.C. Augustine. 

(p. w. n. ) 
Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. The 
Catholic Church teaches that the highest type of 
worship {latria) is to be given to the Blessed 
Sacrament. This doctrine follows logically from two 
revealed truths: that Jesus Christ, even in His hu- 
manity, on account of His Divine personality is 
worthy of Divine homage; and that Jesus Christ 
is really present in the Blessed Sacrament. Most 
illogical therefore is the attitude of those who ad- 
mit the doctrine of the Heal Presence, but refuse 
to give external adoration to the Eucharist. The 
manner of showing homage to the Blessed Sacra- 
ment has varied in the Catholic Church in different 
ages. In the Oriental rites a profound bow is the 
usual act of adoration. In the Latin Church a genu- 
flection is made, single if the Blessed Sacrament is 



in the tabernacle, double if it is exposed. — Council 
of Trent, session 13, ch. 5. (f. j. c.) 

Adoration of the Cross, a ceremony of Good 
Friday. The term is inaccurate, but it is sanctioned 
by long use. Veneration is the proper term. Fol- 
lowing the Collects in the Mass of the Presanctified, 
the veiled crucifix is gradually uncovered, with the 
threefold chanting of "Ecce lignum crucis, in quo 
Salvator mundi pependit" (Behold the wood of the 
Cross, on which hung the Saviour of the world). 
The clergy then remove their shoes, an ancient 
sign of reverence, and, kneeling, kiss the crucifix. 
s. The laity then venerate 

the crucifix by kissing 
it. — Missal; The Mass 
Every Day in the Year ; 
Holy Week Book. 

(J. F. S.) 

Adoration of the 
Magi, the worship by 
the wise men from the 
East of the Divinity of 
the Infant Jesus, a fa- 
vorite subject of the 
masters. Among the 
many who have painted 
this subject are: Fra 
Angelico, Botticelli, Del 
Sarto, Diirer, Ghirlan- 
dajo, Lippi, and Mem- 
ling. The adoration of 
the Magi is commemor- 
ated in the feast of the 
Epiphany. 

Adoro Te devote, 
latens Deitas, or Hid- 
den God, devoutly I 
adore Thee, hymn 
usually given in the "Thanksgiving after Mass," in 
the Missal; it is often sung at Benediction. It was 
written by St. Thomas Aquinas (1227-74). There are 
about 25 translations. The English title given is by 
J. O'Hagan; the third verse reads: 

On the Cross was veiled Thy Godhead's splendor, 
Here Thy Manhood lieth hidden too ; 
Unto both alike my faith I render, 
And, as sued the contrite thief, I sue. 

— C.E.; Britt. 

Ad regias Agni dapes, or At the Lamb's 
high feast we sing, hymn for Vespers from Low 
Sunday to Ascension Day; Ambrosian school, 7th 
century. There are about 30 translations; the Eng- 
lish title given is by R. Campbell. — Britt. 

Adrian I, Pope (772-795), founder of the tem- 
poral power of the popes, b. Rome; d. there. Elected 
when the Lombards were threatening to dominate 
all Italy, he summoned Charlemagne to assist him 
in averting this catastrophe, and the result of his 
appeal was the Donation of Charlemagne, for eleven 
centuries the basis of the temporal sovereignty of 
the popes. The Lombard Kingdom was vanquished, 
and the papacy delivered from its persistent foe and 
left free to promote peace and order in Christen- 
dom. Adrian presided over the Seventh General 
Council (Nicaea, 787 ), in which the Catholic doc- 




ADORATION- OF THE MAGI 



ADRIAN I 



14 



ADVENT 




trine regarding images was expounded. — C.E.; 
Mann. 

Adrian II, Pope (862-872), b. Rome, c. 792. 
Before receiving minor orders he had married, and 
his wife and daughter were slain by Eleutherius 
who had forcefully married the latter. He strove 
to maintain peace among Charlemagne's descend- 
ants and compelled King Lothair of Lorraine to 
take back his lawful wife. Through the Council of 
Constantinople (869) he effected the restoration of 
unity between East and West. He supported Sts. 
Cyril and Methodius in their evangelization of the 
Slavs, and approved their rendering of the liturgy 
into Slavonic. — C.E. ; Mann. 

Adrian III, Saint, Pope (884-885), b. Teano or 
Rome; d. near Modena. When on his way to an 
imperial diet he died and was buried in the monas- 
tery of Nonantula. His Mass is celebrated in Rome 
and Modena, 8 July. — C.E. ; Mann. 

Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear), Pope 
(1154-59), apostle of the North, b. probably 
Abbot's Langley, Hertfordshire, England, c. 1100; 
d. Anagni, Italy. He went abroad as a 
wandering scholar, and became an Aus- 
tin Canon at St. Rufus, near Avignon. 
Later he was made Bp. of Albano and 
cardinal, and sent as papal legate to 
Scandinavia, where he erected the See 
of Trondhjem, and established the 
arms op Peterspence. He was unanimously 
adeian iv elected popej H54. By interdict he sub- 
dued the populace of Rome, in revolt under Arnold 
of Brescia; brought Frederick Barbarossa to sub- 
mission before conferring upon him the imperial 
crown; and made an agreement with William I of 
Sicily which aroused the resentment of the emperor, 
and led to open strife. As for the "Donation of 
Ireland," whereby he is said to have bestowed that 
country upon Henry II, King of England, by the 
Bull, "Laudabiliter," Card. Gasquet recently summed 
it up thus: "A careful examination will reject the 
Bull as an undoubted forgery. . . . 
Adrian IV, far from granting any ap- 
probation to Henry in his design on 
Ireland, . . . positively refused to be a 
party to such an injustice." — C.E. ; C.E. 
Suppl. ; Mann. 

Adrian V (Ottobuono Fieschi), 
Pope (1276), b. Genoa, Italy; d. 
Viterbo. He was the nephew of Innocent 
IV. During his reign of six weeks he annulled the 
rigid enactments of Gregory X concerning conclaves. 
He is mentioned in Dante's "Purgatorio." — C.E. 
Adrian VI (Adrian Dedel), Pope (1522-23), 
Holland, 1459. As vice-chancellor of 
the University of Louvain he advanced 
arts and sciences. In 1506 he became 
tutor to Charles V, later Grand In- 
quisitor, and in 1520 regent of Spain. 
During his pontificate he met with 
opposition in his efforts to reform the 
Curia and to repair extravagances. He 
appealed in vain to Christian rulers to 
oppose the advancing Turks, and his 
death was hastened by the fall of Rhodes into their 
hands. — C.E.; Pastor. 




b. Utrecht, 




Adrian Fortescue, Blessed (c. 1476-1539), 
martyr, Knight of St. John, one of the Fortescues 
of Salden, Devonshire, and a relative of Anne 
Boleyn. He was martyred by Henry VIII. 

Adrian of Canterbury, Saint, abbot (d. 710), 
b. Africa; d. Canterbury, England. He was a Bene- 
dictine, Abbot of Nerida, near Naples, and went to 
England, 668, with Theodore, newly appointed Abp. 
of Canterbury, having himself refused the see. He 
became Abbot of St. Austin's, Canterbury, and as- 
sisted Theodore in harmonizing the practises of 
the Anglo-Saxon Church with those of Rome. Un- 
der him the School of Canterbury became the 
center of English learning. Feast, 9 Jan. — C.E.; 
Butler. 

Adrumetum, ad'ru-me-tum, ancient seaport, Asia 
Minor, important as a trading-center. St. Paul set 
out from Csesarea "on a ship of Adrumetum" on his 
journey to Rome (Acts, 27). It is the modern Ed- 
remid. See Titular Sees: Adramyttium. 

Adullam or Odollam. (1) Chanaanite city w. 
of Bethlehem. (2) Cave which sheltered David and 
his followers (1 Kings, 22), said to be situated 
6 m. se. of Bethlehem. 

Adult (Lat., adultus, grown), one who has 
reached maturity; baptism is termed "adult" if the 
recipient has attained the age of reason. 

Adult Baptism. The Roman ritual has a distinc- 
tive rite for adults. After investigation, every adult 
convert, invalidly or not baptized, receives Baptism 
unconditionally; if doubtfully baptized the condi- 
tional form, "If thou art not baptized, I baptize 
thee" etc., is employed. For valid reception, the 
adult should have at least the intention to receive 
the sacrament. For lawful and fruitful reception, he 
should know and believe the mysteries of the Cath- 
olic religion necessary for salvation, be instructed in 
Christian morality, and have supernatural sorrow 
for sin. Baptism given absolutely remits actual as 
well as original sin. In danger of death, when doubt 
arises concerning an adult's intention, Baptism is 
administered conditionally. See Baptism. — Griffin, 
The Priest's New Ritual, N. Y., 1927. (f. t. b.) 

Adultery (Lat., adult erium ) , carnal intercourse 
of a married person and another who is not the 
wife or husband. It is a diriment impediment to 
marriage between two who, during the time of a 
legitimate marriage, commit the crime pledging 
themselves to marriage later; or, who commit it 
during the time of a legitimate marriage and one 
or the other brings about the death of one of the 
married parties. — C.E.; P.C.Augustine. (ed.) 

Advent (Lat., adventus, coming), period of 
prayer and fasting in preparation for Christmas, 
anniversary of the Birth or Coming of Christ, in- 
cluding four Sundays, the first the nearest to the 
feast of St. Andrew ( 30 Nov. ) ; it may be as early 
as 27 Nov. and as late as 3 Dec. It is the beginning 
of the ecclesiastical year in the Western Church. 
Its early history is obscure. It was observed in 
Spain in the 7th century. The Divine Office and the 
Sunday Masses are a most devout preparation for 
the Christmas feast. Altar drapery and vestments 
are violet except on third Sunday, when rose color 
is used, and feasts. — C.E.; Gueranger, tr. Shepherd, 
The Liturgical Year: Advent, Dub., 1883. (j. f. s.) 



ADVENTISTS 



IS 



ESTHETICS 



Adventists, an American sect, founded by Wil- 
liam Miller at Dresden, N. Y., in 1831. Miller be- 
lieved that the second coming of Christ was to be 
in 1843 and would be followed by the millennium. 
Individuals in the existing churches held these sen- 
timents until 1845, when a separate Church was or- 
ganized. There are now five bodies of Adventists, 
varying in minor details, but all believing in the 
imminence of the second coming of Christ, baptism 
by immersion, and in congregational government: 
Advent Christian Church; Churches of God in 
Christ Jesus; Church of God (Adventist) ; Life and 
Advent Union; and Seventh-day Adventists (q.v.). 
In 1926 there were in the United States: 1586 
ministers; 2490 churches; and 142,649 members. 

Advertisements, Book of, regulations for the 
use of vestments in the Anglican Church, particu- 
larly of the surplice and cope at the communion 
service, drawn up by Abp. Parker and others, and 
published in 1556. The surplice was to be worn in 
churches, the cope in cathedrals. To this the Ee- 
formers objected and the dissensions consequent oc- 
casioned the breach between Nonconformists and 
the Church of England. — C.E.; Cambridge Modern 
History, XI, 550-598. (ed.) 

Advocate, title of Christ (1 John, 2, 1). The 
Greek word, parakletos, so rendered is the same as 
that transcribed Paraclete in St. John's Gospel, 14, 
where Our Lord promises to send "another Para- 
clete" (advocate), the Holy Ghost. Christ as Ad- 
vocate defends the cause of Christian believers 
against their accuser, the devil (Apoc, 12). He is 
called in 1 John, 2, a just advocate: He claims that 
the virtue of His satisfaction be extended to all 
in fellowship with Himself. The word, which la- 
terally means "one called to one's side" to strengthen 
and plead, implies that the Christian effectually 
seeks His help. (w. s. r. ) 

Advocate of God, the promoter of the cause 
in a process of beatification or canonization. 

Advocate of the Church, lay official, in the 
Middle Ages, charged with the defense of Church 
temporalities, both in civil courts and, in later 
times, in the field; he received in return part of 
the Church revenues. Under the feudal system the 
princes appointed the advocates by their own au- 
thority, and in many places the office became hered- 
itary, which led to grave abuses. — C.E. 

Advocates of Roman Congregations, clergy- 
men or laymen who plead causes before Roman 
ecclesiastical tribunals. Besides canon and civil 
law they must know dogmatic and moral theology 
and profane and church history. Other officials 
known as procurators submit to them the facts of 
a case and they concern themselves only with points 
of law and plead before or present their briefs to 
the officials of the Congregations. Their recompense 
is a fixed sum, and nothing is charged the poor. 
Seven advocates constitute the consistorial college 
with five others called juniors. — C.E. (ed. ) 

Advowson (Lat., advocatio, legal assistance), 
in English law the right of presenting one to a 
vacant ecclesiastical benefice; so called because the 
patron advocates or defends the claims of the one 
presented. Originally the right of presentation was 
conferred upon a person building or endowing a 



church, but in time this right became annexed to 
the manor and thus passed from owner to owner. 
It was then known as advowson appendant. If 
separated from the estate it was the advowson in 
gross. Advowsons are either presentative or col- 
lative; collative when the bishop himself is the 
patron, and presentative when the bishop installs 
one duly presented by another. — C.E.; P.C. Augus- 
tine, (w. J. M.) 

Aedan of Ferns, a/dan, Saint (c. 550-632), 
popularly Mogue (Mo-Aedh-og, my dear Aedh), 
first Bp. of Ferns, b. Inisbrefny, Ireland; d. Ferns. 
He founded 30 churches in Wexford and was given 
nominal supremacy over the Leinster bishops by 
the title of Ard-Escop (High Bishop). Patron of 
Ferns. Feast, 31 Jan. — C.E.; Butler. 

Aedh of Kildare, Saint (d. 639), King of 
Leinster. He resigned his throne to enter the mon- 
astery of Kildare, where he became abbot and 
bishop. Feast, 4 Jan. 

y£gidius of Assisi or Giles, Blessed (d. 1262), 
companion of St. Francis. Assigned to the hermi- 
tage of Fabriano, he there led a life of contem- 
plation. His wisdom led many to consult him; his 
"Sayings" have had many editions. Feast, 23 April. 
— C.E.; Robinson, The Golden Words of Blessed 
Brother Giles, Phila., 1906. 

JElfric the Grammarian (c. 955-1020), Abbot 
of Eynsham, Anglo-Saxon writer. His writings con- 
cerning the Blessed Sacrament occasioned contro- 
versy, Protestants contending that he denied tran- 
substantiation; it is now conceded that his words 
are to be interpreted in the Catholic sense. — C.E. 

^Eneas Sylvius. See Pius II. 

Aingus, Saint (d. 824), called The Culdee 
(Gael., Ceile De, servant of God), b. near Clonen- 
agh, Ireland; d. there. He collaborated with St. 
Maelruain in writing a martyrology of Irish saints, 
and wrote the "Felire," a poetical work on the 
same subject, which he concluded after he had left 
the monastery and resumed his hermit's life. Feast, 
11 March.— C.E. ; Butler. 

v4Eon (Gr., aion, age), an age of the universe; 
ever-existing; eternal Divine power. In Gnosticism, 
one of the spiritual powers evolved from the eter- 
nal Divine Being by progressive emanation and 
constituting the Pleroma, (plenitude) or invisible 
spiritual world, as distinct from the Kenoma 
(chaotic void) or visible material world. — C.E. 

Aer (Gr., air), the largest and outermost cover- 
ing of chalice and paten in the Greek Church; so 
named either from lightness of the material, or 
because held high in the air during the Creed. 

Esthetics (Gr., aisthenesthai, to perceive, feel), 
the perception of the beautiful; the science which 
determines the norm or rule by which beauty is 
perceived and the criticism which points out 
wherein a person, object, literary composition, 
poem, painting, statue, structure, or other artistic 
work, possesses or lacks the elements of beauty; 
a science of the fine arts based on philosophical 
principles. According to the variations of these 
principles the science differs. Materialists see 
beauty, or lack of beauty, only in matter, in things 
which appeal to the senses. Idealists perceive it 
only in ideals which suit their philosophy. As all 



-AESTHETICS 



16 



AFRICAN CHURCH 



beauty consists in order, proportion, symmetry, 
harmony, there is a spiritual and supernatural 
beauty, invisible to the senses but perceptible to the 
spiritual view or intuition, the conformity of a life 
with God's law of life. This supernatural beauty 
may be perceived throughout the Holy Scriptures, 
but especially in every page of the Gospels; in 
lives of Christ, like that of St. Bonaventure, Le 
Camus (tr. Hickey), Coleridge's "Vita Vitoe Nos- 
tras"; in lives of the Saints, such as Montalem- 
bert's "Elizabeth of Hungary," Fraser's "Frances 
of Rome," Concannon's "Columbanus," Enid Din- 
nis's "Mystics All." The conformity of human life 
and conduct with the divine idea is admirably ex- 
plained in the "Art of Life," by Mgr. Kolbe, and 
in the "Life of All Living, the Philosophy of Life," 
by Fulton Sheen. — C.E.; U.K.; Dubray, Introduc- 
tory Philosophy, N. Y., 1923. (ed.) 
sterna caeli gloria, or O Christ, whose glory 
pills the heaven, hymn for Lauds on Friday; 
Ambrosian school, 5th century. There are 12 transla- 
tions; the English title given is by J. Julian. — Britt. 
JBterna Christi munera, or Th' eternal gifts 
of Christ the King, hymn for Matins for the 
Common of Apostles and Evangelists, out of Pas- 
chal Time. It was written by St. Ambrose (340- 
347). There are 13 translations; the English title 
given is by E. Caswall. — Britt. 

JBteme Rector siderum, or Ruler of the 
dread immense! hymn for Lauds on 2 Oct., feast 
of the Holy Guardian Angels. It was written by 
Card. Bellarmine (1542-1621). There are seven 
translations; the English title given is by E. Cas- 
wall. — Britt. 

^Eterne rerum Conditor, or Maker of all, 
eternal King, hymn for Lauds on Sunday, from 
the Octave of the Epiphany until the first Sunday 
of Lent, and from the Sunday nearest 1 Oct. until 
Advent. It was written by St. Ambrose (340-397). 
There are 18 translations; the English title given 
is by W. Copeland. — Britt. 

yEterne Rex altissime, or Eternal Monarch, 
King most High, hymn for Matins from Ascen- 
sion to Pentecost; Ambrosian school, 5th century. 
There are 15 translations; the English title given 
is by J. Neale and others. — Britt. 

Affections (Lat., ad, to; facere, to make), term 
used by writers on spiritual matters to denote emo- 
tions, dispositions, movements of the passions of 
love, desire, enjoyment of what is good, and of 
hatred, aversion, and disgust for what is evil. The 
training in virtue, devotion, asceticism, and mysti- 
cism in seminaries and novitiates is called school 
of the affections. — Koch-Preuss. (ed. ) 

Affinity, a diriment matrimonial impediment 
preventing a valid marriage with certain blood- 
relatives of a previous wife or husband, unless a 
dispensation be granted. No marriage can be con- 
tracted with any relative of the deceased wife or 
husband in the direct line, that is, with any of her 
or his ancestors or descendants ; and no dispen- 
sation can be given. In the collateral line the im- 
pediment extends to the second degree, first cousin, 
uncle or aunt, nephew or niece; and a dispensation 
may be granted for either the first or the second 
degree. Under the older laws there was an impedi- 



ment of illicit affinity, resulting from sexual rela- 
tions with certain near relatives of the party with 
whom marriage was desired; this has been abol- 
ished by the new Code of Canon Law. — C.E.; Ayr- 
inhac, Marriage Legislation in the New Code of 
Canon Law, N. Y., 1919. (j. f. s.) 

Afghanistan, independent monarchy of central 
Asia; area, 245,000 sq. m.; est. pop. 8,000,000, prac- 
tically all followers of Islam. In 1879 a vicariate 
Apostolic was founded for Afghanistan and Balu- 
chistan and entrusted to the Missionaries of Mill 
Hill, London. They served as chaplains in the wars, 
but no Christian Church or organized Christian 
community has been able to establish itself. — U.K. 
African Church, Christian communities of Ro- 
man Africa, which comprised what is now Tripoli, 
Algeria, and Morocco. The historical period begins 
with groups of martyrs, 180; in spite of persecu- 
tions Christianity rapidly spread from Carthage 
through the provinces. In the beginning of the 
3rd century the edict of Emperor Decius started 
a fierce persecution. Many through cowardice apos- 
tatized and were known as "Lapsed"; they were 
numerous and caused much trouble later by de- 
manding restoration to communion. Traditores 
were those who claimed that the archives of the 
Church could be delivered to officials without laps- 
ing from the Faith. The Donatist schism which 
rent the African Church arose from the refusal 
of some of the bishops to recognize as valid epis- 
copal consecration performed by a traditor. Con- 
stantine could not succeed in reconciling the fac- 
tions. Augustine vigorously opposed the Donatists 
and all other heretics. Paganism came to an end 
when the temples were closed in 399. The Pelagian 
heresy, which had many adherents in Africa, was 
condemned at the Council of Carthage in 412. In 
426 Africa was invaded by the Vandals. This con- 
quest subjected the Church to new persecutions, 
as the Varfdals were Arians. Wretched conditions 
prevailed in Africa during Vandal occupation. 
Finally in 533 a Byzantine army under Belisarius 
drove out the invaders. Under Justinian Arianism, 
the denial of the Divinity of Christ, was suppressed 
and order restored. The clergy were divided by the 
Three Chapters controversy. Pope Gregory the 
Great sent delegates to assist the Bp. of Carthage. 
Africa did not long enjoy this period of peace. 
In 642 the Arab conquerors of Egypt made their 
way into Proconsular Africa and in 698 Carthage 
was finally taken. This conquest meant the blotting 
out of the African Church. The most important 
Latin Christian literature was produced in the 
African Church. Tertullian, the earliest writer, 
was a brilliant apologist who defended Christian 
doctrines against pagans as well as Marcionites. 
Minucius Felix shows much literary skill in his 
short treatises. Cyprian has left historical matter 
of great value. Augustine's "Confessions" and 
"City of God" have a foremost place among Chris- 
tian writings. In his treatise on the Trinity he 
has left a finished theological exposition. The many 
Scriptural quotations in the writings of the Afri- 
can Fathers are important in establishing the bib- 
lical text. There seem to have been a number of 
Latin versions in Africa.— C.E. 



AFRICAN METHODIST 



17 



AGATHANGELUS NOURRY 



African Methodist Episcopal Church, a com- 
munity of Methodist Episcopal Negroes organized 
in April, 1816, in Philadelphia under the leader- 
ship of Richard Allen. It is in close accord with 
the doctrines of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and autonomous in its government. Seven periodi- 
cals are published. Foreign missionary work is 
carried on in : West Africa, including Liberia 
and Sierra Leone ; South Africa, including the 
Transvaal, Orange Free State, Natal, and Cape 
Town; the West Indies; and Dutch and British 
Guiana, in South America. In 1916 there were: 
156 stations; 4 missionaries, with 152 native 
helpers; 121 organized churches, with 29,000 mem- 
bers; and 6 schools, with about 1000 members. 
There were in the United States in 1925: 7031 
ministers; 7241 churches; and 698,029 communi- 
cants. 

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, 
a body of Negroes first incorporated as the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1801, although sep- 
arate and distinct from the preceding African 
Methodist Episcopal Church. It was not until 1848 
that the name African Methodist Episcopal Zion 
Church was adopted. They are in close accord with 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, accepting the 
Apostle's Creed "and adhering strictly to the doc- 
trine of the new birth, regeneration followed by 
adoption, and entire sanctification." Four periodi- 
cals are published by them. Foreign missionary 
work is carried on in Liberia and the Gold Coast 
Colony, West Africa, and in South America. In 
1916 there were: 52 stations; 4 missionaries, with 
60 native helpers; 52 organized churches, with 
7000 members; and 10 schools, with 1870 pupils. 
In the United States in 1925 there were: 3460 
ministers; 3442 churches; and 490,000 commu- 
nicants. 

African Missions of Lyons, a congregation of 
secular priests founded at Lyons, France, 1856, by 
Mgr. de Bresillac and Fr. Planque; the latter re- 
constituted it in 1859; constitutions provisionally 
approved, 1890, and definitively, 1900; revised and 
again approved by Sacred Congregation of Propa- 
ganda, 1923 and 1928. The fiftieth anniversary of 
the foundation was celebrated in 1906. It has 
charge of the Vicariate Apostolic of Benin and the 
Prefectures Apostolic of the Ivory Coast, Gold 
Coast, Nigeria, Dahomey, and the Delta of the 
Nile Two Apostolic schools are at Clermont-Fer- 
rand and Cork, Ireland, and two preparatory 
schools at Nantes, France, and Keer-Maestricht, 
Holland. Statistics: 13 missions or vicariates; 135 
establishments; 685 religious (of whom 515 are 
missionaries) ; and 897 aspirants. The mother-house 
is at Lyons. 

African Rite, a development of the original 
Roman Kite; it is no longer used. 

Agabus, prophet mentioned in the Acts, 11 and 
21. According to tradition he was one of the sev- 
enty-two disciples, and was martyred at Antioch. 
Feast, 13 Feb. 

Agag, King of the Amalecites. For disobedience 
in sparing Agag after defeating the Amalecites, 
Saul was rejected in the name of God by Samuel, 
who hewed down Agag in his presence. 



Agape, ag'a-pe (Gr., love), meal taken in com- 
mon by primitive Christians, usually in connection 
with the Holy Eucharist; a development of the 
Jewish funeral feasts. It was never a universal in- 
stitution in the Church, led to excesses, and dis- 
appeared soon after the 5th century. — C.E. 

Agapetae (Gr., agapetai, beloved). (1) In the 
1st century, virgins consecrated to God by a vow 
of chastity, but so closely associated with laymen 
that abuses occurred which the Council of Ancyra 
(314) condemned. (2) Branch of the Gnostics 
(395).— C.E. 

Agapetus I (Gr., beloved), Saint, Pope (535- 
536), b. Italy; d. Constantinople. He confirmed 
decrees against the Arians, went to Constantinople 
in state to persuade Emperor Justinian to abandon 
his Italian projects, and while there deposed the 
heretical patriarch, Anthimus. The Orientals were 
impressed with his vigor and sanctity. Relics in 
St. Peter's, Rome. Feast, 25 Sept. — C.E.; Butler, 
20 Sept. 

Agapetus II, Pope (946-956), b. Rome. Elected 
to the papacy, 946, he labored to restore ecclesi- 
astical discipline, and supported Otto the Great in 
evangelization of the North, urging him with other 
nobles to invade Italy for the purpose of restoring 
order. He reigned well during a difficult period. — 
C.E.; Mann. 

Agapitus, Saint, martyr (259-274), d. Pales- 
trina, Italy. A youth of fifteen, he was thrown to 
the wild beasts in the arena, but was miraculously 
preserved; this miracle converted many; the judge 
therefore ordered the saint to be beheaded. Two 
churches in Palestrina are dedicated to him; his 
heroic martyrdom was an example to many early 
saints and martyrs. Invoked against colic. Relics 
at Palestrina and Besangon. Feast, R. Cal., 18 
Aug. — Butler. 

Agar (Heb., wandering), handmaid of Sara 
(Gen., 16; 21; Gal., 4) by whom Abraham begot 
Ismael. After the birth of Isaac, Sara caused 
the expulsion of Agar and her son from the dwell- 
ings of the patriarch. The unfortunate woman de- 
termined to abandon the boy to death in the wilder- 
ness but hearkened to the angel who foretold his 
people as the progenitor of a great people, the 
Ismaelites. (t. mcl. ) 

Agatha (Gr., good), Saint, virgin, martyr (c. 
251), b. Catania or Palermo, Sicily; d. Catania. 
According to her Latin Acts, which, however, are 
not older than the 6th century, she was annoyed 
by the Senator Quintianus with avowals of love; 
as his proposals were rejected, he had her subjected 
to various cruel tortures, including the cutting-off 
of her breasts; she died in prison. Her popular 
veneration was of very early date; her name occurs 
in the prayer, "Nobis quoque peccatoribus," in the 
Canon of the Mass, and in some places bread is 
blessed after the Consecration of the Mass on her 
feast and called Agatha bread. Patron of nurses. 
Emblems : embers, tongs, veil. Feast, R. Cal., 5 Feb. 
— C.E.; Butler. 

Agathangelus Nourry, Blessed (1598-1638), 
martyr, b. Vendome, France; d. Dibauria, Abys- 
sinia. He took the Capuchin habit at Le Mans, 
taught theology at Rennes, and was sent to Egypt 



AGATHANGELUS NOURRY 



18 



AGNESI 



to convert the Copts. With Bl. Cassianus he was 
imprisoned and stoned to death. Beatified, 1904. 
Feast, O.M. Cap., 7 Aug.; O.F.M., 11 Aug. 

Agatho (Gr., good), Saint, Pope (678-681), b. 
Sicily; d. Rome. During his pontificate Wilfrid, 
Bp. of York, was restored to his see, Theodore, Bp. 
of Ravenna, submitted to papal authority, and the 
Monothelite heresy was ended by the Sixth (Ecu- 
menical Council, held at Constantinople. Feast, 10 
Jan.— C.E.; Butler. 

Agaunum, Saint Maurice of, abbey nullius of 
Augustinian Canons in the Canton of Valais, 
Switzerland, site of the martyrdom of the Theban 
Legion. Little is known of its foundation, which 
was probably renewed by Sigismund, King of the 
Burgundians. About 522 Abbot Ambrosius intro- 
duced the "Perpetual Psalmody," as practised by 
the Accemetse. Among its treasures is the famous 
chasse (reliquary) decorated with glass mosaic. 
Since 1840 its abbots have also been titular bish- 
ops of Bethlehem (Annuaire pontifical catholique, 
1911, 595).— C.E. 

Age, Canonical, the age fixed by canon law at 
which the Church permits or requires her members 
to receive the sacraments, enjoins observance of the 
rules of fasting and abstinence, determines for en- 
trance into the religious state, for making simple 
or solemn vows, holding ecclesiastical offices, or 
receiving benefices. This age is given in the articles 
on these subjects. — C.E.; Woywod. (ed.) 

Age, Impediment of, means that a party is too 
young for valid matrimony. See Youth, Impedi- 
ment of. 

Aged Poor Society. Apart from the benevolent 
activities still carried on by this old London Cath- 
olic charity, its survival serves as a link between 
some of the more widely known charities of today 
and those of the penal times when it was a capital 
offense for a priest to say Mass. The Report issued 
for the year 1820 quaintly reminded its supporters 
that, "The Aged Poor Society was instituted about 
the year 1708 ... it has met with the approbation 
and support of many persons equally distinguished 
for piety and learning." Its list of subscribers in 
the past includes such names as Poynter, Challoner, 
Talbot, Bramston, Griffith, Wiseman, and Manning. 
Low cost of administration is a characteristic of 
the society. Among other benevolent works, the so- 
ciety grants pensions of £26 per annum to 40 aged 
and necessitous Catholics who must be persons 
"reduced from a superior station of society." The 
same condition applies to those who are admitted 
to almshouses conducted by the society at Hammer- 
smith, some of whom are also eligible for an endow- 
ment of £20 a year. — Ratton, Historic Records of 
the Aged Poor Society, Lond., 1915. (e. v. w.) 

Age of Reason, that time of life at which one 
begins to distinguish clearly between right and 
wrong, to have a sense of obligation, and to incur 
moral responsibility; it is generally about the age 
of seven. 

Age of Reason, in history, period of the French 
Revolution inaugurated 10 Nov., 1793, when an 
actress, typifying the "Goddess of Reason," was 
enthroned upon the high altar of Notre Dame 
Cathedral, Paris; and ending when the Law of 



21 Feb., 1795, restored some measure of religious 
liberty. Thomas Paine wrote his "Age of Reason" 
in a French prison, 1794; it is a rough-and-ready 
presentment of Deism. 

Aggeus, tenth among the minor prophets of the 
O.T., came forward, 520 B.C. in the name of the 
Lord, to rebuke the apathy of the Jews in build- 
ing the second Temple. The Book of Aggeus is 
made up of four prophetic utterances: It urges the 
Jews to resume the work of rearing the Temple; 
foretells that the new house which then appears 
so poor in comparison with the former Temple of 
Solomon will one day be incomparably more glori- 
ous; declares that as long as God's House is not 
rebuilt the life of the Jews will be tainted and 
blasted; tells of the Divine favor which, in the 
approaching overthrow of the heathen nations, will 
be bestowed on Zorobabel, the representative of the 
royal house of David. — C.E. 

Aggressor, Unjust, one who attacks another 
physically without due cause; the party who is un- 
justly attacked may lawfully use whatever degree 
of force is necessary to protect himself adequately. 

Agios O Theos (Gr., O Holy God), opening 
words of an invocation, doxology, or hymn, sung 
in the Roman liturgy during the Improperia, or 
Reproaches, at the Veneration of the Cross, Good 
Friday. In the Greek liturgy, it is sung at all 
canonical hours, and during the long Mass-service. 
—C.E. 

Aglipay, Gregoeio (c. 1864 — ), schismatic, b. 
Manila, Philippine Islands. He was ordained, 1890, 
and excommunicated at the time of the Philippine 
insurrection (1899-1901). He was an officer of the 
insurgents against the United States troops and 
when obliged to surrender organized about 21 
priests in a movement to protect the rights of the 
native clergy, seized many churches, and won over 
many people. The movement was more political 
than heretical. He established himself as "Pontifex 
Maximus" of the "Independent Catholic Church of 
the Philippines/' 1902, but in 1907 he began to 
lose his prestige and the schism, soon disap- 
peared. 

Agnellus, Saint, abbot (d. 695), b. Naple3. 
Elected Abbot of St. Gaudiosa, near Naples, he 
became the city's patron during Saracen invasions. 
Relics at Naples in his church, and in cathedral 
of Lucca. Feast, 14 Dec. 

Agnellus of Pisa, Blessed (1195-1236), Friar 
Minor, b. Pisa, Italy; d. Oxford, England. He was 
sent to England by St. Francis of Assisi to found 
the English Franciscan province, and his school 
for friars at Oxford had an important share in 
the development of the university. Feast, O.F.M., 
7 May.— C.E. 

Agnesi, Maria Gaetana (1718-99), mathema- 
tician, b. and d. Milan. At 13 she had mastered 
so many languages that she was called the "Walk- 
ing Polyglot." Her treatises on mathematics were 
well received by the foremost mathematicians. The 
plane curve known as versiera is also called the 
"Witch of Agnesi." She was appointed by Benedict 
XIV to teach mathematics at Bologna. After sev- 
eral years as director of the Hospice Trivulzio of 
the Blue Nuns at Milan she joined the order. — C.E. 



AGNES OF ASSISI 



19 



AGRAPHA 



Agnes of Assisi (Gr., agnos, lamb), Saint, ab- 
bess (c. 1198-1253), b. Assisi; d. there. She was a 
younger sister of St. Clare, and in spite of opposi- 
tion adopted a life of poverty and was chosen by 
St. Francis to found and govern a community of 
Poor Clares at Monticelli, near Florence. From there 
she established several monasteries in the north of 
Italy. Relics in church of St. Clare, Assisi. Feast, 
10 Nov.— C.E. 

Agnes of Bohemia (Agnes of Prague), Blessed, 
abbess (c. 1200-81), b. Prague; d. there. Daughter 
of Ottocar, King of Bohemia, she was betrothed 
to Frederick II, Emperor of Germany, but availed 
herself of her canonical rights to enter the cloister. 
She became a Poor Clare in the monastery of St. 
Saviour, Prague, which she had erected, and of 
which she became abbess. Feast, 2 March. — C.E. 

Agnes of Montepulciano, Saint, prioress (c. 
1268-1317), b. near Montepulciano, Italy; d. there. 
She entered a monastery at nine, became prioress 
at fifteen, and founded a Dominican convent at 
Montepulciano, which she governed until her death. 
Canonized, 1726. Relics at Orvieto. Feast, 20 April. 
— C.E.; Butler. 

Agnes of Rome, Saint, virgin, martyr (c. 304), 
b. Rome; d. there. Details of her martyrdom vary, 

but it is generally 
agreed that she was 
about twelve years 
of age and that she 
was tortured by fire 
or decapitated. Her 
virginity and her- 
oism are renowned, 
and her name oc- 
curs in the prayer 
"Nobis quoque pec- 
catoribus," in the 
Canon of the Mass. 
The catacombs of 
St. Agnes on the Via 
Nomentana grew up 
around her crypt 
there, on a small piece of property owned by her 
family. Two lambs blessed on her feast supply part 
of the wool of the pallia. Patron of Children of 
Mary. Emblems: lamb, butcher. Feast, R. Cal., 21 
Jan., and a second, 28 Jan. — C.E.; Butler. 

Agnetz (Lat., agnus, lamb), Slavonic word for 
the square portion of bread cut from the first loaf 
in preparation for Mass, according to the Greek 
Rite. 

Agnoetae, ag'no-e-ta (Gr., ignorant of), those 
who deny the omniscience of either God or Christ; 
originally Monophysites (believers in one nature 
only in Christ) .—C.E. 

Agnosticism, a philosophical theory that it is 
impossible to arrive at a knowledge of reality, 
either because it is of its nature unknowable or 
because the human mind is unable to apprehend it. 
Its chief use is to deny that human reason can 
arrive at a knowledge of God and some truths of 
religion. This is opposed to Catholic Faith. The 
Vatican Council declares that "God, the beginning 
and end of all, can by the natural light of human 
reason, be known with certainty from the works 




ST. AGNES OF ROME 




AGNUS DEI 



of creation." The intention of the council was to 
reassert the historic claim of Christianity to be in 
accord with reason and to condemn the theory that 
all knowledge of God is derived from a primi- 
tive revelation. — C.E.; U.K.; Sheen, God and In. 
telligence, Lond., 1925; Brosnan, God and Reason, 
N. Y., 1925. 

Agnus Dei. (1) A prayer in the Mass (see 
Lamb of God). (2) A sacramental, consisting of a 
small piece of wax, blessed by the pope. It is a 
symbol of the "Lamb of God," the Saviour. It is 
usually oval in shape, impressed with the figure of 
a lamb bearing a banner; on the 
reverse side is the coat-of-arms 
of the pope. After being blessed, 
it is often subdivided into small 
pieces, and each is enclosed in 
a leather case. The prayers used 
by the pope in blessing it show 
that it is intended as a protec- 
tion against Satan, sickness, 
tempests, temptations, and sudden death, and for 
women expecting motherhood. It is usually worn 
suspended from the neck, but may be carried in any 
other manner. No indulgences are attached to it, 
and there is no obligation to use it. Its history goes 
back possibly to the 4th century. — C.E.; Lambing, 
The Sacramentals of the Holy Catholic Church, 
N. Y., 1907. (J. f. s.) 

Agony of Christ. The word agony is used only 
once in Scripture, in Luke, 22, 43, to designate the 
anguish of Christ in the Garden of Gethsemani. The 
incident is narrated also in Matthew and Mark, but 
only Luke mentions the sweat of blood and the 
visitation of the angel. The sweat of blood is under- 
stood literally by almost all Catholic interpreters; 
medical testimony has been alleged that such a 
phenomenon, though rare, is neither impossible nor 
preternatural. — C.E. 

Agra, Archdiocese of, British India, comprises 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Northwest 
Frontier Province, parts of Bengal and Central 
Provinces, and Central India Agency; area, 91,843 
sq. m.; suffragan sees, Ajmir and Allahabad; en- 
trusted to the Capuchins. Fr. Felix was appointed 
missionary Apostolic, 1704. Under vicars Apostolic, 
1820-86, the region was then constituted an arch- 
diocese. Princess Sumroo, ruler over the city of 
Sardana (United Provinces) and a convert from 
Mohammedanism, notably advanced the cause of 
Catholicism within her domain. She secured the 
appointment of one of the mission priests of her 
territory to the episcopal dignity, and is known for 
her numerous charities. Archbishops: Michael Ja- 
copi (1886-91); Emmanuel Van Den Bosch (1892- 
98) ; Charles Gentili (1898-1916) ; Raphael Bernac- 
chioni (1917). Churches, 49; priests, secular, 16; 
priests, regular, 38; religious women, 228; col- 
leges, 2; high schools, 5; primary schools, 16; in- 
stitutions, 8; Catholics, 10,016. 

Agrapha, sayings (not discourses) attributed to 
Our Lord that have come down to us through 
channels outside the canonical Gospels, one, for 
instance, in Acts, 20, 35: "Remember the word of 
the Lord Jesus, how He said: It is a more blessed 
thing to give, rather than to receive." — C.E. 



AGREDA 



20 



AIX-LA-CHAPELLE 



Agreda, a-gra/da, Maria de, or Maria of Jesus 
(1602-65), Discalced Franciscan nun, superior of 
convent of Agreda. Her book, "The Mystical City 
of God, the Divine History of the Virgin Mother 
of God," provoked a bitter controversy over its 
claim to be a revelation. It was condemned by the 
Roman Inquisition, 1681, and by the Sorbonne, 
1696; the Spanish Inquisition had previously pro- 
nounced in its favor. — C.E. 

Agricius, Saint (fl. c. 335), Bp. of Trier. Tra- 
dition claims that he brought there the Holy 
Coat and other famous relics of Trier; under 
him its schools became famous. Feast, 13 Jan. — 
C.E. 

Agricola (Bauer), Georg (1494-1555), miner- 
alogist and historian, b. Glauchau, Germany; d. 
Chemnitz. He studied in the mining district of 
Chemnitz, where he was also Saxon historiographer, 
and defended Catholicism amidst a Protestant so- 
ciety. His most important work describes contem- 
porary mining and smelting methods. He is called 
the "Father of Mineralogy." — C.E.; U.K. 

Aherne, Cornelius (1861-1929), pioneer of St. 
Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, b. Bally- 
hooly, Ireland; d. London. Pie was ordained in 1889, 
and was immediately appointed professor of science 
and natural philosophy at the Mill Hill College. 
Named rector, 1904, he rilled this post until 1929. 
A man of profound learning, Jiis humility and 
distaste for popular acclaim deterred him from 
any display of his knowledge. He wrote on the 
Sacred Scriptures for the Catholic Encyclopedia, 
and contributed to the "Dublin Review" and "Irish 
Ecclesiastical Record." 

Ahriman, modern Persian form of Anro Mai- 
nyus, evil spirit of Zoroastrian Iranians and Parsees. 
Aidan or Aediian, a/dan, Saint (d. 651), apos- 
tle of Northumbria ; d. Bamborough, England. 
He resigned the Bishopric of Clogher to become a 

monk at Iona. First 
Bp. of Lindisfarne, 
lie helped Oswald to 
convert Northumbria. 
Represented in art 
with a stag crouching 
at his feet. Relics at 
Lindisfarne. Feast, 31 
Aug.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Aiguillon, a-gwe- 
yon', Marie de Vign- 
erot de pontcour- 
l ay, Duchess of 
(1604-75), niece of 
Card. Richelieu. She 
married Antoine, Sieur 
de Combalet, 1620. 
Left a widow, 1622, 
she wished to be a nun, but was obliged to do the 
honors of Richelieu's palace, and was created Duch- 
ess of Aiguillon, 1638. She busied herself with dis- 
tributing charity, erecting churches, convents, semi- 
naries, and hospitals, and patronizing lavishly the 
enterprises of Vincent de Paul. She caused the 
Hotel-Dieu at Quebec to be erected and with Bl. 
Olier conceived the plan of founding Montreal. After 
Richelieu's death she carried out his designs for 




DUCHESS OF AIGUILLON 



the completion of the Sorbonne and the National 
Library. — C.E. 

Aikenhead, Mary (1787-1858), foundress of 
Irish Sisters of Charity, b. Cork; d. Dublin. She 
embraced Catholicism in 1802 and became active 
in charitable work. When she wished to enter the 
religious life Abp. Murray of Dublin desired her to 
found a congregation of the Sisters of Charity in 
Ireland. This she did, 1815, assuming the name of 
Sister Mary Augustine. As superior-general she 
directed her Sisters in their heroic work during the 
Asiatic cholera plague of 1832 in Dublin and Cork. 
At her death the order embraced ten institutions, 
besides missions and other charitable enterprises. — 
C.E.; Atkinson, Mary Aikenhead, Dub., 1882. 

Ailbe, Saint (d. c. 541), Bp. of Emly, Ireland. 
According to legend, he was, in his infancy, nursed 
by wolves. He is believed to have been a disciple of 
St. Patrick. Feast, 12 Sept.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Ailleboust, i-ye-boost, Louis d', Sieur de Cou- 
langes (d. 1660), third Governor of Canada, b. 
France; d. Montreal. He was associated in the 
foundation of Montreal, and in 1648 became Gov- 
ernor-General of Canada. During his term of office 
the Huron missions were destroyed. He later en- 
gaged in farming on lands granted him near Mon- 
treal and induced the Sulpicians to come there. He 
laid the first stone of the church of St. Anne de 
Beaupre. — C.E. 

— Barbe d' (d. 1658), wife of preceding, b. France; 
d. Quebec. With her husband in Canada she dis- 
tinguished herself by good works, taught Algonquin 
to the Sulpicians, and helped to found the Confra- 
ternity of the Holy Family. She died at the Hotel- 
Dieu, Quebec, to which she had given her fortune. 
—C.E. 

Aillon, i'yon (Allion), Joseph de la Roche d' 
(d. 1656), Recollect missionary. He landed at Que- 
bec, 1625; was among the Hurons, 1626; passed to 
the Neutral Nation, remaining with them three 
months, barely escaping death; returned to the 
Hurons; and published an account of his sojourn 
amongst the Neutrals, describing their country and 
customs. 

Air Machine Blessing, a formula for blessing 
air machines, approved by the Congregation of 
Rites, 24 March, 1920, and inserted in the Roman 
Ritual, as follows: "O God who hast ordained all 
things for Thine own, and devised all the elements 
of this world for the human race; bless, we beseech 
Thee, this machine consigned to the air; that it 
may serve for the praise and glory of Thy Name 
and, free from all injury and danger, expedite 
human interests and foster heavenly aspirations in 
the minds of all who use it. Through Christ Our 
Lord, Amen." 

Aisle, in architecture, one of the divisions of a 
church, separated from the nave by rows of col- 
umns. In Gothic buildings, the roofs of the aisle 
are usually lower than that of the nave. Occa- 
sionally there is an upper story. Sometimes the 
aisles stop at the transepts, and often they are 
continued around the apse. The term is popularly 
used to describe passages between pews. 

Aix=Ia=ChapelIe (Ger., Aachen; Lat., Aquis- 
granum), city, Germany, noted for healing springs. 



AIX-LA-CHAPELLE 



21 



ALAMO 



It was probably the birthplace of Charlemagne. The 
octagonal "chapel," from which the city is named, 
was built 796-804 and forms the nave of the 
cathedral; under its dome is the tomb of Charle- 
magne, which was found 1000 and contained his 
body imperially robed and seated on a marble 
throne. This throne was used at the coronations of 
32 emperors, and still exists. Charlemagne's re- 
mains are now in the Hun- 
garian Chapel, where are also 
preserved four great relics, ex- 
hibited every seven years : the 
Blessed Virgin's cloak; swad- 
dling-clothes of the Infant 
Jesus; loin-cloth of Christ; and 
the cloth in which was wrapped 
St. John the Baptist's head. 
These were occasions of pil- 
grimages in the Middle Ages. 
Among numerous churches, St. 
Foillan's and St. Paul's are 
noteworthy. Aix was a bish- 
opric, suffragan of Mechlin 
1801-21; it still has a collegiate 
chapter, with provost and six 
canons, and is a deanery of 
the Archdiocese of Cologne. 
Pop., 145,748 (great majority, 
Catholics ) . 

Synods and Councils: 789, Charlemagne pro- 
claimed a collection of laws that acquired canonical 
authority; 799, Felix, Bp. of Urgel, acknowledged 
himself overcome by Alcuin and renounced Adop- 
tionism; 809, the dogma of the procession of the 
Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son was de- 
fended; 816, "Regula Aquensis" (Rules of Aix) for 
reform of monastic life were promulgated and the 
Rule of St. Benedict revised; 860-862, three synods 
considered the divorce of Lothaire II from Theut- 
berga. The schismatic council (1166), approved by 
Antipope Paschal III, decreed the canonization of 
Charlemagne. — C.E. ; U.K. 

Aix=Marseilles, University of, France, founded 
by papal Bull, 1407; closed 1789; re-established 
1896 as a state institution. It is situated in Mar- 
seilles except for the faculties of law and letters 
which are maintained at Aix, Bouches-du-Rhone. 

Ajmir, Diocese of, central British India, 
founded 1913, formerly the Prefecture Apostolic of 
Rajputana, founded 1892; area, 158,100 sq. m.; suf- 
fragan of Agra; entrusted to the Capuchins. First 
bishop, Fortunatus Caumont. Churches, 20; priests, 
secular, 2 ; priests, regular, 35 ; high schools, 7 ; 
primary schools, 10; institutions, 11; Catholics, 
7029. 

A Kempis, Thomas (1380-1471), author of the 
"Imitation of Christ," b. Kempen, Germany; d. 
Mount St. Agnes, Zwolle, Switzerland. A Canon 
Regular, his principal occupation was copying works 
of piety, particularly the Bible.— C.E., XIV, 661. 

Alabama, the 28th state of the United States in 
size, the 18th in population, and the 22nd to be 
admitted to the Union (14 Dec, 1819) ; area, 51,998 
sq. m.; pop. (1920), 2,348,174; Catholics (1928), 
42,110. In 1519 Mass was celebrated at Mobile Bay 
by missionaries accompanying the Pineda expedi- 




THE ALAMO 



tion. When Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, made 
a settlement at Old Biloxi, Miss., in 1699, he was 
accompanied by Fr. Paul du Ru, S.J., and by Fr. 
Anastase Douay, a Recollect who had come from 
France with La Salle in 1684. They were joined by 
Fr. Antoine Davion, missionary to the Indians from 
the Seminary of Foreign Missions at Quebec, and 
when the settlement had been removed to Fort 
Louis, or Old Mobile, in Ala- 
bama, in 1702, the missionaries 
were assisted by another Jes- 
uit, Fr. Pierre Donge. In 1704 
the parish church of Mobile 
was founded at Fort Louis with 
Fr. H>nri Roulleaux de la 
Vente of the Foreign Missions, 
installed as first pastor by Fr. 
Davion. Fort Louis proving an 
unsuitable site, the colony was 
established at the present Mo- 
bile in 1711. The Diocese of 
Mobile (q.v. ), which comprises 
the state, includes also western 
Florida. The Catholic origin of 
place-names of the state is 
shown in the following: Holy 
Trinity, St. Bernard, St. Clair, 
St. Clair Springs, St. Elmo, St. 
Stephens, Trinity. The U. S. Religious Census of 
1916 gave the following statistics for church meim 
bership in Alabama: 

37,482 

311,103 

207,603 

167,938 

51,284 

42,658 

34,587 

26,933 

20,943 

20,428 

10,069 

78,437 

Total Church Membership 1,009,465 

— C.E.; U.K.; Shea. 

Alabaster, a fine-grained variety of gypsum, 
much used for ornamental articles. The ancients 
used it for vases which held unguents, in the be- 
lief that it preserved them; hence the vases were 
called "alabasters," even when made of other ma- 
terial. Such was the "alabaster box of ointments," 
with which Mary Magdalene anointed the Saviour. 
—C.E. 

A la is, Peace of, treaty, signed, 1629, between the 
royal forces and the Huguenots of France by which 
the wars of religion were ended. The Edict of 
Nantes was renewed, an amnesty was granted, and 
the cities taken from the Huguenots. 

Alamo, The, Franciscan mission founded at San 
Pedro Springs, Texas, c. 1718, under the name of 
San Antonio de Valera. In 1732 it was moved to 
the military plaza of San Antonio, Texas, and in 
1744 to its present site, and renamed the Alamo. 
The buildings consisted of a church, hospital, and 
convent with walled enclosure. In the war for 
Texan independence it was valiantly defended by a 
small garrison against a large Mexican force under 
Santa Anna (1836); hence the slogan "Remember 
the Alamo." 



Catholic Church 

National Baptist Convention 

Southern Baptist Convention 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

African MeLhodist Episcopal Zion Church . 
African Methodist Episcopal Church .... 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church.... 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

Churches of Christ 

Presbyterian Church in the U.S 

Protestant Episcopal Church 

All Other Denominations 



ALAN OF TEWKESBURY 



22 



ALBANIA 



Alan of Tewkesbury (d. 1202), English Bene- 
dictine abbot and writer. A supporter of St. Thomas 
Becket in his struggle with Henry II, he was re- 
moved from Canterbury to Tewkesbury. He wrote 
the life of St. Thomas.— C.E. 

Alan of Walsingham (d. c. 1364), monk and 
architect. He designed and built several chapels in 
Ely cathedral, England, and also rebuilt the great 
tower. His work is unique and beautiful. — C.E. 

Alanus de Rupe or Alain de la Roche (c. 
1428-75), Dominican theologian, b. probably Brit- 
tany; d. Zwolle, Netherlands. By his preaching he 
restored the devotion of the Rosary throughout 
northern France and the Low Countries, and he es- 
tablished many Rosary confraternities. His writings 
were published posthumously. — C.E. 

Alaric (c. 370-410), King of the Visigoths, b. on 
an island in the Danube; d. Cosenza, Italy. He was 
a general of the Gothic irregulars under the Roman 
Emperor Theodosius, and at death of the latter was 
elected king. In 396 he invaded Greece, and was 
given the prefecture of Illyricum. He overran Italy, 
400, but was forced by Stilicho to retire to Illyri- 
cum, 403. On his second invasion, he sacked Rome, 
despite the entreaties of Innocent I, but treated the 
churches and inhabitants with respect. He married 
Galla Placida at Narbo, 417, became master of 
Italy, and was about to invade Africa when he died. 

Alascans, foreign Protestants in London in the 
reign of Edward VI, named from John a Lasco, 
Polish Protestant refugee, superintendent of the 
foreign congregation there, 1550. 

Alaska, territory of the United States, in 
North America, governed by Congress, and its 
local legislative assembly; area, 590,884 sq. m. ; 
pop., 55,036. Christianity was introduced into 
Alaska by the Russians in 1794, but prior to its 
purchase by the United States, nc Catholic priest 
had settled there. In 1871 Bp. Clut of the Athabas- 
can-MacKenzie district, with an Oblate priest, Fr. 
Lecorre, wintered at Fort Yukon, and journeyed 
down the Yukon River to Nuklukhoyit. They 
preached to Ten'a and Eskimos, making many con- 
versions. Bp. Clut returned, leaving Fr. Lecorre 
with a mission at St. Michael. In 1878 Fr. Althoff 
established a mission at Wrangel, and visited the 
Cassiar country and the coast. He was assisted by 
Fr. Heynen at Sitka. Of the nursing Sisters of 
St. Ann who came to Juneau in 1886, Sisters 
M. Zeno, M. Bonsecours, and M. Victor deserve 
special mention. Charles John Seghers, Abp. of 
Victoria, had taken up the evangelization of 
Alaska, and with two Jesuits, Frs. Paschal Tosi 
and Aloysius Robaut, and a man named Fuller, 
crossed Chilcoot Pass. The Jesuits remained at the 
mouth of the Stewart River, while the archbishop 
and Fuller proceeded to Nulato. Fuller, in a fit 
of insanity, shot and killed Abp. Seghers. This 
tragedy retarded missionary work in Alaska. In 
1894 Alaska became a prefecture Apostolic, and in 
1916 a vicariate Apostolic. Jesuits reside at Ju- 
neau, Douglas, Fairbanks, Nome, Skagway, St. 
Michael, and Seward; and missions for whites are 
at Ketchikan, Wrangel, Eagle City, Circle City, 
Fort Yukon, Forty Mile Post, Golden City, Council 
City, Sitka, Haines, Valdez, Chenilia, Kliketari, 




Pastolik, Picmetallic, and Stebben. Ten'a missions 
are at Koserefsky and Nulato, and the Eskimos in 
the Nome district are ministered to by the Jesuits. 
Alaska and the Aleutian Islands comprise the Vi- 
cariate Apostolic of Alaska, with 44 churches, 3 
secular priests, 20 Jesuit Fathers, 49 nuns, 9 
schools, 7 charitable institutions, and a Catholic 
population of 9500. — H. Bancroft, History of 
Alaska, San Francisco, 1921; C.E.; U.K. 

Alb (Lat., albus, white). (1) A full-length 
white linen vestment used at Mass, secured by a 
girdle; an adaptation of the 
tunic men wore at the time of 
its adoption in the 4th century. 
It is blessed before using. The 
alb symbolizes the garment in 
which Herod had Our Lord 
clothed, and the purity of soul 
with which the Holy Sacrifice 
should be offered. Putting it on, 
the priest says : "Make me white, 
O Lord, and cleanse my heart, 
that, made white, by the Blood 
of the Lamb, I may be able to 
serve Thee." (2) A white garment worn by newly- 
baptized persons from Holy Saturday until Low 
Sunday, called for this reason "Sunday in white." — 
C.E.; MacMahon, Liturgical Catechism, Dub., 1226. 

(J. F. S.) 

Alban (Lat., white), Saint, one of Britain's 
first martyrs (c. 304), suffered at Verulamium 
(since called St. Alban's). According to legend, he 
was converted from paganism by a cleric, Amphi- 
balus, whom he sheltered in his house. Alban, dis- 
guised in the cleric's cloak, gave himself up to the 
authorities, was scourged, and beheaded. Feast, 22 
June. — C.E.; Butler. 

Alban, Epscop (Bishop of Alban), title of 
the Bp. of St. Andrews, Primate of the Pictish 
Kingdom of Alban, in Scotland in the 10th century. 

Albanel, Charles d' (1616-96), Jesuit mission- 
ary, b. Auvergne, France; d. Sault Ste. Marie, 
Canada. He joined the Canadian Mission, 1649; 
spent four winters among the Montagnais Indians; 
accompanied De Tracy's expedition against the Iro- 
quois, 1666; and accompanied St. Simon to Hudson 
Bay, 1671-72, to take possession for the French 
King, his "Journal" of this expedition being in the 
"Jesuit Relations" (1672). On a second journey 
thither in 1674, he was captured by the English 
and sent back to Europe. In 1676 he returned to 
Canada, worked on the Ottawa missions, and was 
superior at Green Bay (De Pere, Wis.), 1677-78. 

Albania, republic in the southwestern part of 
the Balkan Peninsula; area, 17,374 sq. m. ; est. pop., 
831,877, over two-thirds Mohammedan, the remain- 
der Catholic and Orthodox. The Albanians were 
subjugated by Rome in the Illyrian wars and prob- 
ably received Christianity through the Roman trad- 
ers. According to tradition, the first bishop of the 
country was St. Csesarius, one of the seventy-two 
disciples; his successor, St. Astius, was martyred 
under Trajan, a.D. 100. The country was overrun 
by Turks in the 14th century, and in the 15th cen- 
tury became entirely Mohammedan, though even 
among the Moslems Christian heroes are venerated 



ALBANIA 



23 



ALBERTUS MAGNUS 



and Christian traditions preserved, for apostasy 
was mainly the result of inadequate training and 
unwillingness to suffer exile. One prominent Cath- 
olic tribe, the Miridites, succeeded in practising 
their religion and at the same time serving as the 
sultan's faithful bodyguard. The Catholic Church 
administration is thus divided: 

Year Chs. Pp. Srs. Caths. 

Scutari, A 386 44 62 . . 34,820 

Alessio, D c.340 13 12 5 8,357 

Pulati, D 877 9 14 . . 14,260 

Durazzo, A 1062 51 20 . . 20,120 

Sappa, D 58 46 17 . . 12,500 

St. Alexander of Orosci, A.N. 1888 33 13 . . 25,000 

— C.E.; U.K. 

Alban of Mainz, Saint, 4th-century martyr. 
He came from Naxos to Milan, whence he set out 
to evangelize the Gauls, and was probably massa- 
cred by the Huns at Mainz. Invoked against epi- 
lepsy, gravel, and hernia. Feast, 21 June. 

Albany, capital of New York State, originally 
named Fort Orange, founded by Walloon settlers, 
1623. In its earliest period the missions included 
in its territory were under the tutelage of Quebec 
and were ministered to by the Jesuits, among them 
Bl. Isaac Jogues. Under the Dutch regime there 
were few Catholic inhabitants but after its trans- 
fer to Great Britain their number was greatly 
augmented. In 1667 Catholics from the Netherlands 
settled there and were ministered to by the Fran- 
ciscan, Fr. Hennepin. The city became the charge 
of John Carroll, Bp. of Baltimore, in 1790, and in 
1797 St. Mary's church, the first church in the city 
and diocese, was begun and the corner-stone laid by 
Thomas Barry, a trustee. The first meeting to dis- 
cuss the plans was held in the home of James 
Cassidy, grandfather of William Cassidy, editor of 
the "Albany Argus." It became the episcopal resi- 
dence for the Diocese of Albany, 1847, and its first 
bishop, John McCloskey, utilized the old St. Mary's 
as a cathedral. A new cathedral, dedicated to the 
Immaculate Conception, was begun and dedicated 
by Abp. Hughes, 21 Nov., 1852. Bp. McCloskey 
erected other churches to accommodate the increase 
in immigration which had been brought about by 
the construction of the Erie Canal, and, to provide 
for Catholic education, installed the Religious of 
the Sacred Heart. His successor Bp. John J. Con- 
roy, erected St. Joseph's church, established a home 
for the aged in care of the Little Sisters of the 
Poor, and orphanages under the direction of the 
Sisters of Charity and the Christian Brothers. He 
also contributed greatly to the advancement of 
Catholic education. During the episcopacy of Bp. 
Francis McNeirny, the cathedral was enlarged and 
an apse, new sacristies, and a tower were added. 
The establishment of several new churches and 
schools followed rapidly and in 1929 numbered 20 
and 16 respectively. Charitable institutions in the 
city include St. Peter's Hospital, in charge of the 
Sisters of Mercy, House of the Good Shepherd, for 
delinquent females and for the educating and re- 
forming of wayward children, St. Vincent's Female 
Orphan Asylum under the supervision of the Sis- 
ters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, who also 
have under their care a maternity hospital and 
infant home, and two day nurseries in care of the 



Sisters of Mercy and the Sisters of St. Joseph. 
Educational institutions in addition to parochial 
schools include the College of St. Pose conducted 
by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, and the 
Christian Brothers Academy. — C.E. 

Albany, Diocese of, New York, embraces coun- 
ties of Albany, Columbia, Delaware, Fulton, Greene, 
Montgomery, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenec- 
tady, Schoharie, Warren, and Washington, and 
parts of Herkimer and Hamilton counties; area, 
10,419 sq. m. ; suffragan of New York. It was the 
scene of the early missionary labors of Bl. Isaac 
Jogues and his companions, martyred within its 
confines. The cathedral was built by the first bishop, 
John McCloskey (1847-64), later cardinal. Succeed- 
ing bishops: John Conroy (1865-77); Francis Mc- 
Neirny (1877-94); Thomas Burke (1894-1915); 
Thomas Cusack (1915-18); Edmund Gibbons 
(1919). Churches, 298; priests, secular, 301; priests, 
regular, 63 ; religious women, 1206 ; college, 1 ; 
seminary, 1 ; high schools, 20 ; primary schools, 67 ; 
students in parochial schools, 22,887; institutions, 
16; Catholics, 224,500. 

Albendorf, village in district of Breslau, Silesia; 
pop., 1513, all Catholics. Its shrine with miraculous 
image of the Virgin is annually visited by thou- 
sands of pilgrims. The church, built 1730, is 
modeled after the Temple of Jerusalem. 

Albert (Teut., nobly bright) or Albrecht (d. 
1229), Bp. of Riga, apostle of Livonia. Organizing 
a crusade to re-Christianize the inhabitants of Li- 
vonia, he sailed up the Duna with 23 ships, and 
founded the city of Riga, 1200. He established the 
Knights of the Sword and completed the conver- 
sion of the country by 1206. — C.E. 

Alberta University Catholic College, Ed- 
monton, Alberta ; conducted by the Christian Broth- 
ers; affiliated with the University of Alberta; 
faculties of arts, sciences, history, and philosophy; 
professors, 3; students, 109. 

Albert of Brandenburg (1490-1545), cardinal 
and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. The son of 
Elector John, "the Cicero" of Brandenburg, he be- 
came Abp. of Magdeburg, 1513, Abp. of Mainz, 
1514, and cardinal-priest, 1518. Having been en- 
trusted with the publication of the Indulgence is- 
sued by Leo X, he employed Tetzel to do the preach- 
ing. To Albert, Luther addressed his protest. In his 
youth worldly and overfond of humanistic studies, 
he reformed and became a defender of the Faith in 
Germany. — C.E. 

Albert of Brandenburg=Ansbach (1490-1568), 
1st Duke of Prussia, b. Ansbach, Bavaria; d. Tap- 
inu, East Prussia. Elected grand-master of the 
Teutonic Order, 1510, he seized Church property to 
defray the expenses of a disastrous war with Po- 
land (1519-21). He met Luther (1522-23), on 
whose advice he secularized the order, and with 
the entire chapter and a majority of the knights 
adopted Lutheranism. By the Treaty of Cracow, 
1525, with Sigismund, King of Poland, the lands 
of the order became a fief of Poland vested in 
Albert, on whom Sigismund conferred the title of 
Duke of Prussia. 

Albertus Magnus, Blessed (c. 1206-80), Do- 
minican philosopher, theologian, and scientist, b. 



ALBERTUS MAGNUS 



24 



ALDHELM 



Lauingen, Swabia ; d. Cologne, Germany. He taught 
at Cologne and Paris, where he had Thomas Aquinas 
among his pupils, and compiled an encyclopedia 
of the learning of his day. His study of the nat- 
ural sciences was in advance of his time. Feast, 
15 Nov.— C.E. 

Albertus Magnus College, New Haven, Conn., 
founded 1925; conducted by the Dominican Sisters; 
college of arts and sciences; professors, 21; stu- 
dents, 74; degrees conferred in 1929, 22. 

Albigenses, a neo-Manichaean sect, associated 
with the Catharist (Puritan) movement, that flour- 
ished in southern France in the 12th and 13th 
centuries. They believed in a good spirit who 
created the spiritual, and in an evil spirit who 
created the material world, including the human 
body, which is therefore under his control. The good 
spirit created the soul but the evil one imprisoned 
it in the body, which is evil from its source. To 
deliver souls from this evil and punishment, the 
good spirit, God, sent Jesus Christ who is only 
a creature. Since the body is evil He could assume 
only a celestial one. They commended suicide espe- 
cially by starvation, their endura, and in general 
the extinction of human life, and advocated absten- 
tion from marriage, preferring concubinage as less 
evil. As they were a menace to governments and 
society generally, and resisted all attempts at their 
conversion, a crusade was organized by barons 
from France, Germany, and Belgium against Ray- 
mond VI, Count of Toulouse, who favored them. 
After defeating them with great carnage the barons, 
contrary to the designs of Pope Innocent III, con- 
tinued a war of conquest. The sect disappeared in 
the 14th century. — C.E. (ed. ) 

Albini, Charles Dominique (1790-1839), apos- 
tle of Corsica, b. Mentone, France; d. Corsica. He 
was superior of the seminary at Cimiez, 1822. Hav- 
ing entered the Society of Oblates of Mary Immac- 
ulate at Aix, 1824, he was professed, by Apostolic 
indult, after a few months novitiate. He was sent 
to Corsica, 1835, where his work in the pulpit and 
the confessional won many souls; he died exhausted 
by his labors. The cause of his beatification was 
introduced in 1915. — C.E. Suppl. 

Albornoz, Gil Alvarez Carillo de (c. 1310- 
67), Abp. of Toledo, cardinal, general, and states- 
man, b. Cuenca, New Castile; d. near Viterbo, 
Italy. He accompanied Alfonso XI against the 
Moors. Later he was forced to flee to Avignon for 
rebuking the crimes of Pedro the Cruel. Having 
led an army to Italy he regained the Papal States 
for the pope, 1354, but refused the tiara after the 
death of Innocent VI. His famous "Egidian Con- 
stitutions" for the Papal States, published 1357, 
remained in force until 1816. His will established 
the existing Spanish College at Bologna. 

Albrights, The. See Evangelical Church 
( General Conference ) . 

Alcala, University of, Madrid, Spain, estab- 
lished at Alcala de Henares as the College of San 
Ildefonso, 1508, by the Franciscan, Francisco Xim- 
enes de Cisneros, prime minister of Spain. As early 
as 1499 this project had received the approbation 
of Pope Alexander VI. The studies included the- 
ology, canon law, logic, philosophy, medicine, He- 



brew, Greek, rhetoric, and grammar. In 1836 it was 
removed to Madrid where it now forms a part of 
the University of Madrid. In 1817 the University 
of Alcala published a polyglot Bible called Com- 
plutensian from the ancient name of the town. — C.E. 

Alcala de Henares, al-ka-UL' da a-na'res (an- 
cient Complutum), town, Spain, 22 m. ne. of 
Madrid, on the Henares River; est. pop., 10,000. 
It was destroyed in 1000, rebuilt 1083 by the 
Moors, and became famous in the Middle Ages for 
its university (see Alcala, University of). After 
the removal of the university to Madrid the build- 
ings and the former palace of the Abp. of Toledo 
were converted into libraries. It was the birthplace 
of Cervantes and Catherine of Aragon. 

Alcantara, Military Order of, religious order 
of Spanish knighthood, founded, 1156, as the 
Knights of St. Julian de Pereiro, for defense 
against the Moors. It became a religious society, 
1176, received papal recognition as a military 
order, 1197, and in 1218 united with the Knights 
of Calatrava, accepting from them the Cistercian 
rule and costume, and adopting the name, Knights 
of Alcantara. The order acquired great wealth and 
power, resulting in internal dissension. The knights 
were released from the vow of celibacy, 1540. In 
1808 the revenues were confiscated. Since 1875 the 
title has been conferred by the king for military 
services. 

Alcantarines, members of the Spanish prov- 
ince of Discalced Friars Minor, of the reform of 
St. Peter of Alcantara. 

Alciati, Giovanni Paolo (d. 1565), anti-Trini- 
tarian heretic, b. Milan, Italy; d. Danzig. A parti- 
san of the Reformation, he was a leader of the 
Italian refugees attracted to Geneva by Calvin. He 
became a disciple of Socinus, and denied the doc- 
trines of the Trinity and the Divinity of Christ. 
Accused of heresy by the Calvinists, he fled to 
Poland. 

Alcmund, Saint (d. 781), Bp. of Hexham, re- 
nowned for piety. His shrine was destroyed by the 
Scots in 1296. Feast, 7 Sept. 

Alcuin, al'kwin, Albinus, or Flaccus (c. 735- 
804), scholar, educator, and theologian, b. near 
York, England; d. Tours, France. He succeeded 
^Elbert, in 767, as head of the cathedral school of 
York and established its library. In 782 he was 
called by Charlemagne to organize education in his 
palace-school at Aix-la-Chapelle. Retiring in 796 to 
the Abbey of St. Martin of Tours, he founded a 
school there whose pupils became distinguished 
teachers. Among his works are treatises on grammar, 
rhetoric, dialectic, and astronomy; dogmatic writ- 
ings; and poems. He revised the text of the Vul- 
gate, established the Roman Rite, and compiled a 
Missal which was generally adopted. — C.E.; Gas- 
koin, Alcuin, His Life and Works, Lond., 1904. 

Aldegundis, Saint, virgin (c. 639-684), abbess. 
Daughter of Sts. Walbert and Bertilia, she founded 
the Benedictine Convent of Maubeuge, France. In- 
voked against cancer. Relics at Maubeuge. Feast, 30 
Jan.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Aldhelm, Saint, confessor (c. 639-709), Abbot 
of Malmesbury, Bp. of Sherborne. He was an able 
administrator and one of the first Englishmen to 



ALDHELM 



25 



ALEXANDER VI 



cultivate classical learning with success. His chief 
prose work was a treatise in praise of virginity. 
He built the still-existing chapel of St. Lawrence, 
Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire. Feast, 25 May. — C.E. ; 
Butler. 

Aldric, Saint, confessor (c. 800-856), Bp. of 
Le Mans. As a youth he lived at the court of 
Charlemagne and Louis I. He became a priest at 
21 years of age and bishop nine years later, and 
was distinguished by his public spirit in building 
aqueducts, as well as churches and monasteries. His 
fidelity to Charles the Bald resulted in his ex- 
pulsion from his see, but Gregory IV reinstated 
him. Feast, 7 Jan.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Alemany, Joseph Sadoc (1814-88), first Abp. of 
San Francisco, b. Vich, Spain; d. Valencia. A 
Dominican missionary in Ohio, Kentucky, and Ten- 
nessee, he was appointed Bp. of Monterey, 1850, 
and transferred in 1853 to the newly created metro- 
politan See of San Francisco. When he resigned in 
1883, his province had grown from the 21 secu- 
larized missions of the Franciscans to a Catholic 
population of about 300,000. He inaugurated the 
first efforts for adjustment of the Pious Fund. — C.E. 

Aleric (or Albert), antipope (d. 1102). An 
Italian, he was encouraged to succeed the anti- 
pope Theodoric by Emperor Henry IV. After a 
mock election at St. Peter's, 1102, he was dragged 
to the Lateran to the lawful pope, Paschal II, who 
imprisoned him and then sent him to St. Law- 
rence's monastery at Aversa, where he died. — Mann. 

Ales diei nuntius, or As the bird, whose 
clarion gay, hymn for Lauds on Tuesday. It was 
written by Prudentius (348-413). There are 12 
translations; the English title given is by W. 
Courthope. — Britt. 

Alexander (Gr., defending men), Saint, abbot 
(d. c. 440), founder of the Acoemetse (Gr., without 
sleep), monks of Asiatic origin. He converted by a 
miracle the governor of Edessa, St. Rabulas. In 
the desert he converted 30 robbers and changed 
their den into a monastery. He also founded a 
monastery on the Euphrates. With 300 monks, he 
settled at Gomon in Bithynia, and divided them 
into six choirs to sing the Divine Office, so that 
it might ascend ceaselessly, night and day. Feast, 
15 Jan. 

Alexander, Saint, confessor, Doctor of the 
Church (d. 326), Patriarch of Alexandria. His ap- 
pointment excluded Arius from that post. Although 
a supporter of Athanasius, he treated Arius with 
consideration; but he is said to have drawn up the 
Acts of the Council of Nicsea in which Arius was 
condemned. Feast, 17 April. 

Alexander, Saint, martyr (251), bishop in 
Cappadocia. He was later coadjutor Bp. of Jeru- 
salem; ordained Origen to the priesthood; and 
built a library at Jerusalem. After cruel torments 
lie died in chains. Feast, 18 March. — C.E.; Butler. 

Alexander, Saint, martyr (c. 250), Bp. of Co- 
mana in Pontus. He was known as the "Charcoal 
Burner," because he assumed that occupation to 
escape worldly honors. Gregory Thaumaturgus dis- 
covered his merits, and he was made bishop. He 
was burned to death in the persecution of Decius. 
Patron of charcoal burners. Feast, 11 August. — C.E. 



Alexander I, Saint, Pope (c. 106-115), b. prob- 
ably Rome; d. there. He was the fifth successor of 
St. Peter. As commemorated in the ninth lesson of 
Nocturn for his feast, he inserted in the Canon of 
the Mass the words commemorative of the institu- 
tion of the Eucharist beginning "Qui pridie," in- 
troduced the use of holy water for blessing Chris- 
tian homes, and suffered martyrdom. He is rep- 
resented with his chest pierced with nails or spikes. 
Feast, R. Cal., 3 May.— C.E. 

Alexander II (Anselmo Baggio or Anselm of 
Lucca), Pope (1061-73), b. Baggio, near Milan; 
d. Rome. While Bp. of Lucca and as pope he op- 
posed simony and the lax observation of clerical 
celibacy. He was the first pope to be elected by the 
college of cardinals, according to the decree of 
Nicholas II, and with the help of his chancellor 
Hildebrand, afterwards Gregory VII, he succeeded 
in putting aside the antipope Cadalous and was for- 
mally recognized as pontiff, 1064. — C.E.; Mann. 

Alexander III (Orlando Bandinelli), Pope 
(1159-81), b. Siena, Italy; d. Civita Castellana. 
He was a canonist, cardinal-priest, and papal chan- 
cellor. Elected pope almost unanimously, he was 
opposed with violence by the antipope, Card. Octa- 
vian, the imperial candidate, and took refuge in 
Anagni. He excommunicated the Emperor Fred- 
erick I, who submitted after seventeen years, and 
in England upheld the rights for which St. Thomas 
Becket suffered martyrdom, finally exacting them 
from Henry II. He convoked the third Lateran 
Council, 1179.— C.E. ; Mann. 

Alexander IV (Rinaldo Conti), Pope (1254- 
61), b. Anagni, France; d. Viterbo, Italy. Of the 
house of Segni, he became Card.-Bp. 
of Ostia and was well advanced in 
years when elected pope. Although a 
man of great virtue, he was unable 
to cope with the difficult political 
conditions of his time. His crusade 
against the tyrant Ezzelino was suc- 
cessful, but the spirit of the Crusades arms of 
was dying out and his expedition ALEXANDEE ™ 
against the Tatars was unsuccessful. Rome and a 
large portion of Italy were lost to papal control 
during his reign. — C.E. 

Alexander V (Pietro Philarght), Pope (1409- 
10), b. Crete, c. 1339; d. Bologna, Italy. He 
was a Franciscan and successively 
Bp. of Piacenza, of Vicenza, of 
Navoya and Abp. of Milan, created 
cardinal, 1405. He was instrumental 
in attempting to heal the Great 
Schism. At the Council of Pisa, 
1409, he was the leading spirit and 
in June was elected to the papacy. 
He never reached Rome. Theologians 
are still undecided as to whether he 
may be considered a legitimate pope. — C.E.; Pastor. 
Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia), Pope (1492- 
1503), b. Xativa, near Valencia, Spain, 1431; d. 
Rome. lie studied law at Bologna. He was adopted 
into the family of his uncle, Pope Callistus III, 
1455, became cardinal-deacon, 1456, and cardinal- 
bishop, 1476, and dean of the Sacred College. From 
1457 he officiated very successfully as Vice-Chancel- 





AEMS OF 
ALEXANDER V 



ALEXANDER VI 



26 



ALEXANDRIA 




lor of the Roman Church. His election as pope met 
with general approval, and the attempts to at- 
tribute it to simony were never clearly proven. With 
great energy he labored to restore order in Rome 
and to stabilize its government. He was well versed 
in canon law, a patron of literature 
and science, a promoter of education, 
and the originator of missions to the 
New World. Gradually, by effective al- 
liances with Milan, Venice, and Spain, 
he recovered the territories of the 
Papal States which had fallen under 
arms of the control of petty tyrants, and 
Alexander finally overcame the Roman barons who 
VI were the causes of perpetual disorder 

in and about the city. He took advantage of 
his successes to promote the fortunes of his 
family, chiefly of those who were reputed to be 
his own children. He is the most maligned of all 
the popes. The enemies he was compelled to make 
did not spare his memory. Historians in times 
succeeding his death were bent on reviling the 
papacy. Gradually writers for and against him 
have cleared him of the worst things imputed 
to him, and their controversies have brought out 
the fact that the mistakes or even evil deeds 
of a pope, deplorable though they may be, are 
not to be laid to the sacred office he holds. — 
M. Creighton, History of the Papacy during the 
Period of the Reformation, Lond., 1887; P. De Roo, 
Pope Alexander VI, N". Y., 1924; Pastor. (ed.) 

Alexander VII (Fabio Chioi), Pope (1655-67), 
b. Siena, Italy, 1599; d. Rome. Of the illustrious 
Chigi family, he fulfilled many papal 
diplomatic missions and was created 
cardinal, 1652. During his pontificate 
difficulties with Louis XIV led to the 
temporary loss of Avignon and ac- 
ceptance of the humiliating terms of 
the treaty of Pisa. Alexander combated 
Jansenism by compelling the French 
clergy to sign his "formulary." A 
patron of art, he beautified Rome, en- 
larged the Vatican Library, and befriended men of 
letters.— C.E. 

Alexander VIII (Pietro Ottoboni), Pope 
(1689-91), b. Venice, 1610; d. Rome. Son of the 
Chancellor of the Republic of Venice, he became 
governor of Terni, Rieti, and Spoleto, 
auditor of the Rota for 14 years, cardi- 
nal, Bp. of Brescia, cardinal-datary, 
and pope. Louis XIV restored Avignon 
to him. He pronounced the Declaration 
of Gallican Liberties void, assisted 
Venice against the Turks with subsi- 
dies, and enlarged the Vatican Library. 
—C.E. 

Alexander Briant, Blessed (c. 
1556-81), Jesuit martyr, b. Somersetshire; d. Ty- 
burn. A pupil of Fr. Persons at Oxford, he was 
ordained at Reims, assigned to the English Mis- 
sion, arrested, and executed after frightful tortures. 
—C.E. 

Alexander Natalis (Noel Alexander; 1639- 
1724), historian and theologian, b. Rouen; d. Paris. 
He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the 




ARMS OF 

ALEXANDER 

VII 




ARMS OF 

ALEXANDER 

VIII 



Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and 
Gospels, and a history of the first century of Chris- 
tianity (24 vols., 1677-86). He originated the writ- 
ing of history by dividing it into studies of special 
epochs or institutions and events. When corrected 
by the Holy See for Gallicanism, he submitted. 
Later he favored Jansenism but retracted. — C.E. 

Alexander Newski, nyef ske, Saint, confessor 
(1219-63), Grand Duke of Novgorod and Kiev, b. 
Vladimir, Russia; d. Gorodetz. He was victorious 
over the Swedes on the River Neva, hence his sur-' 
name. An organizer and reformer, he defended 
Russia against the Tatars. Relics at Leningrad. 
Feast, 30 Aug. 

Alexander of Hales (d. 1245), theologian and 
philosopher, b. Hales, England; d. Paris. He joined 
the Franciscans, 1222, and was installed as the 
first Franciscan teacher of theology in the Univer- 
sity of Paris, 1231. He was the earliest of the great 
13th-century Schoolmen. Author of the unfinished 
"Summa Universal Theologian," the first attempted 
systematic exposition of Catholic doctrine following 
the introduction into Europe and knowledge of 
Aristotle's complete works, he gave definite form 
to the Scholastic method and its application to 
theology, and outlined the plan later followed by 
all the great "Summse." — C.E.; Turner, History of 
Philosophy, Bost., 1905. 

Alexander Sauli, Blessed (1533-92), apostle 
of Corsica, b. Milan; d. Pavia. He was a Barnabite 
and as Bp. of Aleria, Corsica, 1571-91, reclaimed 
the people from laxity and ignorance, rebuilt 
churches, founded colleges and seminaries, and 
placed the Church in a flourishing condition. He 
was Bp/ of Pavia, 1591-92.— C.E. 

Alexander III, the Great, King of Macedon 
(356-323 B.C.), b. Pella, Macedonia; d. Babylon. 
He is the subject of important mention in the 
opening of the First Book of Machabees. 

Alexandria, seaport, Egypt, founded by Alex- 
ander the Great, 331 B.C. It was the world's intellec- 
tual and commercial center under the Ptolemies. 
Left to Cleopatra by Julius Caesar, 46 B.C., Augus- 
tus included it in a Roman province. Passing to 
the Byzantines and abandoned to the Arabs, its 
ruin was furthered by the Turks, 1517. It is now 
restored to commercial importance, and has a 
varied population of mixed creeds. Christianity was 
introduced by St. Mark, and it became illustrious 
as a seat of learned doctors, Pantamus, Clement, 
Origen, and as the see of Athanasius and Cyril. 
Under Dioscurus (444-454), successor to St. Cyril, 
the Eutychian or Monophysite heresy arose. It 
spread rapidly and eventually effected a severance 
from Rome and the Church of Alexandria's ruin. 
Its tenet of one nature in Christ was a reaction 
against Nestorianism teaching two distinct natures 
in Christ. Eutychianism minimized the complete- 
ness of the Humanity and exaggerated the effects 
upon it of its union with the Divinity, thus denying 
the reality of the human nature. It finally divided 
into two communions: the native Copts, bound to 
error; and the foreign Greeks, faithful to schis- 
matic orthodoxy. — C.E. 

Alexandria, Catechetical School of, founded 
by the Church of Alexandria, in latter half of 2nd 



ALEXANDRIA 



27 



ALIMENTATION 



century. There were lectures to which pagans were 
admitted, but advanced teaching was given to Chris- 
tians separately. Under the bishop's supervision, 
the school prepared young clerics for the priest- 
hood, studies including philosophy, theology, and 
Christian apologetics. Pantsenus, c. 180, was the 
first teacher to make the school famous. He was 
succeeded by his pupil Clement, followed by Origen. 
Of the succeeding teachers, Didymus the Blind (c. 
340-395) is the best known. 

Alexandria, Diocese of, a see of the Armenian 
Kite, comprising Egypt, with residence at Cairo; 
present bishop, John Couzian. Churches, 3; priests, 
5; Catholics, 2300. 

Alexandria, Diocese of, comprises northern Lou- 
isiana above 31° N. lat.; area, 22,212 sq. m.; suf- 
fragan of New Orleans. The see was transferred 
from Natchitoches to Alexandria in 1910. Early 
missionaries, Frs. Antonio Margil, Guzman, Maxi- 
min, O'Brien, and Timon, later Bp. of Buffalo. 
Bishops: Augustine Martin (1853-75); Francis 
Leray (1877-79); Anthony Durier (1885-1904); 
Cornelius Van de Ven (1904). 
Churches, 77; priests, secular, 
27; priests, regular, 16; religious 
women, 220; colleges, 2; semi- 
nary, 1 ; high schools, 4 ; primary 
schools, 17; students in pa- 
rochial schools, 2950; institu- 
tions, 3; Catholics, 47,500. 

Alexandria, Diocese of, On- 
tario, Canada, embraces Glen- 
garry and Stormont counties; 
erected, 1890; suffragan of King- 
ston. Bishops: Alexander Mac- 
Donell (1890-1905); Wm. A. 
MacDonnell (1906-20); Felix Couturier, O.P. 
(1921). Churches, 26; priests, secular, 26; priests, 
regular, 2; religious women, 222; academies, 3; 
high schools, 4 ; separate and parish schools, 22 ; 
pupils in separate and parish schools, 3409 ; institu- 
tions, 2; Catholics, 25,142. 

Alexandria, Patriarchate of, founded in Egypt 
by St. Mark the Evangelist. Notable among its 
early patriarchs were Sts. Athanasius and Cyril. 
In the Coptic Rite, Hermopolis and Thebes are 
suffragan sees; patriarchal residence, Cairo; pres- 
ent administrator Apostolic, Bp. Mark Kouzam 
of Thebes. Churches, 21; priests, 11; seminary, 1; 
high schools, 9; primary schools, 19; Catholics of 
city, 5500. In the Latin Rite, the patriarchate is 
titular only. 

Alexandrine Rite, one of the great parent rites 
of the East, used throughout the original Patriar- 
chate of Alexandria, Egypt. One of its earliest 
peculiarities is the invocation of the Word of God 
and not the Holy Ghost after the words of Institu- 
tion, or Consecration. It has three forms: the 
Greek Liturgy of St. Mark, no longer used; the 
three liturgies used by the Copts; and the uses 
of the Abyssinian Church (Ethiopic). The chief 
characteristics of this rite are the placing of the 
Great Intercession, with diptychs and memory of 
the saints, before the Sanctus, and the absence of 
the Benedictus at the end of the Sanctus. — C.E.; 
Fortescue, The Mass, N. Y., 1914. (m. e. d.) 




Alexians (Cellites ) , congregation under patron- 
age of St. Alexius of Edessa, founded by Tobias 
at Mechlin, Brabant, in the 15th century, to nurse 
the sick and bury the dead during the Black 
Death. They became an order under the Rule of 
St. Augustine in 1469. The mother-house is at 
Aix-la-Chapelle. They have 18 houses in the United 
States, England, Germany, and Belgium, and are 
in charge of various hospitals and asylums. — 
C.E. 

Alexis Falconieri, Saint, confessor (1200- 
1310), b. Florence; d. Mount Senario, near Flor- 
ence. He became a member of the Laudesi, or 
Praisers of Mary, a society of laymen. On 15 Aug., 
1233, an apparition of the Blessed Virgin appeared 
to him and six of his companions. Retiring to La 
Camarzia, and later to Mount Senario, the seven 
young men established the Order of Servites. Deem- 
ing himself unworthy of Holy Orders, Alexis em- 
braced a life of poverty and humility, soliciting 
donations for the community in the streets of his 
native city. He spent much time in propagating 
devotion to the Blessed Virgin, 
and securing new members for 
the Order. Canonized, 15 Jan., 
1888. Relics in Florence. Feast, 
27 Feb.— C.E. 

Alexius, Saint, confessor (d. 
417), b. Rome. He was a recluse 
famed for his sanctity. Accord- 
ing to legend he secretly left his 
wife on the night of their wed- 
ding, and after seventeen years 
at Edessa returned to Rome, liv- 
ing hidden in his father's house 
until his death. Patron of the 
Alexians, and of beggars, pilgrims, and belt-makers. 
Feast, R. Cal., 17 July.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Alford, Michael (1587-1652), Jesuit mission- 
ary, b. London; d. St. Omers, France. He labored 
in England during the persecution and was the 
author of an important ecclesiastical and civil his- 
tory of Britain. — C.E. 

Alfred the Great (849-899), King of the West 
Saxons, b. Wantage, England. When he ascended 
the throne, 871, the Danish invaders were threat- 
ening his kingdom; after a long struggle he estab- 
lished Saxon supremacy. He repelled four other 
invasions by them (875-878), and defeated them 
decisively 15 years later. Alfred drew up good 
laws, rebuilt and founded monasteries, and en- 
couraged learning. He translated Boethius's "Con- 
solation of Philosophy" into Anglo-Saxon, adding 
much of his own; also translated Bede's "Ecclesi- 
astical History," and the "Pastoral Rule" and 
"Dialogues" of Gregory the Great; and inspired 
the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle." — C.E. 

Alien Houses (Alien Priories), former reli- 
gious houses in England owned or controlled by 
foreigners; confiscated during the French War of 
1415. Thus, the public park in South London now 
called Tooting Bee Common formed part of the 
lands of the Abbey of Bee, Normandy. 

Alimentation (Lat., alimentum, nourishment), 
support or maintenance; whatever is necessary 
for life, as food and drink, a home, clothing, 




THE ALFRED JEWEIi 



ALIMENTATION 



28 



ALLIES 



care in sickness and death. Under it would fall 
the obligation of parents towards children, of 
children towards parents, husbands towards wives, 
of a religious order or congregation towards its 
members. For secular priests, maintenance is 
provided by means of the title for which they 
were ordained: a benefice, patrimony, or pension. 
— C.E. (c. N.) 

Aliturgical Days, days on which the Sacrifice 
of the Mass is not allowed to be celebrated, e.g., 
Good Friday in the Roman Rite; and all Fridays in 
Lent, in the Ambrosian Rite. 

All=, prefix of many words with a religious sig- 
nificance, e.g. : All-father, the father of all, the 
universal father; all-good, wholly or infinitely 
good; all-holy, altogether or infinitely holy; all- 
might, omnipotence; allness, universality; all-wise, 
knowing all things, omniscient. 

Allah, Arabic name of God, used by Mohamme- 
dans, whatever their language. 

Allahabad, Diocese of, central British India; 
area, 60,000 sq. m. ; suffragan of Agra; entrusted to 
the Capuchins; before its establishment as a dio- 
cese, 1886, known as the Vicariate Apostolic of 
Patna, Dr. Anastasius Hartman was the first vicar 
Apostolic, an office he held twice. Bishops: Francis 
Pesci (1886-96); Charles Gentili (1897-98); Victor 
Sinibaldi (1899-1902); Petronius Gramigna (1904- 
17); Angelo Poli (1917). Churches, 43; priests, 
secular, 10; priests, regular, 33; religious women, 
137; seminary, 1; schools, 19; institutions, 14; 
Catholics, 10,526. 

Allard, Paul (1841-1916), historian of the per- 
secutions, b. Rouen, France; d. Senneville-sur-Mer. 
Editor of "Revue des questions historiques" and 
president of the Congress of Catholics of Normandy 
in 1883, he also participated in the International 
Catholic Scientific Congress held in Paris, 1888-91. 
He was a member of the Academy of Rouen, the 
Academy of the Catholic Religion (Rome), and the 
Pontifical Academy of Archaeology. He was author 
of the following ecclesiastical histories of the early 
Christians : "Christian Slaves from the Early Days 
of the Church until the End of the Roman Power 
in the West"; "Christian Art under the Pagan Em- 
perors"; "History of the Persecutions"; "Christian- 
ity and the Roman Empire"; "Saint Basil"; "Julian 
the Apostate"; "Ten Lessons on the Martyrs." — C.E. 

Allegiance (Fi\, liege, relation of subject to 
sovereign), obligation of respect and attachment to 
those who exercise authority, shown chiefly by ob- 
servance of laws that are reasonable and justly 
applied. The position of Catholics in Great Britain 
and Ireland with regard to their allegiance is 
clearly defined in Newman's "Letter to the Duke of 
Norfolk" (1874), a crushing reply to W. E. Glad- 
stone's "Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil 
Allegiance." 

Allegorical Sense, mystical meaning of parts 
of the Bible; the interpretation of some actually 
accomplished thing as being only the figure of some 
other thing. Thus, the serpent raised by Moses in 
the desert to heal the Israelites from their wounds 
represented, in an allegorical sense, Jesus Christ 
raised upon the Cross for the redemption of 
mankind. 



Allegory (Gr., allegoria, inversion), a sustained 
metaphor. The greatest biblical allegory is the 
Canticle of Canticles. The allegory has but one 
sense, that which is conveyed by the metaphor or 
image. Allegories are interpreted at times by their 
author; thus Our Lord bids: "Beware of the leaven 
of the Pharisees and Sadducees," as a reference to 
their teaching (Matt., 16). Other biblical allegories 
are to be explained by the aid of the context, by 
similar usage elsewhere in the Bible, or by tradi- 
tion. Allegory should be distinguished from al- 
legorical interpretation, which is a species of ac- 
commodation (see Allegorical Sense). — C.E.; 
Schumacher. (h. j. g. ) 

Alleluia (Heb., All Hail to Him who is), litur- 
gical expression found in the Book of Tobias, 
Psalms, and New Testament. It is used in liturgy 
as exclamation of joy, triumph, and thanksgiving, 
especially at Easter-tide. — C.E.; O'Brien, History 
of the Mass, N. Y., 1882. 

Alleluiatic Psalms, late Jewish ritualistic 
designation of four groups of psalms, 104-106, 110- 
116, 134-135 (Great Hallel), 145-150, Vulgate 
enumeration, denoting liturgical use in connection 
with the Passover (Paschal) Supper. Title derived 
from the opening word of several of these psalms, 
"Halleluiah" or Hallelu (Praise ye). — Cornely- 
Merk, Introductio, Paris, 1027. (t. mcl.) 

Allen, Frances (1784-1819), the first nun of 
New England birth, b. Sunderland, Vt. ; d. Mon- 
treal. The daughter of the patriot Ethan Allen, 
she had no religious training until she went to the 
Notre Dame Convent, Montreal, where she became 
a convert and afterwards made her religious pro- 
fession.— C.E. 

Allerstein (Hallerstein), August (d. c. 1777), 
Jesuit missionary, b. Germany; d. China. His 
proficiency in astronomy and mathematics recom- 
mended him to the Emperor of China, by whom he 
was made mandarin and chief of the Department 
of Mathematics; his chief work is a census of 
China.— C.E. 

All Hallows. See All Saints. 

All Hallows College, Dublin, devoted to the 
preparation of priests for missions in English- 
speaking countries; founded by John Hand, 1842. 
The institution is Apostolic; its professors labor 
without pay, and the students are instructed gratui- 
tously. Vincentians have been in charge since 1892. 

Allies, Thomas William (1813-1903), writer, b. 
Midsomer Norton, Somersetshire, England. He was 
educated at Eton and Oxford, and took Anglican 
orders, 1838. In 1850 he became a Catholic, and 
served as secretary to the Catholic Poor-School 
Committee, 1853-90. He wrote "The See of Peter," 
"A Life's Decision," and his masterpiece, "The 
Formation of Christendom." In 1885 he was created 
Knight Commander of St. Gregory and in 1893 
Pope Leo XIII awarded him the gold medal for 
merit. — C.E. 

— Mary Helen (1852-1927), writer, daughter of 
preceding, b. Henley in Arden, Warwickshire, Eng- 
land. She was secretary to her father, 1873-90. 
Among her works are "Life of Pius VII," "History 
of the Church in England," and "Thomas William 
Allies." 



ALLOCUTION 



29 



ALOYSIUS GONZAGA 



Allocution (Lat., ad, to; loqui, to speak), a 
solemn form of address, delivered from the throne 
by the pope to cardinals in secret consistory. — 
C.E. 

Allouez, Claude (1622-89), apostle of the Ot- 
tawas, missionary, and explorer, b. St.-Didier-la- 
Seauve, France; d. near Niles, Mich. He entered 
the Society of Jesus, 1639, and went to Quebec as 
a missionary in 1660. There he became superior of 
the Three Rivers Mission, and vicar-general "of all 
the countries situated toward the north and west." 
He founded the Mission of the Holy Ghost near 
Nash, Wis., and other missions, including St. 
Francis Xavier at De Pere, Wis., where a monu- 
ment has been erected to his memory by the State 
Historical Society. He was one of the first to 
visit Lake Michigan, naming it "Lake St. Joseph." 
—C.E. 

AH Praise to Saint Patrick, popular hymn 
written by Rev. F. W. Faber in the 19th century. 

AH Saints, Feast of, 1 Nov., instituted to 
honor all the saints, known and unknown. It owes 
its origin in the Western Church to the dedica- 
tion of the Pantheon in honor of the Blessed Virgin 
and all the martyrs by Pope Boniface IV, 609, the 
anniversary of which was celebrated at Rome, 13 
May. Pope Gregory III (731-741) consecrated a 
chapel in the Vatican basilica in honor of All 
Saints, designating 1 Nov. as their feast; Gregory 
IV extended its observance to the whole Church. 
It has a vigil and octave and is a holy day of 
obligation. The eve is popularly celebrated as Hal- 
lowe'en (q.v. ). — C.E.; Kellner, Heortology, St. L., 
1908. 

All Souls' Day, 2 Nov., feast in commemoration 
of the faithful departed in purgatory. Abbot Odilo 
of Cluny instituted it in the monasteries of his 
congregation in 998, other religious orders took up 
the observance, and it was adopted by various dio- 
ceses and gradually by the whole Church. The Office 
of the Dead must be recited by the clergy on this 
day and Pope Benedict XV granted to all priests 
the privilege of saying three Masses of requiem : one 
for the souls in purgatory, one for the intention of 
the Holy Father, one for the priest's. If the feast 
should fall on Sunday it is kept on 3 Nov. — C.E.; 
Kellner, Heortology, St. L., 1908. 

Alma (Heb., young woman), word used in the 
prophecy of Isaias, 7, and interpreted by St. Mat- 
thew, 1, as applying to the Virgin Mother of the 
Messias. — C.E. 

Alma Mater (Lat., nourishing or bounteous 
mother), title given by ancient Romans to certain 
goddesses; now applied to universities and schools, 
considered as "foster mothers" of their students. 
The Bull of Pope Clement V postponing the open- 
ing of the 15th (Ecumenical Council, at Vienne, 
from 1 Oct., 1310, to 1 Oct., 1311, is entitled "Alma 
Mater." 

Alma Redemptoris Mater, or Mother benign 
of our redeeming Lord, antiphon of Our Lady for 
Vespers from the Saturday before the first Sunday 
of Advent to the feast of the Purification, inclusive. 
It is ascribed to Hermann Contractus (1013-54). 
There are several translations. The English title 
given is by D. Hunter-Blair ; the first verse reads: 




ALMS-PLATE 



Mother benign of our redeeming Lord, 
Star of the sea and portal of the skies, 
Unto thy fallen people help afford — 
Fallen, but striving still anew to rise. 



— C.E.; Britt. 

Almeida (Meade), John (1571-1653), mission- 
ary, b. London; d. Rio Janeiro. He changed his 
name on being adopted by a Portuguese family 
whom he accompanied to Brazil, where he became a 
Jesuit and spent his life in missionary labors 
among Indian cannibal tribes. He was famous for 
his austerities. — C.E. 

Almoner, an official distributor of alms; a chap- 
lain of a charitable institution. The office or resi- 
dence of an almoner and, in a wider sense, a place 
for distributing alms, is called an almonry. 

Alms (Gr., eleemosyne, compassionateness) , ma- 
terial help given to the needy, prompted by Divine 
charity. Alms-bag, purse for collecting alms in 
church. Alms-box 
(Alms-chest), per- 
manent receptacle 
for alms, in a church. 
Alms-day, Saturday 
( weekly alms being 
formerly distributed 
on that day in England). Alms-plate, dish on 
which alms-bags are deposited before being placed 
solemnly on an altar; also, plate carried by beggars. 
Alms-folk, persons supported by alms. Alms- 
house, home for the needy, erected by private indi- 
viduals; occasionally used in speaking of a poor- 
house. Alms-Saturday, in Passion Week, when alms 
collected during Lent are sometimes given to the 
poor, so as not to interfere with the Holy-Week cere- 
monies. 

AIms=deeds, the compassionate relieving of an- 
other's material need for God's sake. They enter 
directly or indirectly into all the corporal works 
of mercy. As such they are a divine institution for 
drawing closer the bonds uniting the members of 
human society in their common dependence on Him 
who has given the earth to the children of men to 
support the lives of all. They have, therefore, a 
necessary place in Christian society. The representa- 
tion of almsgiving in art is associated with St. 
Martin of Tours, who gave his cloak to a beggar, 
St. Nicholas of Tolentino, St. Ivo of Chartres, and 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary, all noted for their char- 
ity to the poor. — C.E.; Koch-Preuss. (h. j. W. ) 

Aloysius Gonzaga, Saint, confessor (1568-91), 
b. Castiglione, Italy; d. Pome. The son of a princely 
family, he was educated at the courts of the Medici 
of Florence and of Philip II of Spain. Returning 
to Italy, he renounced his inheritance in favor of 
his brother, and entered the Society of Jesus, 1585. 
He distinguished himself in philosophy and theol- 
ogy, and pronounced his vows, 1587. In 1591, when 
famine and pestilence spread through Italy, he de- 
voted himself to the care of the sick, was stricken, 
and died. Devotion to him is widespread, and the 
practise of receiving communion on six successive 
Sundays is observed in his honor. Patron of young 
Catholic students. Invoked against sore eyes and 
pestilence. Canonized, 1720. Relics in church of S. 
Ignazio, Rome. Feast, R. Cal., 21 June. — C.E.; 



ALOYSIUS GONZAGA 



30 



ALTAR 



Butler; Martindale, Vocation of Aloysius Gonzaga, 
St. L., 1922. 

Alpha and Omega. See AQ- 

Alphabetic Psalms, so called because their suc- 
cessive verses, or successive parallel series, begin 
with the successive letters of the alphabet. Psalm 
118, "Blessed are the undefiled," comprises 22 
stanzas of 8 verses each, beginning with the same 
letter of the Hebrew alphabet in order. Another 
example of alphabetic arrangement in HebreAv 
poetry is found in the Lamentations of Jeremias in 
the Office of Tenebrse during Holy Week. This fea- 
ture is not discernible in the Vulgate or our Eng- 
lish version save that the Hebrew letter name 
precedes each verse in the work of the prophet. 
— C.E., XII, 543; Pope. (t. mcl.) 

Alphonsus Liguori (Teut., adalfuns, willing), 
Saint, confessor, Doctor of the Church (1696-1787), 
Bp. of Sant' Agata dei Goti, b. Marianella, near 
Naples; d. Nocera de' Pagani. He took his degree of 
Doctor of Laws at sixteen, and practised success- 
fully for eight years. Humiliated by failure to win 
an important case, he entered a missionary society 
of secular priests, the "Neapolitan Propaganda/' 
was ordained 21 Dec, 1726, and devoted his time 
to missionary labors among the poor. In 1732, with 
the help of Bp. Thomas Falcoia of Castellamare, 
he founded the Congregation of the Most Holy 
Redeemer at Scala. He occupied the See of Sant' 
Agata dei Goti, 1762-75, when he was permitted 
to retire. Enfeebled by illness and the constant 
struggle for recognition of his congregation by the 
civil authorities, Alphonsus continued to work dili- 
gently and practise mortification. As a moral 
theologian he advocated a middle course between 
rigorism and laxity. The fruits of his labors are 
treatises on theology, dogma, and asceticism, poetry, 
musical compositions, and letters. Canonized, 1839. 
Emblems : Image of Virgin, rosary, monstrance. 
Feast, R. Cal., 2 Aug. — C.E.; Angot des Retours, 
St. Alphonsus Liguori, N. Y., 1916. 

Alphonsus Rodriguez (also Alonso), Saint, 
confessor (1532-1617), b. Segovia, Spain; d. Ma- 
jorca. After the death of his wife (Maria Suarez) 
and his three children, he was admitted into the 
Society of Jesus as a lay brother, 13 Jan., 1571, 
either at Valencia or Gandia. At the end of six 
months he was sent to the college at Majorca 
where he remained as porter for 46 years. He 
exercised great influence on the members of the 
household and many others who came to him for 
advice and direction. He pointed out to St. Peter 
Claver his future work as apostle of the Negroes 
in South America. In 1626 he was declared Ven- 
erable, and in 1633 was chosen by the Council 
General of Majorca as one of the special patrons 
of the city and island. His beatification was delayed 
until 1825, because of the expulsion of the Societ}^ 
from Spain in 1773. Canonized, 1887. Relics at 
Majorca. Feast, 30 Oct.— C.E. 

Alsace=Lorraine, former German territory ac- 
quired by France at the Treaty of Versailles, 1919. 
It is divided into the departments of Bas-Rhin 
(pop., 670,985), Haut-Rhin (pop., 490,654), and 
Moselle (pop., 633,461). According to the census 
of 1910, there were 1,387,000 Catholics, 37,000 



Protestants, 30,483 Jews. In the Middle Ages the 
country was divided into many principalities, which 
formed part of the Holy Roman Empire. Parts of 
Alsace were ceded to France in 1648, and by the 
Treaty of Ryswick, 1697, French possession was 
confirmed; Lorraine was formally united to France 
in 1766. The inhabitants were contented under 
French rule. In 1870, as a result of the Franco- 
Prussian War, the country was cut off from France. 
It formed part of the German Empire for 47 years. 
The industrial and commercial progress of Germany 
had an undeniable influence; the country prospered 
under a regime of efficiency, but political discon- 
tent was rife. Germany left nothing undone to 
spread her culture; but her alternate policies of 
severity and concession proved ineffectual in Ger- 
manizing the provinces. Emigration towards France 
began in 1872. Until 1914 there was continual 
agitation for return to France. At the outbreak 
of the World War, the uncertainty of the al- 
legiance of Alsace was apparent; thousands de- 
serted rather than fight against France. In Nov., 
1918, the French government took over the admin- 
istration of the territories until the treaty was 
signed. The administrative system was centralized 
under a commissary general. Readjustments in 
finance, education, and language were difficult prob- 
lems of administration. Eighty per cent of the 
inhabitants did not know French, which was im- 
mediately introduced into the schools. The knowl- 
edge of France had been gained through hostile 
sources, and imparted by teachers who had to be 
replaced before the people could be assimilated to 
French civilization. In recognizing the French 
sovereignty in Alsace-Lorraine, the pope accepted 
the resignation of the German Bps. of Metz and 
Strasbourg. In April, 1919, President Poincare 
nominated Bp. Ruck for the Bishopric of Stras- 
bourg and Mgr. Pelt for that of Metz. This caused 
an animated debate in the French Chamber and 
led the foreign minister to explain that the policy 
of France was to uphold the Concordat. The 
nominees were given canonical institution by the 
pope. 

Altar, the table on which a sacrifice is offered. 
In the Church founded by Christ the altar is the 
table on which the Sacrifice of the Mass is offered. 
In ancient basilicas it was placed so that the priest 
faced the laity. Later, church altars were placed 
against or near the wall of the apse, so that the 
celebrant faced the east and the people were behind 
him, in the manner which now generally obtains. 
Altars of the early Church were probably of wood. 
Altars of stone and precious metals were introduced 
at a later date, and ecclesiastical law now stipu- 
lates that to be consecrated an altar must be of 
stone. In the primitive Church two types of altars 
were used: the arcosolium or monumentum arcu- 
atum, consisting of an archlike niche hewn in the 
catacombs over the grave of a martyr, which was 
covered by a slab of marble; and the detached altar 
found in the cuhicula, or sepulchral chapels, formed 
by a slab of stone or marble resting on columns, or 
on a structure in which were enclosed the relics 
of martyrs. A decree of St. Felix I stipulated that 
Mass should be celebrated on the tombs of martyrs. 



ALTAR 



31 



ALTAR 



The tomb or chest type of altar thus replaced the 
simple table, and every altar must now contain 
the relics of martyrs. In the Greek Church, the 
altar proper is square, and the top should be con- 
structed of wood, or have at least one board in it. 
Two coverings are used on it, one of linen, and the 
other of brocade or embroidery. The term altar is 
also applied to that part of churches of the Greek 
Kite practically corresponding to the sanctuary in 
churches of the Latin Rite, including the altar 
proper, a small side altar, the seats of the clergy, 
and the throne of the bishop. 

— Altar, Bye, one subordinate to the high altar, 
usually applied to altars situated in the bays of 
the nave, transepts, etc. 

— Altar, Double, one having a double front so 
constructed that Mass may be celebrated simul- 
taneously on both sides, often found in churches of 
religious communities when the community chapel 
is separate from the one to which others are 
admitted. 

— Altar, Fixed, a permanent stone structure formed 
of a consecrated table 
and support, erected on 
a solid foundation. 
— Altar, High or Main, 
the chief altar in a 
church, mounted by steps, 
and in the center of the 
sanctuary. At this altar 
most ceremonies take 
place. 

— A l t a r , Lady. See 
Altar of Our Lady (be- 
low). 

— Altar, Portable. See 
Altar-stone. 
— Altar, Privileged, one 
to which the Apostolic 
See has attached a 
plenary indulgence ap- 
plicable only to the souls 
in purgatory, and gained 
every time Mass is of- 
fered upon it. 
— Altar, Stripping of 
the, a ceremony which 
takes place on Holy Thursday symbolizing the mo- 
ment in the Passion of Christ when He was stripped 
of His garments by the Jews. The celebrant assisted 
by deacon and subdeacon removes from the altars 
of the church the altar-cloths and all ornamenta- 
tion, leaving but the crucifix and candlesticks. 
— Altar-bell, a small bell kept at the epistle side 
of the altar, rung during Mass at the Sanctus and 
at the elevation of the Sacred Species, as an in- 
vitation to those present to take part in the act of 
adoration at the Consecration. 

— Altar-bread, round wafers of wheaten bread, 
unleavened in the Latin, Maronite, and Armenian 
Rites, used as one of the Eucharistic elements. 
— Altar-candles, candles made chiefly from bees- 
wax and prescribed for use at Mass and other 
liturgical functions. 

— Altar-candlesticks, six candlesticks with can- 
dles, three on each side of the crucifix, kept on the 




ALTAR FROM ST. DENIS 



main altar. Two, one at each side of the altar, 
must be used during low Mass. Extra candlesticks 
and candelabra are used for ornamentation. Altar- 
candlesticks may be of any kind of metal, or gilded 
or silvered wood. Their use became general only in 
the 16th century. 

— Altar-canopy. See Baldaohinum. 
— Altar-cards, printed cards placed in the middle 
and at each side of an altar, containing certain 
prayers to be said by the celebrant at Mass. 
— Altar-carpets, ordinarily green, cover the sanc- 
tuary and altar-steps, or at least the upper plat- 
form or predella. 

— Altar-cavity, a small square or oblong chamber 
in the body of an altar, in which relics are placed. 
— Altar-cloths, three coverings of linen or hemp 
used on the altar during Mass. 

— Altar -crucifix, a crucifix, large enough to be 
seen by both celebrant and laity, which must be 
on the altar whenever Mass is celebrated. If the 
Crucifixion be the subject of the altar-piece or pic- 
ture behind the altar, this will suffice for the altar- 
crucifix. 

- — Altar-curtains, of 
linen, silk, or precious 
stuffs, formerly drawn 
around the altar during 
certain parts of the Mass. 
— Altar-frontal or An- 
tependium, an appendage 
covering the entire front 
of the altar; a similar 
covering should be used 
at the back if it be seen 
by the people. It may be 
made of precious metals, 
wood, cloth of gold, or 
other precious materials. 
If the altar be of carved 
wood or marble it may 
be considered sufficiently 
ornamental, and the ante- 
pendium deemed unneces- 
ary. 

— Altar-herse, the 
framework used in the 
erection of a temporary 
canopy over an altar on special occasions. The name 
is probably derived from a cloth-covered frame or 
hearse formerly used over the corpse in funerals. 
— Altar-horns, the projections at each corner of 
the Jewish altar. Though dropped in Christian 
usage, the name is still used to designate the four 
corners of the altar. 

— Altar-lamp, a lamp kept continuously burning 
before the tabernacle. Though it may be of any 
metal and form, it should be lighted by oil only, 
pure olive oil being recommended. 
— Altar-lanterns, lanterns used to protect the 
altar-candles and lamp if they cannot be kept 
lighted, and to accompany the Blessed Sacrament 
when It is transferred from one altar to another, or 
taken to the sick as Viaticum. 

— Altar-ledge, a step placed behind the altar for 
candlesticks, flowers, etc. 
— Altar-linens, certain linens used during the 



ALTAR 



32 



ALTAR BOYS 



Sacrifice of the Mass. They are the corporal, pall, 
purificator, and finger-towels. 

— Altar of Our Lady, that altar which occupies 
the most prominent position in a church after 
the main altar, viz., at the Epistle side of the 
latter. 

—Altar of Repose oi Repository, a bye-altar 
where the Sacred Host consecrated Holy Thursday 
is reserved for Mass of the Presanctified. 
— Altar-piece, painted or frescoed picture on the 
wall or hung in frame above the altar; a statue or 
statuary group on the altar. 

— Altar-protector, Altar-cover, Vesperale, or 
Stragulum, a cover of cloth, baize, or velvet, of any 
color, though usually 
green or red, used on the 
altar outside the time of 
sacred functions, to pre- 
vent staining or soiling 
of the altar-cloth. 
— Altar-rail, or Com- 
munion-rail, a rail sepa- 
rating the sanctuary 
from the body of the 
church. It is of carved 
wood, metal, marble, or 
other precious material, 
about two and a half feet 
high.- 

— Altar-screen, origi- 
nally a piece of ornamen- 
tal precious cloth sus- 
pended above the altar at 
the rear and known as 
the dossel or dorsal. A 
permanent or movable 
structure of metal, stone, 
or wood was later intro- 
duced instead of the 
cloth; the side facing the 
church is called the re- 
table; the reverse, the 
counterretable. When 
richly ornamented with 
panels, statues, etc., the 
structure is called a 
reredos. Such altar deco- 
rations are also known as altar-pieces. 
— Altar-side, that part of the altar facing the 
congregation. The Epistle side of the altar is 
termed the left, and the Gospel, the right, with 
reference to the altar-crucifix. 

— Altar-steps, of wood, stone, or brick, extend 
around the altar on three sides. There are three, 
five, or seven at the high altar, while side altars 
must have at least one. 

— Altar-stole, an ornament shaped as the ends 
of a stole and fastened to the front of the altar in 
the Middle Ages. 

— Altar-tomb, an oblong monument over a grave 
covered with a slab and resembling an altar. 
— Altar-vase, a vase used for flowers in decorat- 
ing the altar. 

— Altar-vessels, sacred vessels used in the wor- 
ship of the Blessed Sacrament. They are the chalice, 
paten, ciborium, and ostensorium or monstrance. 




— Altar-wine, wine made from the genuine juice of 
the grape, used as one of the Eucharistic elements. 
— C.E.; O'Brien, History of the Mass, N. Y., 1882; 
MacMahon, Liturgical Catechism, Dub., 1927. 

Altar (in Scripture). Many altars are men- 
tioned in Scripture, e.g., those of Noe and Abraham, 
altars erected for the worship of idols, altars of 
holocaust and of incense, of the Tabernacle and of 
the Temple, and the altar described in the Apoc- 
alypse. 

— Altars of the Tabernacle. The altar of 
holocaust was within the court of the Tabernacle 
to the east of the entrance. It was of setim wood 
covered with plates of brass, the whole structure 
filled with rocks and 
earth, and measured 5 
cubits square and 3 in 
height. The altar of in- 
cense, used for incense 
offerings in the Old Law, 
was within the Taber- 
nacle. It measured 1 
cubit in length, as much 
in breadth, and 2 cubits 
in height, and was of 
setim wood overlaid with 
gold. 

— Altars in the Temple 
of Jerusalem. The altar 
of holocaust was located 
in front of the Temple 
proper and the altar of 
incense stood in the Holy 
Place before the veil cov- 
ering the door to the 
Holy of Holies. The ordi- 
nances regarding the 
former are contained in 
Exodus, 20, and Deute- 
ronomy, 17. Solomon's 
altar was similar in form 
to that of the Tabernacle, 
but larger, measuring 20 
cubits in length and 
width and 10 in height, 
and constructed of un- 
hewn stone and earth 
covered with plates of brass, hence called "brazen 
altar." Destroyed with the Temple by Nabuchodo- 
nosor, 586 B.C., it was the first thing rebuilt by the 
returned exiles, 537. Antiochus Epiphanes dese- 
crated this second altar, 168, and on that account 
it was completely removed by Judas Machabeus, 
165, and a new one was erected which apparently 
remained until the destruction of Herod's Temple by 
the Romans, 70 a.d. The altar of incense in Solo- 
mon's Temple was of the same dimensions as that 
of the Tabernacle and made of cedar wood overlaid 
with gold, hence called "golden altar." Its history 
repeats that of the altar of holocaust. Near this 
altar took place the annunciation to Zachary of the 
birth of John the Baptist (Luke, 1). (c. L. s.) 

Altarage, stole-fees or stipend received by a 
priest. Formerly it was a chaplain's revenue solely. 
Altar Boys, servers at the altar, not in minor 
orders, at Mass, Vespers, Benediction of the Blessed 




IIIIIIIIIIIlIIll 



ROMAN ALTAR 



ALTAR BOYS 



33 



AMALARIUS OF METZ 



Sacrament, Marriage, Holy Communion, etc. See 
Acolyte. 

Altar Societies (also called Tabernacle So- 
cieties), groups of devout persons, usually women, 
who make vestments arid altar linens and keep them 
in repair, and provide altar vessels, furniture, and 
ornaments. Many of these societies give the fruit of 
their labors to missionary and poor churches. 

Altar=stone or Portable Altar, a small, flat 
slab of natural stone, consecrated ordinarily by a 
bishop, containing in a stone-covered cavity relics 
of two canonized martyrs, inserted in the center of 
the table of an altar which is not entirely con- 
secrated. The host and chalice are placed on this 
stone during the Sacrifice of the Mass. The stone is 
portable and may be placed in any suitable altar : it 
really constitutes the altar. — C.E., I, 348. (j. c. t. ) 

Alternation, in liturgy, the response of a con- 
gregation praying in turn with the officiating min- 
ister, as in saying the Rosary or litanies; or the 
recitation of the Divine Office in choir, each side re- 
citing a verse in turn. 

Altham, John (d. 1641), Jesuit missionary. He 
accompanied Gov. Leonard Calvert to Maryland, 
1633, and established the first chapel there. His 
missionary labors extended south of the Potomac. 

Alto ex Olympi vertice, or From highest 
heaven, The Father's Son, hymn for Lauds on the 
feast of the dedication of a church. Written in the 
6th or 7th century, it is not known who the author 
was. The English title given is by E. Caswall. — 
Britt. 

Altoona, Diocese of, Pennsylvania, comprises 
counties of Bedford, Blair, Cambria, Center, Clin- 
ton, Fulton, Huntingdon, and Somerset; area, 6710 
sq. m. ; founded, 1901; suffragan of Philadelphia. 
Fr. Demetrius Gallitzin, Russian missionary, labored 
there. Bishops: Eugene Garvey (1901-20); John 
McCort (1920); Churches, 172; priests, secular, 
138; priests, regular, 45; religious women, 492; 
college, 1 ; seminary, 1 ; high school, 1 ; primary 
schools, 52; students in parochial schools, 14,425; 
institutions, 3; Catholics, 97,500. 

Altruism (Lat., alter, other), unselfish inter- 
est in another; a theory of conduct propounded by 
the French philosopher, Auguste Comte (1798- 
1857), according to which only actions having for 
their object the happiness of others possess a moral 
value; the theory that the chief good and the su- 
preme end of conduct are to be found only in disin- 
terested devotion to the welfare of others. — C.E.; 
Hill, Ethics, N". Y., 1920. 

Alumbrados (Illuminati), short-lived Spanish 
sect in the 16th century. 

Alumnus (Lat., one that nourishes), originally, 
an adopted or foster child, a child of the camp, 
native-born of a country; in post-Reformation times, 
a student who was adopted by the Alumnat, an 
institution endowed for the support and education 
of poor students; in modern use, a graduate of any 
institution of learning; in ecclesiastical usage, since 
the Council of Trent, a seminarian. Truth was re- 
garded by the Greeks as an alumna of Attic philoso- 
phy.— C.E. (c. J. D.) 

Alva, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of 
(1508-82), general and statesman, d. Thomar, 




MONOGRAM OF 

THE BLESSED 

VIRGIN 



Spain. Sent by Philip II to subdue the rebellious 
Netherlands, 1557, his stern measures caused him 
to be known as the Iron Duke. He executed rebels, 
destroyed towns, and exacted exorbitant taxes. The 
statue of himself which he erected in Antwerp was 
later destroyed. The Dutch rebelled under William 
of Orange, but Alva held them in check until their 
desperate resistance at Alkmaar gained them the 
victory. In 1573 he resigned his post. In 1580 he 
completely subdued rebellious Portugal in three 
weeks. — C.E.; Cambridge Modern History, II, III, 
N". Y., 1907 and 1918. 

Alvarez de Paz, mystic (1560-1620), b. Toledo, 
Spain; d. Potosi, Bolivia. A member of the Society 
of Jesus, he taught theology and philosophy at 
Lima and was provincial of Peru. He was renowned 
for his sanctity, is said to have had the gift of 
prophecy, and it is reported that his body remained 
incorrupt after death. His writings on the spiritual 
life are widely used. — C.E. (r. j. m.) 

Alzog, Johann Baptist (1808-78), priest and 
church historian, b. Ohlau, Silesia; 
d. Freiburg, Breisgau. He was pro- 
fessor of church history at Freiburg, 
and wrote "Manual of Church His- 
tory," "Patrology," "Oration of St. 
Gregory Nazianzus," and other 
works. — C.E. 

A. M. = Ave, Maria (Hail, 
Mary) ; initials interwoven as a 
monogram of the Blessed Virgin. 

Ama, Semitic word meaning: 
( 1 ) mother, applied by Copts and Greeks to nuns 
and to ladies of rank; (2) vessel in which the wine 
offered by the people for the Holy Sacrifice was 
received in the early Church. 

Amadeans, Friars Minor of the reform effected 

c. 1740 in Lombardy by Mendes de Silva, known as 
Amadeus of Portugal. The congregation was sup- 
pressed by Pius V, who distributed its members 
among other communities. 

Amadeus VIII (Lat., love God), Duke of Savoy, 
antipope under the name of Felix V (1383-1451), 
b. Chambery, France; d. Geneva. In 1439 he ap- 
pointed his son regent of his duchy, and withdrew 
to Ripaille on the Lake of Geneva, where he formed 
the semi-monastic Order of St. Maurice. He was 
chosen pope by the schismatical Council of Basle, 
1439, and crowned there, 1440. Excommunicated by 
Eugene IV, he obtained only local recognition. In 
1449 he submitted to Nicholas V, thus ending the 
last papal schism, and was made a cardinal. 

Amadeus of Portugal, Blessed. See Mendes 
de Silva. 

Amadeus of the Heart of Jesus, Mother 
Mary (Sarah Theresa Dunne; 1846-1920), Ur- 
suline missionary among the Indians, b. Akron, O.; 

d. Seattle, Wash. Elected superior at Toledo, O., 
1874, she founded twelve Indian missions in Mon- 
tana and the missions of Yukon Delta, St. Michaels, 
and Valdez, in Alaska, and was appointed provin- 
cial superior of the northern United States. — C.E., 
Suppl. 

Amalarius of Metz (Fortunatus or Sym- 
phosius), 9th-century liturgical writer, b. Metz, 
Kingdom of the Franks. A pupil of Alcuin at Aix- 



AMALARIUS OF.METZ 



34 



AMBROSE 



la-Chapelle, he was Bp. of Trier, 811-813, and later 
ambassador to Constantinople. He lived at a time 
when the liturgy was changing, when fusion of the 
Roman and Gallican uses was taking place, and he 
exercised a remarkable influence in introducing the 
present composite liturgy which has supplanted the 
ancient Roman Rite. The chief merit of his works 
is that they have preserved much accurate and 
valuable information on the state of the liturgy at 
the beginning of the 9th century and are therefore 
useful sources for the history of Latin rites. — 
C.E. 

Amalberga (Amalia), Saint, virgin (742-772), 
b. Rodin, Flanders; d. Miinster-Bilsen. As a youth 
Charlemagne sought her in marriage, and attempted 
to abduct her, but was unable to move her from 
the altar where she had taken refuge. She became a 
Benedictine nun at Miinster-Bilsen. She is especially 
revered in Belgium. Emblems : crown, sieve, geese, 
fish. Feast, 10 July.— C.E. 

Amalberga (Amelia), Saint, matron (d. 690), 
b. Santes, Belgium; d. Maubeuge. Sister or niece of 
Pepin of Landen, she married Duke Witger of Lor- 
raine, and was the mother of Sts. Emembert, Rei- 
neldis, and Gudula. Her husband became a monk, 
and she a Benedictine nun at Maubeuge. Invoked 
against bruises and fever. Relics at Binche. Feast 
10 July.— C.E. 

Amalecites, one of the fiercest of Bedouin tribes, 
probably of Arabian origin, living within the bor- 
ders of Palestine. Instead of showing ordinary hu- 
manity to the stragglers of the Israelites when 
emerging from Egypt, they slew them, and incurred 
the Israelites' everlasting hatred. To Saul and Sam- 
uel their extermination was a religious duty, which 
David took up and the Simeonites finished. — C.E., 
I, 377. 

Aman. See Esther. 

Amana Society or Community of True In- 
spiration, a socialistic settlement of German Prot- 
estants founded in Buffalo, N. Y., 1843, by Christian 
Metz and Barbara Heinemann, and located at 
Amana, la., since 1843. It is the only one of similar 
settlements which has thrived for any length of 
time, owing, as its members believe, to religious 
motives. In 1925 there were 7 churches and 1534 
members. 

Amand, Saint, confessor (594-684), apostle of 
Flanders, b. Nantes, France; d. monastery of Elnon 
(now St. Amand). Clotaire II sent him to Flanders; 
his monasteries at Ghent and Mt. Blandin were the 
first in Belgium. For a while Bp. of Maastricht, he 
later labored in the Basque country (Navarre), re- 
turned to Belgium, and founded several other 
monasteries. Patron of inn-keepers, wine-merchants, 
brewers, and Boy Scouts. Emblems: church, chains, 
flag. Relics at St. Amand. Feast, 6 Feb.— C.E. ; 
Butler. 

Amarillo, Diocese of, Texas, comprises 70 1 /2 
counties of northwestern Texas, approximately 
72,000 sq. m. ; founded, 1926; suffragan of San An- 
tonio. First bishop, Aloysius Gerken. Churches, 75; 
priests, secular, 13; priests, regular, 12; religious 
women, 107; seminary, 1; high schools, 3; paro- 
chial schools, 9; students in parochial schools, 
1428; institutions, 2; Catholics, 19,450. 



Ambassador (M. L., ambasciare, to go on mis- 
sion), minister of high rank sent by head of a 
sovereign state as personal representative. In Cath- 
olic countries the pope's ambassador, nuncio, legate, 
or envoy has precedence over other members of the 
diplomatic corps. The first permanent envoys of the 
Holy See were the apocrisarii (Gr., apokrisis, an 
answer) sent to the court of Constantinople about 
the middle of the 5th century. The use of a private 
chapel for the ambassadors of a Catholic country at 
a Protestant court and vice versa is always allowed. 
The Sardinian, Neapolitan, Venetian, Bavarian, 
Portuguese, and Spanish ambassadors had their pri- 
vate chapels in London even when the Catholic re- 
ligion was proscribed in England. The Sardinian 
(erected, 1648), Bavarian (1747), and Spanish 
(1742) chapels were even opened to the public and 
became eventually ordinary parochial churches. The 
two former still exist; the latter was replaced 
(1890) by a handsome church. The Holy See has 
nuncios Apostolic in Argentina, Austria, Bavaria, 
Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Czecho- 
slovakia, France, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithu- 
ania, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, 
Spain, Switzerland, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia; in- 
ternuncios in Central America (comprising Costa 
Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Salva- 
dor ) , Haiti, Holland, Luxemburg ; it has also diplo- 
matic representatives in the Dominican Republic, 
Ecuador, Irish Free State, Liberia, and Uruguay. 
These nations send ambassadors to the Holy See: 
Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, France, 
Germany, Peru, Poland. Nations represented by 
ministers plenipotentiary are : Austria, Bolivia, 
Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, Haiti, 
Hungary, Irish Free State, Latvia, Liberia, Lithu- 
ania, Monaco, Nicaragua, Portugal, Rumania, 
Salvador, San Marino, Venezuela, Yugoslavia. The 
LTnited States Legation, established in 1852, was 
suppressed in 1868. 

Ambition (Lat., ambire, to go about), excessive 
or inordinate seeking of honors, so named from the 
practise of candidates for office in early Rome going 
about the city to procure votes. — C.E. (ed. ) 

Ambitus Altaris (Lat., space around an altar), 
altar enclosure in ancient churches, usually sepa- 
rated from choir enclosure. 

Ambo (Or., an elevation), an elevated desk or 
pulpit with a flight of stairs on each side from 
which the Epistles and Gospels were read and the 
sermon preached, in the early Church; in later 
times, two amboncs were used, one for the Epistle, 
the other for the Gospel. In the Russian Orthodox 
Church the ambo is a flight of stairs in front of the 
iconostasis (picture screen in front of the sanc- 
tuary) ; in the cathedral churches the priest stands 
on the ambo in the middle of the nave during part 
of the service. In the Greek Catholic Church the 
ambo is a table in front of the iconostasis, at which 
baptisms, confirmations, and marriages are cele- 
brated.— C.E. ; O'Brien, History of the Mass, N. Y., 
1882. 

Ambrose (Gr., immortal), Saint, Father and 
Doctor of the Church (340-397), Bp. of Milan, b. 
in Gaul, his father being Prefect of Gaul (modern 
France, Britain, I^pain, and part of Africa). Am- 



AMBROSE 



35 



AMERICA 



brose distinguished himself as a lawyer and as 
consular governor of Liguria and iEmilia, with resi- 
dence in Milan. When striving to hold an orderly 
election of a bishop to that see in 374, the people 
acclaimed him, although, out of reverence for Bap- 
tism, he was still only a catechumen preparing for 
it. Baptized, he was ordained priest, and consecrated 
bishop, 7 Dec, 374. He gave his personal property 
to the poor, his landed possessions to the Church, 
studied the Scriptures and the Fathers, and 
preached every Sunday, frequently on virginity. 
His popularity enabled him to withstand the fierce 
Arian heretics and the encroachments of the secular 
powers on the Church. His influence over the rulers 
w r as such that when Theodosius had caused the mas- 
sacre of thousands of citizens at Thessalonica, Am- 
brose insisted on his doing public penance. He was 
instrumental in the conversion of St. Augustine. 
Ambrose left many writings on Scripture, priest- 
hood, virginity, and doctrinal subjects; he composed 
many hymns and is one of the founders of Chris- 
tian hymnology, Ambrosian Chant, Hymnography, 
and the Milanese Bite are named after him. So also 
was the Order of St. Ambrose, founded at Milan in 
the 14th century, several Oblate congregations, and 
the Ambrosian Library, founded by Card. Federigo 
Borromeo. Patron of wax-chandlers. Emblems : 
bees, dove, ox, pen. Belies in Milan. Feast, 7 Dec. — 
De Broglie, St. Ambrose, tr. Maitland, N. Y., 1899; 
C.E.; Butler. 

Ambrose of Siena, Blessed (1220-86), Domin- 
ican, b. Sansedoni, near Siena; d. Siena. In 1260 
he went as a missionary to Hungary. When Siena 
twice rebelled against the Holy See, Ambrose's elo- 
quence obtained its pardon. He brought about a 
reconciliation between Conrad of Germany and Pope 
Clement IV, and as papal legate, restored peace 
between Venice and Genoa, and Florence and Pisa. 
Feast, 20 March.— C.E. 

Ambrosian Basilica, church, Milan, dating 
from the 9th century and restored in the 12th, re- 
placing the original edifice erected by St. Ambrose 
and consecrated, 386. In 1864 a sarcophagus con- 
taining the relics of Sts. Gervasius and Protasius 
and of St. Ambrose was discovered in the confession 
of the basilica. The golden altar-frontal dates from 
835; and the brazen serpent on a column in the 
nave was brought from Constantinople, c. 1001, 
under the supposition that it was the serpent 
erected by Moses in the desert. — C.E. 

Ambrosian Chant, hymns written in iambic di- 
meter form, whether by St. Ambrose, or his contem- 
poraries, c. 374. Those attributed to St. Ambrose 
were syllabic in form and simple in rhythm, but the 
texts underwent many subsequent rhythmical and 
melodic changes. A comparison of various codices 
from different centuries made possible the restora- 
tions of Guido Dreves, 1893. The chants now used 
in the Ambrosian, or Milanese, Bite, originated for 
the most part in later liturgical developments. 

Ambrosian Hymnography or Ambkosiani, 
hymns of the metric and strophic cast peculiar to 
the authenticated hymns of St. Ambrose and of his 
hymnodic school; by extension, a poetical form or 
a liturgical use. Under the Rule of St. Benedict, 
hymns to be used during the canonical hours 



were styled Ambrosianos. The four hymns uni- 
versally acknowledged as authentic are: "iEternae 
rerum Conditor," "Deus Creator Omnium," "Jam 
resurgit hora tertia," "Veni Redemptor gen- 
tium." 

Ambrosian Library, one of the famous libraries 
of the world, founded by Card. Federigo Borromeo 
at Milan between 1603 and 1609. It consists of a 
single hall, 75 ft. by 29 ft., with bookcases along 
the walls, lighted by large semi-circular windows at 
each end. The books are procured by agents from all 
parts of Europe and also from the East. It was one 
of the first libraries to offer facilities for research, 
accessible to all students. — C.E. 

Ambrosian Rite, the rite used in the Church 
of Milan, Italy, so called from St. Ambrose, Bp. of 
Milan, probably because he made a revision of it, or 
because its principal characteristics date from his 
time. It is sometimes called the Milanese Bite. Its 
origin is disputed. Some consider it an old form of 
the Boman, others Gallican, others Antiochene. In 
its present form it is greatly Bomanized, having 
the whole Roman Canon in the Mass. Some notable 
peculiarities are: a procession with the oblations of 
bread and wine before the Offertory; the litany 
chanted by the deacon; the Creed said after the 
Offertory. It is used in the Archdiocese of Milan, 
but not exclusively even in the city of Milan.- — 
C.E.; Fortescue, The Mass, N". Y., 1914. (m.e.d.) 

Ambry or Aumbry (Lat., armarium, a chest or 
safe), a box in which the holy oils are kept in 
Catholic churches, affixed to the wall 
of the sanctuary. — Sullivan, Exter- 
nals of the Catholic Church, N. Y., 
1918. (j. f. s.) 

Ambulatory (Lat., ambulo, 
walk ) , a covered passage, open to 
the air on one side, round a cloister, 
or around the apse of a church; the 
latter type often has radiating 
chapels. 

A.M.D.G. = Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam (For the 
greater glory of God), motto of the Society of 
Jesus, glory meaning the greatest service possible. 

Amen (Heb., aman, strengthen), a word in scrip- 
tural and liturgical use, meaning "so be it." It is 
used as an acclamation which indicates that the 
speaker adopts for his own what has been said by 
another (Deut., 27), as an affirmation of the 
speaker's own thought, and as a fomula of con- 
clusion at the end of prayers. It was often spoken 
by Our Lord, and is given as one of His names 
(Apoc, 3, 14).— C.E. ; O'Brien, History of the Mass, 
N. Y., 1882. (c. J. d.) 

Amende Honorable, form of satisfaction in- 
flicted on condemned criminals in France as late as 
the 17th century; they appeared before the eccle- 
siastical judge, stripped to the waist, barefoot, with 
candle in hand, begging pardon of God, the king, 
and justice. 

America. In the 15th century the New World 
was called simply Western Indies by the Spaniards 
who claimed the first right to name it in virtue of 
the discoveries of Columbus. In the following cen- 
tury Martin Waldseemuller, a German cosmogra- 
pher, unaware of previous discovery, proposed the 




AMERICA 



36 



AMERICAN CATHOLIC 



name America in honor of Amerigo Vespucci who 
claimed to have touched the western continent on 
his first voyage, 1497-98. Of the many claims to pre- 
Columbian discovery (Phenicians, Basques, Celts, 
Norse, Italians, and Chinese), the Norse alone is 
accepted as historically certain. However, Ari Thor- 
gilsson (d. 1148), most trustworthy of the histo- 
rians of Iceland, records evidence of occupation of 
Iceland by Irish monks before the arrival of the 
Norse, and reference is made to a land in the west- 
ern ocean called Ireland the Great in the "Saga of 
Thorfinn Karlsefni," "Eyrbyggia Saga," and narra- 
tives of Are Marson. Adam of Bremen, in "A De- 
scription of the Northern Islands" (1075), mentions 
Greenland and Vinland and gives the oldest written 
account of Norse discovery of America. Greenland 
was settled by Eric the Red c. 985, and the dis- 
covery of Vinland is ascribed to Leif, son of Eric, 
on his way back to Norway from Greenland where 
he had been sent by King Olaf of Norway to intro- 
duce Christianity (c. 1000). The first diocese in the 
new world was erected at Gardar, Greenland, c. 
1125, and its existence is corroborated by several 
letters in the Vatican Library. 

Columbus arrived at San Salvador (Watling Is- 
land) in 1492 and proceeded to Cuba and Haiti, 
discovered Jamaica in 1494, and in 1498 came to 
Trinidad and the mainland. Spanish exploration 
and conquest followed rapidly, and as Portuguese 
rivals disputed Spanish claims, an appeal was made 
by both governments to Pope Alexander VI, who in 
1493 delimited two spheres of influence by a line 
drawn 370 leagues w. of Cape Verde Islands, the 
western to be Spanish, the eastern Portuguese. 
Spain began colonization of the larger Antilles in 
1493. Balboa established the continental nature of 
America by discovery of the Pacific in 1513. Cortes 
conquered Mexico in 1521, Central America was 
subjugated in 1524, and in 1534 Peru was con- 
quered by Pizarro. Within sixty years of discovery, 
all Central and South America, except Brazil, and a 
large part of North America belonged to Spain. 
Conversion of the Indians was stipulated in every 
royal contract with the explorers, and the Church 
undertook education and civilization of the Indians 
as soon as governmental administration was stabi- 
lized. The printing press was introduced into Mex- 
ico (c. 1536) for this purpose, and Franciscans, 
Dominicans, and other religious orders, especially 
Jesuits, became the protectors as well as the teach- 
ers of the natives. The Brazilian coast was discov- 
ered by Pedro Alvarez Cabral in 1500, and the 
methods of Portuguese colonists, though more com- 
mercial, resembled those of Spain, but in the 17th 
and 18th centuries they became dangerous to Jesuit 
missions through their practise of enslaving the 
Indians. 

The first French colony was established in 1534 
at the mouth of the St. Lawrence explored by 
Champlain, the first permanent settlement at Que- 
bec in 1608, and French power in Canada was 
strengthened by the Jesuits, who strove to win the 
Iroquois to Christianity and friendship with 
France. Connection between the Great Lakes and 
the Mississippi was established in the 17th century 
by Marquette and Joliet. The French also colonized 



Louisiana, the Mississippi Valley explored by La 
Salle, some of the Lesser Antilles, and Guiana in 
South America, but their undertakings were on a 
smaller scale than the Spanish and less actively 
supported by the government. 

The English flag was brought to America in 1497 
by John Cabot, a Venetian navigator commissioned 
by King Henry VII, who landed near Cape Breton. 
In 1584 and 1607 settlements were made in North 
Carolina and Virginia under the patronage of the 
crown, and later by the Puritans in New England, 
and by Catholics in Maryland. The English were 
superior to the French in organization and dis- 
played more individual enterprise and commercial 
tendency than the Spanish. Dutch and Swedish mi- 
grations followed, and in 1613 the colony of New 
Netherlands was founded, extending from Long 
Island up the Hudson River Valley. The colony of 
New Sweden, founded in 1638 on the shores of 
Delaware Bay, was ceded to the Dutch in 1655, and 
in 1664 Dutch possessions passed to the English. 
Unfortunately those in authority did not always 
encourage the civilization of the Indians but too 
often regarded them as obstacles to be removed. 
— C.E.; U.K.; Shea. 

America, a national Catholic weekly review 
founded by the Jesuits of the U. S., 1909. It aims 
to provide a "review and conscientious criticism of 
the life and literature of the day, a discussion of 
actual questions, and a study of vital problems 
from the Christian standpoint, a record of religious 
progress, a defense of sound doctrine, an authori- 
tative statement of the position of the Church in 
the thought and activity of modern life, a removal 
of traditional prejudice, a refutation of erroneous 
news, and a correction of misstatements about Cath- 
olic beliefs and practises." ("America," 17 April, 
1909). Circulation, 34,784.— C.E. 

American and Foreign Christian Union, or- 
ganized, 1849, by union of the American Protestant 
Society, Foreign Evangelical Society, and the Chris- 
tian Alliance, to convert Catholics to Protestantism. 
It worked in North and South America and Europe, 
for a number of years, withdrew from France, 1866, 
and from all Europe, 1873, and ultimately limited 
its efforts to supporting an American church in 
Paris. 

American Board of Catholic Missions, or- 
ganized at Cincinnati, 0., 1920, by a committee ap- 
pointed by the bishops of the Catholic Church in 
America, and consisting of the Abps. of Cincinnati, 
New York, and Philadelphia, and Bps. of Omaha 
and Pittsburgh, to consolidate various missionary 
activities of the United States under authority of 
the hierarchy and coordinate them with Catholic 
missions of other countries under general juris- 
diction of an international board selected by the 
Vatican. 

American Catholic Church (Western Ortho- 
dox), an American offshoot of the European sect 
of Old Catholics (q.v.). 

American Catholic Historical Association, a 
national society for the promotion of study and 
research in the general history of the Catholic 
Church. It was founded in Cleveland, 1919, and has 
headquarters at the Catholic University of America, 



AMERICAN CATHOLIC 



37 



AMIDA 



Washington, D. C. Its official organ is the quar- 
terly "Catholic Historical Review." (p. G. ) 

American Catholic Quarterly Review, estab- 
lished at Philadelphia, 1876, by Rev. James A. 
Corcoran, Rev. James O'Connor, and George Bering 
Wolff. The first issue appeared in January with 
Fr. Corcoran as editor-in-chief. The editorial policy 
of the review, as inscribed on the first page of each 
issue, permits complete freedom of expression out- 
side of the domain of defined doctrines. The "Re- 
view" has had a strong influence in behalf of Cath- 
olic apologetics, and notably in the discussions 
which led to the foundation of the Catholic Uni- 
versity of America. 

American College, Louvain, Belgium, founded, 
1857, by two American bishops, M. J. Spalding and 
P. Lefevre. Its purpose was to provide American- 
born students an opportunity for superior ecclesias- 
tical training, and to prepare young men of Euro- 
pean birth for missionary work in America. Fr. P. 
Kindekins, the first rector, opened it in a vacant 
butcher-shop on the Montagne des Carmelites, in a 
house originally part of a Benedictine college 
founded 1629. It forms an integral part of the 
School of Sacred Sciences of the University of 
Louvain, its general plan being based upon that of 
the Propaganda, at Rome. Authority is vested in a 
committee of three American bishops. The old build- 
ings were replaced by a new college, 1905, accommo- 
dating 150 students, and a course of philosophy was 
added to the curriculum. The college averages an 
attendance of 60; it has educated over a score of 
American bishops, and provided almost 1000 priests 
for the American dioceses. — C.E. ; American Col- 
lege, Louvain, 1857-1907. 

American College, Rome. See North American 
College; South American College. 

American Federation of Catholic Societies, 
organization founded in Cincinnati, O., 1901, for 
the purpose of advancing the civil, social, and re- 
ligious interests of Catholics, with membership 
composed of the leading Catholic organizations. It 
was influential in bringing about the correction of 
many errors concerning the Church in four general 
encyclopedias, in obtaining fair treatment for 
Catholics in the Philippines, and in developing in- 
terest among Catholics in public affairs in which 
religion is concerned. During the World War it 
was merged into the National Council of Catholic 
Men, 

Americanism, a term rightly employed, accord- 
ing to Leo XIII in his letter to the hierarchy of 
the United States, "Testem benevolentise" (Proof 
of Affection), to express the characteristic qualities 
which reflect honor on the American people, or on 
their condition, customs, and laws; but wrongly 
employed to express certain opinions that are not 
in accordance with Catholic principles, as, for in- 
stance, that the action of the Holy Ghost in these 
days renders spiritual guidance less necessary, that 
the natural virtues are to be more cultivated than 
the supernatural, that the active are more impor- 
tant than the passive virtues, that vows narrow 
true liberty, that time-honored methods of dealing 
with Protestants are now antiquated. (ed. ) 

American Party, See Knownothingism. 



American Protective Association (A.P.A.), a 
secret proscriptive society in the United States, 
which was a disturbing factor in most Northern 
States during 1891-97. It was founded by Henry F. 
Bowers, who established the first council at Clinton, 
la., 1887, and reached its height in 1894. Members 
were bound by oath to endeavor to exclude Cath- 
olics entirely from public offices. Propaganda was 
carried on by literature and lectures; forged docu- 
ments were used, especially an alleged "papal bull" 
calling for a massacre of Protestants. Capital was 
made out of the coming of Mgr. Satolli, papal dele- 
gate, and also out of the parochial-school question. 
Few prominent men acknowledged membership. It 
was associated with the Republican party, and a 
great source of vexation to it. In failing to pre- 
vent the nomination of William McKinley (1896) 
and also to secure representation in the Republican 
platform for some principles of the order, its pres- 
tige received a blow from which it never recovered. 
—C.E. 

American Rescue Workers, formerly Ameri- 
can Salvation Army, a group of workers under 
Thomas E. Moore, who withdrew from the Salvation 
Army in 1882, incorporated as a separate body in 
1884, and the following year adopted a charter 
under the name of Salvation Army of America. In 
1913 the name was changed to American Rescue 
Workers. Similar to the Salvation Army in belief 
and government, their church is Christian with the 
sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper. They 
publish a quarterly periodical. In the United States 
in 1925 there were: 510 ministers; 159 churches; 
and 6946 communicants. 

Amerigo Vespucci (1451-1512), cosmographer 
and navigator, after whom America was named, b. 
Florence; d. Seville. The fact that his discovery 
of the mainland (1497-98) antedated that of Colum- 
bus was responsible for the appearance of the name 
"America" for the first time in 1507 and for its 
application first to South America and afterward 
to the entire Western Hemisphere. Vespucci, a 
friend of Columbus, had no part in this appellation. 
The history of his voyages (1497-1508) appears in 
his "Letters" (1507) and "Nbvus Mundus" (1503 
or 1504).— C.E., XV, 384; Havrisse, Discovery of 
North America and Americus Vespuccius, Lond., 
1895. 

Amerikanisches Familienblatt, a monthly 
family magazine published in German at Techny, 
111., by the Society of the Divine Word; founded, 
1901; circulation, 8059. 

Amerikanski Slovenec, daily newspaper, 
founded, 1891, published in the Slovenian (Yugo- 
slav) language in Chicago; circulation, 7858. 

Amice (Lat., amictus, garment), short linen 
vestment, square or oblong in shape, worn beneath 
the alb to cover the shoulders of the priest while 
celebrating Mass. When putting it on he touches 
the head with it, saying: "Put on my head, O 
Lord, the helmet of salvation, in order to repel the 
assaults of the devil." — C.E. ; MacMahon, Liturgical 
Catechism, Dub., 1927. 

Amida (Diarbekr), Diocese and Archdiocese 
of, Iraq. The diocese of the Armenian Rite was 
founded 1850, Churches, 10; priests, 18; schools, 



AMIDA 



38 



AMPERE 



12; Catholics, 5400. The archbishopric is of the 
Chaldean Rite dating from 1553, restored 1833; 
administrator, Israel Audo, Bp. of Mardin. The 
archbishop is also Abp. of Mejafarkin. Churches, 9; 
priests, 12; schools, 10; Catholics, 4180. 

Amiens, city, France, capital of Department of 
Somme. It was the Samarobriva of Caesar, and capi- 
tal of the Ambiani, from whom it derives its name, 
and later the countship of Amienois. The first 
known bishop of the Diocese of Amiens was St. 
Eulogius (4th century). Other noted bishops: Wil- 
liam of Macon, jurist; Jean de Lagrange, cardinal; 
Francois Faure, who converted James II of Eng- 
land. The cathedral (1220-88), called the "Bible of 
Amiens," is a perfect type of Gothic architecture 
of the 13th century; the ground plan consists of 
a nave of six bays with aisle on either hand, 
flanked by chapels; extreme length, 442 ft., width 
midway at crossing, 194 ft. Pop., 91,576. — Bumpus, 
Cathedrals of France, Lond., 1927. 

Ammen, Daniel (1820-98), naval officer and au- 
thor, b. Brown Co., 0.; d. Washington, D. C. He 
served with Dupont's fleet during the Civil War, 
was chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, 1869- 
71, and of the Bureau of Navigation, 1871-78. He 
designed the ram, Katahdin, and a life-raft, Am- 
men balsa, used in the navy, and made a survey 
for a Nicaraguan Canal which he strongly advo- 
cated. Ammendale, near Washington, was named 
after him ; it is the seat of a Christian Brothers' 
novitiate. Appointed rear-admiral, 1877, he resigned, 
1878. His writings include "Recollections of Grant" 
and "The Old Navy and the New" (autobiographi- 
cal).— C.E. 

Ammonian Sections, divisions of the four Gos- 
pels indicated in the margin of nearly all Greek 
and Latin MSS., attributed to Ammonius of Alex- 
andria (c. 220) in connection with a harmony of 
the Gospels. In large part they are due to Eusebius 
(d. 340). These sections differ from our scriptural 
chapters and verses, which date only from the 13th 
and 16th centuries respectively. — C.E. 

Ammonites, a tribe racially allied to the 
Hebrews, settled east of the Jordan. They practised 
the idolatries and abominations common to Semitic 
races, and their god was called Milcom, another 
form of Moloch. They were held in special loathing 
by the Hebrews, and, when converted to Hebraism, 
were barred from the Tabernacle together with 
their children, even after the tenth generation. In 
the time of Judas Machabeus, they were still a 
strong people, whom he subdued with difficulty. — 
C.E. 

Amorrhites, descendants of the fourth son of 
Chanaan, son of Cham (Gen., 10), an ancient and 
warlike people of doubtful origin, inhabitants of 
the land of Chanaan before the advent of Israel. 
They first appear in the Bible as inhabitants of 
South Palestine (Gen., 14), where a war with the 
Israelites (Jos., 10) secured to the latter the tenure 
of Palestine. While the origin of this race is dis- 
puted, its language, religion, and institutions are 
Semitic— C.E. 

Amos, a/mus (meaning not clear; perhaps "a 
burden"), third among the Minor Prophets, a sub- 
ject of the Kingdom of Juda, b. Thecua, 6 m. s. of 



Bethlehem. In the Book of Amos, which is one of 
the prophetical books of the O.T., he thus describes 
himself: "I am not a prophet, nor am I the son of 
a prophet; but I am a herdsman plucking wild figs. 
And the Lord took me when I followed the flock, 
and the Lord said to me: Go, prophesy to my 
people Israel" (Amos, 7). He toiled for God in the 
northern kingdom, preaching particularly at Bethel, 
about 12 m. n. of Jerusalem, the king's sanctuary 
and center of idolatrous worship. This was within 
the latter half of the reign of Jeroboam II, 783- 
743 B.C. (Amos, 1 and 7). He describes Israel as 
reveling in a period of national prosperity, of sin- 
ful orgies, and of security from external foes. This 
fits well with the period when Jeroboam was en- 
joying the fruits of his victories. Furthermore, the 
earthquake mentioned in 1, 1, and the eclipse in 8, 
9, suggests proximity with the year 763 B.C. The 
prophecy is contained in nine chapters, usually 
divided in three parts, according to the clues fur- 
nished by Amos himself. The first part (1-2) pic- 
tures God's judgment upon the nations encircling 
Israel, and then upon Israel itself. The second part 
(3-0) develops God's judgment upon Israel in three 
distinct discourses, St. Augustine calls attention to 
the power and the eloquence of the lamentation in 
chapters 5 and 6. The third part (7-9) records 
five visions; the fifth vision (9, verses 1-10) pre- 
pares the glorious perspective of Messianic bless- 
ings (verses 11-15). The book is one of the fairest 
specimens of Hebrew literature. Its arrangement is 
simple and artistic, its language plain but forceful, 
its wealth of imagery delightful and amazing. The 
reader is struck by the frequent recurrence of iden- 
tical phrases, as in chapter 1 : "For three crimes 
. . . and for four ... I will send a fire" (3-4, 6-7, 
9-10, 11-12, 13-14, etc.) ; and in chapter 4: "Yet you 
returned not to me" (6, 8, 9, 10, 11). Amos is the 
prophet of the sovereign Lordship of God over all 
creation. The canonicity of the book is vouched for 
by a citation in Tobias (2, 6) and two citations in 
the Acts of the Apostles, where St. Stephen (Acts, 
7, 42) quotes from Amos, 5, and St. James (Acts, 
15, 16) quotes from Amos, 9. It is used in the 
Office for Thursday, the fourth week of November, 
and in the Mass for Wednesday of the Ember Week 
of September, first lesson (9, 13-15). Passages 
recommended for reading are chapter 1, verse 3, to 
chapter 2, verse 5, and chapter 4, verses 6-11. 
— C.E.; Pope. (J. z.) 

Amovability (Lat., a, from; movere, to move), 
the term applied to the condition of those who hold 
a removable office. The difference between a remov- 
able office and an irremovable one is this: if there 
be a question of an irremovable office, the Ordinary 
cannot deprive a cleric of it, unless by means of 
a process carried out according to law; if there be 
question of a removable office, the deprival can be 
decreed by the Ordinary for any just cause what- 
ever, which is left to his prudent judgment, natural 
equity being observed, but he is not at all bound 
to follow a certain method of procedure, except in 
the case of removable parishes. — Code of Canon 
Law, can. 192, § 2 and § 3; can. 2147-61. (j. Mace.) 

Ampere, Andre Marie (1775-1836), physicist, 
mathematician, b. Lyons, France; d. Marseilles. He 



AMPERE 



39 



ANABAPTISTS 



is famed for his discoveries in electro-dynamics. In 
1881 the Paris Conference of Electricians named the 
practical unit of electric current, the "ampere." He 
wrote "Mathematical Theory of the Phenomena of 
Eiectro-dynamics" and other scientific treatises. — C.E. 
Ampnitheater (Gr., amphitheatron, sl double 
theater), a building where the scene of performance 
is entirely surrounded by seats for spectators; 
similar to the bowls and stadiums of today. That 
of Pompeii was built 80 B.C., the Roman Coliseum, 
a.d. 80. Remains of other Roman amphitheaters are 
at Verona, Capua, Pozzuoli and Pola, Italy; Nimes, 
Aries, Frejus, and Tours, France; Seville and Tar- 
ragona, Spain. Many of 
these were scenes of 
Christian martyrdoms. 
Amphorae (Gr., 
amphi, on both sides; 
phero, carry), vessels, 
generally made of clay, 
and furnished with ears 
for handles; used for 
holding wine. Spec- 
imens have been found 
in the catacombs, in- 
scribed with Christian 
symbols. — C.E. 

Ampleforth, Abbey of, Yorkshire, England, a 
Benedictine foundation having lineal continuity 
with the ancient Abbey of Westminster. The pres- 
ent house was founded as the monastery of St. 
Lawrence, 1802, and erected into an abbey, 1890. 
The titular abbacies of Westminster and York and 
the cathedral priories of Durham, Worcester, Ches- 
ter, and Rochester are attached to it. In 1928 there 
were 30 monks, who serve a number of missions in 
the vicinity and conduct a preparatory school and 
a college offering courses in preparation for uni- 
versity, navy, army, and air force examinations. 
Ampthill, Odo Russell, Baron (1829-84), Brit- 
ish diplomatist and ambassador, b. Florence; d. 
Potsdam. He was secretary of legation at Florence 
and resident in Rome till 1870, where he was the 
real, though unofficial representative of England at 
the Vatican, and rendered 
Abp. Manning great service 
by preventing any outside 
interference in the affairs of 
the Vatican Council. From 
1871-84 he was ambassador 
at Berlin, and was created 
a baron in 1881. — Diet. Nat. 
Biog. 

Ampullae (Lat., bottles), 
jars found in the catacombs, 
used for holding holy oils, 
or burial unguents; some 
ampulla are gU pp 0se( j_ t have held 

the blood of a martyr. In the Middle Ages they were 
carried by pilgrims and filled with oil from lamps 
in a martyr's shrine. Usually they bore the symbol 
of a saint. — C.E. 

Antra, elegy or panegyric on a native saint in 
Ireland. The best known is that of Coluimb Cille 
(Columba), attributed by tradition to Dalian Mac 
Forgaill, chief ollamh, or bard, c. 575. — C.E. 





Amraphel, King of Sennaar, or Babylonia, one 
of the Mesopotamian kings mentioned in Genesis; 
now believed to be identical with Hammurabi (2250 
B.C.).— C.E. 

Amsterdam, capital of Netherlands, originally 
a fortress, built 1204. Passing to the Counts of 
Holland, it was raised to the rank of a city, 1301; 
after the fall of Antwerp in 1585 it became the 
center of the world's trade. In spite of the uprising 
of the Anabaptists, 1535, destruction of holy 
images, 1566, and Utrecht Union, 1575, the cruelties 
of the Reformation were modified here through rec- 
ognition of the need of not antagonizing the traders 
of Catholic countries. 
In 1660 all public 
exercise of the Catholic 
religion was forbidden, 
and in 1708 all reli- 
gious houses were closed. 
Under Napoleon Am- 
sterdam became capital 
of the Kingdom of Hol- 
land, and Catholicity 
was recognized by the 
Constitution of 1843. It 
LET became a deanery sub- 

ject to the Diocese of Haarlem in 1853. The chief 
church is called the "Holy Room." — C.E. 

Amulet (Lat., amuletum, a charm), an object 
of stone, metal, parchment, etc., worn as protec- 
tion against disease, witchcraft, and other ills. 
Their use was common among early Egyptians, 
from whom the Romans adopted them. They were 
gradually repudiated by Christians as superstitions, 
and emblems and pious images were substituted, 
not, as the Council of Trent insists, because of 
any divinity or virtue inherent, but because they 
refer us to the persons or things represented. — 
C.E. 

Anabaptists (Gr., ana, again; baptizo, baptize: 
rebaptizers ) , a Protestant sect of the Reformation 
period which appeared in 1521 at Zwickau. The 
principal tenets were : ( 1 ) rejection of baptism of 
infants as unscriptural, and its restriction to adults 
as a sign of Christian belief; (2) restoration of 
what they considered primitive Christianity, aboli- 
tion of capital punishment, oaths, and the magis- 
tracy; (3) scripture as a rule of faith; (4) 
foundation of a new kingdom of God on communistic 
grounds. They were of two types, the sober or 
moderate and the fanatical type. The former origi- 
nated in Zwingli's reformation in Switzerland, 
when a portion of his followers at Zurich, 1522, 
seceded. The civil authorities compelled them to 
have their children baptized under penalty of ban- 
ishment, and their meetings w T ere prohibited. The 
moderates flourished in the Netherlands and 
adopted their new name, Mennonites, from a former 
Catholic priest, Menno Simonis, who assumed their 
leadership. The fanatical Anabaptists were active 
in Saxony, Thuringia, and other parts of Germany, 
and were the so-called "Zwickau Prophets." Luther 
drove them from Wittenberg, but their leader, 
Storch, continued his propaganda, particularly in 
Thuringia where he was one of the principal legis- 
lators of the Peasants' War. Their later excesses, 



ANABAPTISTS 



40 



ANASTASIUS 



communism, polygamy, community of women, led 
to their suppression in 1535. The Anabaptist tenets 
regarding infant baptism were adopted by the Bap- 
tists (q.v. ), the lineal descendants of the sober 
Anabaptists. 

Anacletus (Or., recalled), Saint, Pope (e. 79- 
c. 90), martyr. According to tradition he was a 
Greek, convert of St. Peter, and ordained by him, 
and was his second successor. He may be identical 
with the Cletus spoken of by Augustine and other 
writers. He is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass 
as Cletus, was martyred, and buried near St. Peter. 
Feast, R. Cal., 13 July.— C.E.; Butler. 

Anacletus II, antipope. See Pierleone, Pietro. 

Anagni, an Italian episcopal town, in the prov- 
ince of Rome; native place of Pope Boniface VIII. 
On 7 Sept., 1303, Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna, 
emissaries of Philip the Fair of France, at the head 
of several hundred soldiers, invaded the town where 
Boniface was then residing, plundered the papal 
palace, and offered all sorts of indignities to the 
pontiff who refused to abdicate or to convoke a 
general council. On 9 Sept. the inhabitants drove 
away the sacrilegious invaders. — C.E. (f. p. d. ) 

Anagnostes, the epistle-reader in the Greek 
Church. 

Anagogical sense (Gi\, anagogikos, that which 
leads up; e.g., the teachings of the Bible lead to 
eternal life), that division of the typical sense 
which includes blessings to be hoped for, and which 
refers particularly to the future life. The rest 
which the Israelites found in Chanaan is anagogi- 
cally typical of eternal rest in heaven (Ps., 94; 
Heb., 4). Jerusalem in its anagogical sense is typi- 
cal of the Church triumphant. (h. J. G. ) 

Analecta (Gr., things gathered), selections from 
authors ; often used as title, e.g. : "Analecta Sacra," 
a Gnostic work; "Analecta Bollandiana," review 
begun by the Bollandists in 1882. 

Analepsis (Gr., taking-up), in the Eastern 
Church, the feast of the Ascension. 

Analogy (Gr., ana, according to; logos, propor- 
tion), term used in natural theology to express the 
process of reasoning whereby we arrive at some 
knowledge, howsoever imperfect, of the nature of 
God. As He is the Creator of all the qualities there 
are in creatures, we argue that He must possess 
them all in their perfection. — C.E. ; Crumley, Logic, 
N. Y., 1926. (ed.) 

Anammelech (Babylonian, Anu is prince), a 
god, whose worship the Sepharvites introduced and 
perpetuated in Samaria, after the overthrow of the 
Kingdom of Israel and the capture of the capital 
by Sargon, King of Assyria (4 Kings, 17); prob- 
ably another name for the Babylonian god Anu. 
To Anammelech the Sepharvites offered their chil- 
dren in holocaust. (f. j. L.) 

Anamnesis. See Commemoration. 

Ananias. (1) Member of the first Christian 
community. With his wife he was miraculously 
punished by Peter with sudden death, for hypocrisy 
and falsehood (Acts, 5). (2) Disciple at Damascus, 
figuring in the baptism and conversion of Paul 
(Acts, 9). (3) Son of Nedebaios and high priest 
about a.d. 47-59. He was acquitted by Claudius of 
Rome from an accusation of permitting violence, 



and murdered at the beginning of the Jewish war 
(Acts, 23; 24). 

Anaphora (Gr., offering, sacrifice), in Greek 
Rite : ( 1 ) part of the service which corresponds to 
Latin Canon of the Mass; (2) offering of Euchar- 
istic bread; (3) aer (veil); (4) procession in which 
offerings are brought to the altar. — C.E.; Fortescue, 
The Mass, N". Y., 1914. 

Anarchy (Gr., an, without; archo, rule), a so- 
cial theory which maintains that the restraint of 
law is an invasion of the right of a free, intelligent 
being, that the individual has the right to unlimited 
self-expression, and that the self-interest of the in- 
dividual, if intelligently pursued, will best lead to 
the promotion of the general welfare. The origin 
of the theory is variously attributed to Diderot 
(1713-84), the Hebertistes of the French Revolu- 
tion, and to Proudhon (1809-65). In method some 
anarchists are evolutionary, believing in the advent 
of anarchism through propaganda and the use of 
the ballot. Others are revolutionary and propose 
to establish anarchism by violence. Nihilists, who 
believe in the assassination of rulers and other vio- 
lent acts of opposition to the existing forms of 
society, represent the radical extreme of revolution- 
ary anarchists. Anarchism is founded on an unwar- 
ranted optimism regarding the goodness of unre- 
strained human nature. — C.E. ; U.K. ; Vizetelly, The 
Anarchists, N. Y., 1911. (J. F. mcc. ) 

Anastasia (Gr., resurrection), Saint, martyr 
(304), d. Sirmium (modern Yugoslavia), in the 
Diocletian persecution. Later her cultus spread to 
Rome, where her church today gives its title to a 
cardinal-priest. Her name occurs in the prayer 
"Nobis quoque peccatoribus" in the Canon of the 
Mass, and she has the unique distinction of a 
special commemoration in the second Mass on 
Christmas. Feast, R. Cal., 25 Dec— C.E. ; 
Butler. 

Anastasimatarion, a Greek Church book, con- 
taining the text with music of the various com- 
positions sung during the Sunday Offices. 

Anastasis (Gr., resurrection), Church of the, 
Jerusalem, erected over the Holy Sepulcher by Em- 
peror Constantine I. It was razed by the Persians, 
614, and restored by Modestus, Abbot of St. The- 
odosius, c. 626. Its destruction, 1010, by Hakin, 
Caliph of Egypt, was an incentive to the First 
Crusade. Rebuilt by Constantine IX, 1048, it was 
incorporated in the French-Romanesque cathedral 
of the Crusaders, 1168. In the fire of 1808 the 
rotunda fell in upon the Sepulcher and the Ortho- 
dox Church obtained from the Turkish government 
exclusive permission to restore it. A new church, 
built by a Greek architect, was dedicated in 1810. 
The dome was rebuilt by France, Russia, and Tur- 
key, 1868. In the middle of the rotunda is the Tomb 
of Christ. The church is used in turn by Catholics, 
and various Eastern schismatics. 

Anastasius (Gr., resurrection), Saint, martyr 
(628), d. Bethsaloe, Assyria. A Persian magician 
and a soldier in the army of Khusrau, he was con- 
verted to Christianity when that monarch carried 
the Holy Cross from Jerusalem to Persia. He took 
the name of Anastasius and lived a monastic life 
for seven years. Desiring martyrdom he went to 



ANASTASIUS 



41 



ANCHORHOLD 



Caesarea, where he reproached his countrymen for 
their magic and fire-worship. He was sent to Beth- 
saloe, imprisoned, strangled, and decapitated. Pa- 
tron of goldsmiths; invoked against headaches. 
Relics at Rome. Feast, R. Cal., 22 Jan. — C.E.; 
Butler. 

Anastasius I, Saint, Pope (399-403), b. Rome; 
d. there. He was a friend of Augustine, Jerome, 
and Paulinus, and chiefly known for his condemna- 
tion of Origen and the Donatists. Feast, 27 April. 
— C.E. 

Anastasius II, Pope (496-498). He caused the 
name of Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to 
be removed from the tablets of the Church, al- 
though recognizing the validity of his sacramental 
acts; and condemned Traducianism. — C.E. 

Anastasius III, Pope (911-913), b. Rome; d. 
there. He was active in determining the ecclesias- 
tical divisions of Germany. — C.E.; Mann. 

Anastasius IV, Pope (1153-54), b. Rome; d. 
there. He was Card.-Bp. of Sabina, and during 
his pontificate restored the Pantheon and ended the 
controversy over the archiepiscopal see of Magde- 
burg by recognizing Frederick Barbarossa's candi- 
date, Wichmann. — C.E.; Mann. 

Anastasius Bibliothecarius (810-879), libra- 
rian of the Vatican, sometimes identified with the 
antipope. The latter was a Roman presbyter, later 
cardinal-priest, excommunicated by Pope Leo IV, 
850. Upon Leo's death, 855, he was elected pope 
by the imperial party, but the rightfully elected 
Benedict III gained the supremacy. His successor, 
Nicholas I, appointed as librarian, 8G7, an Anas- 
tasius who had been Abbot of Sancta Maria Trans- 
Tiberim, Rome, 858-867, and, if the same as the 
antipope, he must have been pardoned by Nicholas. 
Anastasius the librarian was appointed legate to 
Constantinople, 869, where he assisted at the 
Eighth (Ecumenical Council and translated its 
"Acts" into Latin. He was confirmed in his office 
by Pope John VIII, 872.— C.E. ; Mann. 

Anastasius the Fuller, Saint, martyr (c. 
304), b. Aquileia, Italy. He followed the fuller's 
trade at Salona, Dalmatia. Under Diocletian he 
was arrested and thrown into the sea because he 
painted a conspicuous cross on his door. His body 
was brought to Salona, where a church was built in 
his honor. In the 7th century his relics were trans- 
ferred to Spalato. Patron of fullers and weavers. 
Feast, 26 Aug. 

Anathema, an-ath'ema (Gr., placed on high, as 
were offerings to the divinity in the temples), 
word used in the O.T. to mean something offered 
to God (Jud., 16); applied also to odious things, 
such as the head of an enemy, or of a felon, when 
exposed to view, hence execrable, accursed. Applied 
to the enemies of the Jews, it meant they were to 
be outcast and even exterminated. In the N.T. St. 
Paul used it to express exclusion from the society, 
or communion, of the faithful the same as minor 
excommunication (Gal., 1). It was used in this 
sense of sinners and heretics from the 5th to the 
8th century, when it came to mean not only minor 
excommunication, but expulsion or major excom- 
munication from the Church, promulgated solemnly 
by the pope. — C.E.; P.C. Augustine. 



Anatomy (Gr., ana, up; temno, cut: cutting up, 
dissecting), the study of the composition, form, and 
structure of the bodies of living beings. As the 
purpose of this study is chiefly to discover means 
of preventing disease and preserving human life, 
and as the principal medieval and modern anat- 
omists were physicians and surgeons, this subject 
is treated under the general title of Medicine. It 
is of special interest to Catholics because the lead- 
ing pioneers in the science were Catholics, and 
with the encouragement of the Church, although 
the authorities of the Church have been erroneously, 
as is now admitted, accused of persecuting dis- 
tinguished anatomists. — C.E.; U.K. (ed. ) 

Ancestor=worship, veneration of the departed 
spirits by sacrifices and sundry services of filial 
piety with a view to obtaining their aid for their 
descendants. It is practised among the American 
Indians, Iranians, Japanese, Chinese, Hindus, Poly- 
nesians, Fijians, Zulus and other African tribes. 
—U.K. 

Anchieta, Jose de (1534-97), Spanish mission- 
ary, apostle of Brazil; b. Laguna, Teneriffe, 
Canary Islands; d. Reritigba, Brazil. He en- 
tered the Society of Jesus, 1551, and went to Bra- 
zil, 1553, where in spite of delicate health he 
worked among colonists and savages for 45 
years. Surnamed "Thaumaturgus," on account 
of miracles and prophecies, it is said that he 
had a remarkable attraction for birds and even 
wild beasts. He wrote a Tupi grammar and 
dictionary and became rector of the College of 
St. Vincent, and later Jesuit Provincial of Brazil. 
—C.E. 

Anchor (Gr., ankyra, hook), a symbol of hope, 
because it is an aid to mariners in danger of ship- 
wreck. It was a favorite emblem in the early 
Church and is found frequently in the catacombs 
and elsewhere, often with a dolphin intertwined 
as a symbol of Christ. In modern religious art it 
is an emblem of St. __ 

Rose of Lima, stead- 
fast in hope and 
courage in spite of 
great sufferings, St. 
Philomena, on whose 
tomb in the cata- 
combs it was found 
inscribed, and Pope 
St. Clement, miracu- 
lously freed when 
cast into the sea with 
an anchor bound to 
him. — C.E.; Henry, 
Catholic Customs 
and Symbols, N. Y., 
1926. (J. F. s.) 

Anchor=Cross, a 
combination of a cross and an anchor, emblematic of 
faith and hope. It was often used as a sacred symbol 
in the catacombs. (J. F. s.) 

Anchorhold (same root as anchorites), a 
walled-up hermitage or anchorage built beside a 
church, having two windows, one opening outside 
through which the recluse receives food and the 
other into the church. It is the name and subject 




ANCHOR-CROSS, AND FISHES 



ANCHORHOLD 



42 



ANDREA 



of an English chivalric tale by Enid Dinnis (Lond., 
1922). 

Anchorites (Gr., anachoreo, withdraw), men 
who renounce the world in order to spend their 
lives alone in penance and prayer; women are 
known as anchoresses. — C.E. 

Ancien Regime, an-se-an ra-zhem (Fr., old sys- 
tem), the established social and political system 
of France under the old monarchy, destroyed by 
the revolution of 1789. 

Ancient of Days, expression applied by the 
Prophet Daniel to God, contrasting His eternal 
power with the frail existence of worldly empires. 

Ancients, mentioned in the Apocalypse (4, 4; 5, 
5, 8; 7, 13; 19, 4; 21, 12-14) as part of the Court of 
the Lamb of God whom they adore and to whom 
they offer the prayers of the saints. They are 
clothed in white garments, have gold crowns, and 
number 24. The number is perhaps symbolical, 
representing the twelve Apostles and the twelve 
tribes of Israel or according to Bp. Blane, the 
twelve patriarchs of the Old Law. (n. g. ) 

Ancilla Dei (Lat., handmaid of God), title 
given in early Christian inscriptions to a deceased 
woman, but from the time of Gregory the Great, 
7th century, only applied to nuns. — C.E. 

Ancilla Domini Sisters or Poor Handmaids of 
Jesus Christ, a community founded by Catherine 
Kaspar, at Dernbach, Germany, 1851, for the edu- 
cation of the young and the care of the aged and 
infirm. The community has 345 houses, including 
schools, hospitals, orphanages, and homes for the 
aged in Germany, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, 
England, and the United States. The provincial 
mother-house for America is at Donaldson, Ind. ; 
the total number of religious is 4008. — C.E., XII, 
254. 

Ancren Riwle, an'kren rool, or Regula Incltt- 
sarum, 13th-century code of rules for anchoresses, 
sometimes called "The Nuns' Rule." — C.E. 

Andeol, Saint, martyr (208), apostle of Flan- 
ders, b. Smyrna; d. near Viviers, France. A dis- 
ciple of St. Polycarp, he was sent with Benignus, 
Andochius, and Thyrsus to evangelize the Vivarais. 
Represented in art in the garb of a subdeacon, 
holding in his hand a book and palm, his head 
pierced by a wooden knife. Relics at St. Andeol, 
France. Feast, 1 May. 

Anderdon, William Henry (1816-90), writer, 
b. London; d. Roehampton. He was an Anglican 
clergyman, converted in 1850. Through his influ- 
ence the Franciscan convent at Drumshambo, Ire- 
land, was founded. He was secretary to his uncle, 
Card. Manning, until he became a Jesuit, 1872. His 
best-known stories include "Afternoons with the 
Saints" and "The Catholic Crusoe." Among his con- 
troversial works are "Luther's Words and the Word 
of God," and "What Do Catholics Really Believe?" 
—C.E. 

Anderson, Henry James (1799-1875), scientist 
and educator, b. New York City; d. Lahore, India. 
He was professor of mathematics and astronomy, 
Columbia College, New York, and accompanied the 
U. S. Dead Sea Exploration, 1848. Becoming a 
Catholic, he was first president of the Supreme 
Council of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul in 



New York, founder of the New York Catholic Pro- 
tectory, Knight Commander of the Order of St. 
Gregory the Great, and president of the Catholic 
Union which he organized for the defense of papal 
rights and promotion of the Catholic religion. He 
died on his return journey from Australia where 
he had gone to observe the transit of Venus. In 
addition to several articles contributed to scientific 
papers, he was the author of "Geological Reconnais- 
sance of Part of the Holy Land," published by the 
U. S. Government.— C.E. 

Anderson, Patrick (1575-1624), missionary and 
writer, b. Elgin, Scotland; d. London. He entered 
the Society of Jesus, 1597, and in 1609 was ap- 
pointed to the Scottish mission, where his labors 
were successful and his escapes marvelous. In 
1615 he became rector of Scots College. On his 
return to Scotland, he was betrayed and impris- 
oned, and later liberated, probably through the 
offices of the French ambassador. He wrote, among 
other things, "Memoirs of the Scottish Saints." — 
C.E. 

Andorra, semi-independent republic in the 
Pyrenees between France and Spain; area, 191 
sq. m.; pop., 5231, all Catholics. Released from the 
Saracen yoke by Charlemagne and 
Louis the Pious, Andorra was 
ceded in the 11th century to the 
bishops of Urgel, who associated 
the French Counts of Foix in the 
government. The country is now 
under the joint suzerainty of 
France and the Bp. of Urgel, 
Spain, who each appoint a civil 
and a criminal judge. The Bp. of 
Urgel bears the title of Sovereign 
Prince of Andorra, the only tem- 
poral sovereignty, except the 
Vatican State, now held by an 
ecclesiastic. The republic has a 
general syndic or president, 
elected for life by the Council 
General of twenty-four elected 
members, which has supreme administrative and 
judicial power but cannot legislate or sign foreign 
treaties without the consent of the Bp. of Urgel and 
the French prefect. The country is included in the 
Spanish Diocese of Urgel, founded in the 4th cen- 
tury, of which Seo de Urgel, in Spain, is the cathedral 
city; the chief town of the republic is Andorra La 
Vieja (pop., 600).— U.K. 

Andrada, Antonio de (1580-1634), missionary, 
explorer of Tibet, b. Oleiros, Portugal; d. Goa, 
India. For four years he was the chief Jesuit mis- 
sionary in the Indies. He succeeded in penetrating 
into Tibet, and establishing a mission at Chapa- 
rangue. Recalled to Goa, he became superior of the 
Indies and died for the Faith. — C.E. 

Andrea, Giovanni d' (c. 1275-1348), canonist, 
b. near Florence; d. Bologna. He was educated at 
the University of Bologna, taught at Padua and 
Pisa, and became professor of canon law at Bologna. 
Works: "Glossary of the Six Books of decretals"; 
"Glossary of the Clementine books; Treatise, or 
Commentary on the decretal letters of Gregory IX"; 
"Mercuriales, or commentary on the six rules; Book 




BISHOP OF URGEli, 
SOVEREIGN PRINCE 
OF ANDORRA 



ANDREA 



43 



ANESTHESIA 



of the praises of Saint Jerome; Addenda to the 
Speculum of Durandus." — C.E. 

Andreis, Felix de (1778-1820), first superior of 
the Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians) in 
the United States, b. Demonte, Italy; d. St. Louis, 
Mo. He accompanied Bp. Dubourg to St. Louis, 
1818, where the congregation had its first estab- 
lishment, and died soon after exhausted by mis- 
sionary labors. The process for his beatification 
was authorized by Benedict XV, 1918. — C.E.; 
Kosati, Felix De Andreis, St. L., 1915. 

Andrew (Gr., manly), Saint, Apostle (d. 60), 
b. Bethsaida, Galilee; d. Patrae, Achaia. Son of Jona, 
brother of Peter (Matt., 10; John, 1), and dis- 
ciple of John the Baptist, he became a fol- 
X lower of Our Lord and was chosen as one 
of the twelve Apostles (Luke, 6). He is 
supposed to have preached in Cappadocia, 
Galatia, Bithynia, Scythia (Russia), By- 
gT# zantium, Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, and 
Andrew's Achaia, where he was crucified on an X- 

CROSS 

shaped or St. Andrew's cross by the Roman 
governor, ^Egeas. On St. Andrew's eve in Germany it 
is customary for girls to supplicate St. Andrew to 
reveal the identity of their future husband; on the 
day following the young people float cups in a tub, 
and if a boy's and a girl's cup drifting together are 
intercepted by a cup inscribed "priest" it indicates 
marriage. Patron of Russia and Scotland and of 
fishermen and old maids; invoked against gout and 
sore throat. Belies in cathedral of Amain, Italy. Em- 
blem : St. Andrew's cross. Feast, B. Cal., 30 Nov., till 
1918 a holy day of obligation in Scotland; the Divine 
Office for his feast is one of the most devotional in 
the Breviary. — C.E.; Butler. 

Andrew Avellino, Saint, confessor (1521-1608), 
b. Castronuovo, Sicily; d. Naples. His baptismal 
name was Lancelot, but he took the name Andrew 
when he entered the Order of Theatines. After 
studying canon and civil law at Naples, he took 
his degree and was ordained priest, 1547. He 
served as master of the novices and was later 
elected superior of the house at Naples. Renowned 
for his zeal for strict religious discipline and for 
his humility and piety, he was commissioned by 
his superior to found houses at Milan and Pia- 
cenza, and held the post of superior at several 
convents. St. Charles Borromeo was his intimate 
friend; Andrew's letters were published at Naples, 
1731. He died of apoplexy while saying Mass. 
Patron of Naples and Sicily; invoked against sud- 
den death and apoplexy. Canonized, 1712. Relics at 
Naples. Feast, R. Cal., 10 Nov.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Andrew Bobola, Blessed (1590-1657), Jesuit 
martyr, b. Sandomir, Poland; d. Janow. He was 
superior at Bobruisk, where he distinguished him- 
self during the plague. His success in converting 
schismatics, in the Lithuanian mission, led to his 
torture and martyrdom by the Cossacks. Feast, 
Russia, Galicia, and Posnania, 16 May; in Poland, 
21 Feb.— C.E. 

Andrew Corsini, Saint, confessor (1302-73), 
Bp. of Fiesole, apostle of Florence, b. Florence; d. 
Fiesole. Repenting his dissolute youth, he joined 
the Carmelite Order. He was consecrated Bp. of 
Fiesole, 1360, and was sought everywhere as a 



peacemaker; at Bologna he made peace between the 
nobility and the people. Miracles multiplied at his 
death. He is represented holding a cross, with a 
wolf and lamb at his feet, and floating above a 
battlefield on a cloud or a white palfrey. Canonized, 
1629. Relics at Florence. Feast, R. Cal., 4 Feb.— 
C.E.; Butler. 

Andrew Dotti, Blessed (1256-1315), b. and d. 
Borgo San Sepolcro, Italy. Of noble parentage, he 
entered the Servite Order, 1278, was ordained to the 
priesthood, and occupied various positions of honor 
in the order. His zeal manifested itself principally 
in preaching and penance, visions were vouchsafed 
to him, and he worked many duly authenticated 
miracles. Feast, 3 Sept.— C.E., I, 469. 

Andrew of Crete, Saint, confessor (c. 650-c. 
740), Abp. of Gortyna, Crete, hymnographer, b. 
Damascus, Syria. He was the author of many 
scriptural discourses, but is principally interesting 
as the inventor of the "Greek Canon," a form of 
hymnology previously unknown. Feast, 17 Oct. — C.E. 
Andrew of Rinn, Blessed, martyr (1459-62), 
d. Rinn, Tyrol. At the age of three, he was cruelly 
put to death by Jews, through hatred of the Faith. 
Beatified by Benedict XIV. Feast, 12 July. 

Andrew of Wyntoun, 14th-century Scottish 
chronicler. He was a canon regular of the Priory 
of St. Andrews, and before 1395 prior of the monas- 
tery of Lochleven. In his "Origynale Cronykil of 
Scotland," so called because it began with the cre- 
ation of the angels, he incorporated the work of an 
unknown author, written in the same easy-flowing, 
octosyllabic, rhyming verse of the Scots vernacular. 
This work is the first attempt at scientific history 
writing in Scotland.— C.E. , XV, 724. 

Andrews, William Eusebius (1773-1837), 
editor, author, b. Norwich, England; d. London. 
In 1799 he became editor of the "Norfolk Chron- 
icle," and in 1813 went to London to advance 
Catholicism by means of the press. His many 
Catholic periodicals all failed after brief periods, 
generally for lack of funds. "The Truth Teller," 
which he published in England, 1824, was directly 
responsible for New York's first Catholic paper, 
which also bore that name. Among his writings 
are "The Conspiracy of Titus Oates" and "Review 
of Foxe's Book of Martyrs." — C.E. 

Andrew the Scot, Saint (d. c. 877), Archdeacon 
of Fiesole, b. Ireland; d. Italy. He was a brother 
of St. Bridget the Younger, and accompanied Do- 
natus to Italy, becoming Archdeacon of Fiesole, 
where he restored the church of St. Martin and 
founded a monastery. Relics in church of St. 
Martin, Fiesole. Feast, 22 Aug.— C.E. 

Andronicus, kinsman and fellow-prisoner of 
Paul, mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans as 
"of note among the apostles," an "apostle" in the 
wider sense of preacher of the Gospel. 

Anesthesia (G-r., an, without; aisthesis, feel- 
ing). In its strict sense the word connotes a loss of 
tactual sense but it has been extended to include 
absence of sensibility to any and all external im- 
pressions. It may be localized or general, and may 
occur naturally as when caused by an injury or 
disease in the sensory nerve paths, or it may be 
produced artificially by the administration of anes- 



ANESTHESIA 



44 



ANGELIC SALUTATION 



thetics, as during operations. Although fatalities 
are the exception, it is advisable for a Catholic 
patient to receive the sacraments previous to the 
administration of an anesthetic. The reception of 
the sacraments has a psychotherapeutic value, as 
the patient's knowledge of having performed his 
religious duties makes him less susceptible to a 
shock which may terminate fatally. The sac- 
raments affect body and soul and the Blessed 
Sacrament particularly is regarded as medicine 
to both. The Postcommunion of the Mass on 30 
June, commemoration of St. Paul, speaks of its 
medicinalis operatio (healing remedy). It is wrong 
to use anesthetics to hasten the death of a patient. 
— C.E.; Gwathmey and Baskerville, Anesthesia, 
N. Y., 1914. 

Angel (Gr., angelos, messenger), a pure spirit, 
created by God, called angel because some are em- 
ployed by God as messengers to man. "Pure spirit" 
means that the angelic nature is entirely spiritual, 
that an angel has no body and is dependent in no 
way, either for its existence or its operations, on 
matter. The angels were created at or near the 
time when the material world came into existence, 
and were placed by God in a state of probation or 
trial. Many of them sinned by pride and were 
cast into Hell forever; these are called devils, 
demons, or fallen angels. Those who remained faith- 
ful were rewarded with eternal happiness in the 
vision of God; and the term "angel" used without 
modification is generally applied only to these. From 
Scripture, we know that the angels constitute a 
vast multitude, beyond the power of man to imagine 
or conceive. They differ, too, in perfection of nature 
and of grace. According to this diversity of per- 
fection, they are classified in three hierarchies, each 
hierarchy having three orders making, in all, nine 
choirs, in the following descending order: (1) 
Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones; (2) Dominations, 
Virtues, Powers; (3) Principalities, Archangels, 
Angels. It should be noted that the term "angel," 
while applicable to all, is also used as a distinctive 
name for the lowest choir, from which the guardian 
angels (q.v. ) are usually selected. Devotion to the 
angels can be traced to the earliest ages of the 
Church. We venerate their excellence and petition 
their ministrations. The month of October is spe- 
cially dedicated to them and the feast of all the 
angels is celebrated in common with that of Mi- 
chael, 29 Sept. There are also feast-days for Raphael 
and Gabriel who, with Michael, are the only angels 
mentioned by name in Scripture. As an emblem in 
art, an angel is the proper attribute and attendant 
of St. Matthew and is also associated with St. 
Roch, who was healed by an angel. — C.E. ; O'Con- 
nell, The Holy Angels, N". Y., 1923; Vonier, The 
Angels, N. Y., 1928. (a. j. s.) 

Angel, Thy Holy, name applied to Our Lord in 
the Mass, in the third prayer after the Consecra- 
tion. 

Angela Merici, Saint, virgin (1474-1540), 
foundress of the Ursulines, b. Desenzano, Italy; d. 
Brescia. At an early age she became a tertiary of 
St. Francis. She established a school at Desenzano 
for the instruction of young girls in religion, and 
later founded a second school at Brescia. In 1535 



she laid the foundation for the Ursuline Order by 
gathering together twelve religious companions at 
Brescia. Emblems: ladder, cloak. Canonized, 1807. 
Relics in church of S. Afra, Brescia. Feast, R. Cal., 
31 May. — C.E.; Monica, Angela Merici and Her 
Teaching Idea, N. Y., 1927. 

Angela of Foligno, Blessed (1248-1309), peni- 
tent and mystical writer, b. Foligno, Italy; d. there. 
She was a worldly and frail woman who, after her 
conversion, established a community at Foligno of 
the Third Order of St. Francis. Her "Book of 
Visions and Instructions" record the history of her 
conversion. She is represented being invited by Our 
Lord to receive Holy Communion; and chaining the 
devil. Relics in church of St. Francis, Foligno. 
Feast, O.F.M., 4 Jan.— C.E. ; Butler, ed. Thurston. 

Angeli, Girolamo degli (1567-1623), mission- 
ary and martyr, b. Castro-Giovanni, Sicily; d. 
Yezo, Japan. He entered the Society of Jesus, 1585, 
and began his apostolate in Japan, 1602, remaining 
there after publication of the edict expelling all 
missionaries. He was the first missionary to pene- 
trate Yezo, Jasu, and Cai, but after making many 
converts, seeing that his neophytes were persecuted 
because of his preaching, he gave himself up to the 
authorities, and underwent martyrdom by fire in 
the public square of Yezo. — C.E. 

Angelic Doctor. See Thomas Aquinas, Saint. 

Angelic Hymn, the Gloria in excelsis Deo 
( Glory to God in the highest ) , sung by the angels 
at the birth of Christ. 

Angel ici, order of knighthood for priests and 
laymen, founded 1191 by Isaac Angelus, Emperor 
of Constantinople; also called order of "Constan- 
tine," "the Golden Knights," "St. George." 

Angelico, Fra (Guido di Pietro or Giovanni da 
Fiesole; 1387-1455), religious painter, b. near Cas- 
tello di Vicchio, Tuscany, Italy; d. Rome. Entering 
the Dominican Order as Fra Giovanni, in Fiesole, 
1407, the illumination of missals and manuscripts 
furnished his first training in art. For the Domini- 
can convent in Cortona where he lived, 1414-18, he 
painted the well-known "Madonna and Four 
Saints," and for the baptistery a first "Annuncia- 
tion." Returning to Fiesole in 1418, he painted the 
"Christ in Glory Surrounded by Saints and Angels," 
now in the National Gallery of London. He was 
invited to Florence in 1436 to decorate the new 
convent of San Marco. Among the paintings and 
frescos still to be seen in the galleries of the 
city and in the national museum established in the 
former convent are the "Crucifixion," "Madonna of 
the Star," "Coronation of the Virgin," and "Christ 
as a Pilgrim." His finest work is in the chapel of 
Nicholas V in the Vatican, a series of frescos 
depicting the lives of St. Stephen and St. Law- 
rence. The dedication of his art to religious sub- 
jects earned him the title of "Angelico," and the 
holiness of his life caused him to be beatified, so 
that he is also known as "II Beato" (the Blessed). 
His work is noted for an extraordinary spiritual 
quality, bright decorative detail, and exquisite 
coloring. — C.E. 

Angelic Salutation, part of the greeting of the 
angel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin repeated in 
the prayer beginning Hail Mary (Lat., Ave Maria). 



ANGEL-LIGHTS 



45 



ANGLICAN 



Angel=lights, in architecture, small circular 
lights between subordinate arches of window trac- 
ery, belonging especially to the English Perpendic- 
ular style. 

Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, Blessed (1411- 
95), theologian, b. Chivasso, Italy; d. Coni. He was 
a Franciscan, appointed Apostolic Nuncio by Sixtus 
IV and Innocent VIII, commissioned by the former 
to preach a holy war against invading Turks, and 
by the latter to prevent the spread of Waldensian- 
ism. His "Cases of Conscience" is a famous dic- 
tionary of moral theology. — C.E. 

Angel of Great Counsel (Magni Co?isilii An- 
gelus, in the Introit of the third Mass of Christ- 
mas ) , a title of the Messias in the Greek Version 
of Isaias, 9, 6, where we read according to the 
Hebrew text followed by the Latin Vulgate, "His 
name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty 
God, a Father forever, Prince of Peace." St. Jerome 
conjectures that the 
translators did not 
wish to apply such 
titles to the Messias 
and substituted this 
other title. Fr. Knaben- 
bauer, S.J., in his com- 
mentary on Isaias ex- 
presses the view that 
the Hebrew text used 
by the Greek transla- 
tors may have been al- 
ready altered. No one 
thinks the Greek text 
right. The title it gives 
the future Messias is, 
however, quite appropriate. Its meaning may best 
be explained by the Hebrew text: the envoy of God 
is to be a wonderful counsellor. (w. s. R. ) 

Angels in Art. They are seldom represented be- 
fore Constantine's time; the oldest fresco in which 
an angel appears is a 2nd-century "Annuncia- 
tion." The winged angel does not appear until the 
4th century. At first angels were not represented 
unless historically necessary but after the 5th 
century they become favorite subjects, and were 
painted as attendants on the principal figures of 
a picture. — C.E., I, 485. 

Angels of the Churches, mentioned in the 
Apocalypse; though interpreted by Origen as mean- 
ing the guardian angels of the seven churches of 
Asia, they are usually considered as referring to the 
bishops at the time. — C.E. 

Angelus, a devotion in honor of the Incarnation 
of Our Lord and venerating His Blessed Mother, 
recited at morning, noon, and evening at the sound 
of a bell. It consists of the Hail Mary said three 
times, with certain versicles (little verses), re- 
sponses, and a prayer. It takes its name from the 
opening word of the Latin form, "Angelus Domini 
nuntiavit Mariae" (The Angel of the Lord declared 
unto Mary). The evening Angelus probably owes 
its origin to the "curfew bell" (Fr., couvre-feu, 
cover the fire), a signal for bedtime and evening 
prayer. The morning recital began at Parma, Italy, 
in 1318, as a prayer for peace. The noon Angelus, 
originally used only on Fridays, was extended to 




ANGELS, FIFTH CENTURY 



other days by Pope Callistus III in 1456. Cham- 
plain regulated that in New France it should 
mark the beginning and end of the day. An in- 
dulgence of 100 days is gained when the Angelus 
with three Hail Marys is said, and a plenary in- 
dulgence, conditional upon confession, communion, 
and prayer for the usual intentions, once a month 
for those who say it habitually. It is recited 
kneeling, except from Saturday noon to Sunday 
evening inclusively; but this is not necessary for 
gaining indulgence. During the Easter season it is 
replaced by the Regina Coeli Laetare (Queen of 
Heaven Rejoice). — C.E.; Sullivan, Externals of the 
Catholic Church, N. Y., 1918. (j. F. s.) 

Angelus, The, famous painting by J. F. Millet 
(1859), showing a peasant man and woman stand- 
ing in the fields at sunset, with heads bowed in 
prayer. 

Angelus Bell, a triple stroke on the bell re- 
peated three times as 
a signal for recitation 
of the Angelus. — Henry, 
Catholic Customs and 
Symbols, N. Y., 1925. 

Angelus de Scar= 
petti, Blessed (d. v. 
1306), missionary, b. 
and d. Borgo San Sepol- 
cro, Italy. He took the 
Augustinian habit, c. 
1254, and was sent to 
England, where he 
preached and built 
many monasteries. 
Beatified, 27 July, 1921. 
Anger (Lat., ango, distress), a strongly excit- 
ing emotion aroused by an evil that is present but 
not acquiesced in. Though commonly a self-regard- 
ing emotion, it may be aroused in behalf of others. 
Anger is not purely painful as it includes the 
agreeable consciousness of energetic reaction against 
evil, and is not of itself morally evil, but may be 
at times a high moral force in the form of virtuous 
indignation, called "just" anger. It needs restraint 
as it can easily become inordinate and lead to a 
purpose of revenge or pass into hatred and it is 
then a vice. — C.E.; P.C. Augustine. (j. v. k.) 

Angers, University op, France; probably de- 
veloped from the cathedral school; famous as a 
law school c. 1364. Faculties of theology, medicine, 
and arts were added by Pope Eugene IV, 1432. To- 
day it has faculties of theology, law, arts, and 
science. Students : about 520. — C.E. 

Anglesey, Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of 
(1768-1854), soldier and statesman, b. London. 
His most brilliant success was at Waterloo. Ap- 
pointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, he did all he 
could for the Irish people, and was recalled by 
the government for trying to relieve penal legis- 
lation against Catholics. In Parliament he pleaded 
for Catholic emancipation. Again appointed lord 
lieutenant, 1830, he strongly opposed the repeal of 
the union. He originated the Board of Education in 
Ireland. 

Anglican, term used to denote the Established 
Church of England; used more commonly by the 



ANGLICAN 



46 



ANGLO-SAXON CHURCH 



High Churchmen than by the Low to imply that 
the English Church of the Reformation is the same 
as the Ecclesia Anglicana, as the Catholic Church 
is named in the Magna Carta. Anglican belief and 
practise and statistics are given under Church of 
England. (ed.) 

Anglican Councils, councils held in England at 
unknown places: 756, by Abp. Cuthbert, to appoint 
5 June to be kept in memory of the martyrdom 
of St. Boniface and his companions; 797, by Ethel- 
heard, preceding his visit to Rome to oppose the 
foundation of the Archbishopric of Lichfield. 

Anglin, Timothy Warren (1822-96), statesman 
and journalist, b. Clonakilty, 
Cork, Ireland; d. Canada. He 
emigrated to St. John, New 
Brunswick, Canada, 1849; 
founded "The Morning Free- 
man" there, 1851; and op- 
posed as too drastic and un- 
workable the measure pro- 
hibiting the manufacture and 
sale of alcoholic liquors, 
passed by the legislature of 
New Brunswick, and repealed 
at its next session. He was 
the first Catholic returned to 
Parliament from the city and 
county of St. John, and be- 
came speaker of the Canadian 
House of Commons, 1874-77. 
He fought the anti-separate 
school legislation of New 
Brunswick, and forced a com- 
promise allowing Catholics to 
have their own schools and 
teachers to give religious 
instruction before and 
after school hours. He became 
a member of the editorial 
staff of the "Toronto Globe," 
1883, and editor-in-chief of 
the "Toronto Tribune," a 
Catholic weekly, 1874-85.— 
C.E. 

AngIo = Catholics, An- 
glicans who favor Ritualism, 
claim to celebrate Mass, re- 
serve the sacrament, use the 
Latin Missal, and in many 
ways imitate Catholics, as by 
having confessionals and sta- 
tions of the cross in their 
them reject the branch -theory, that the Anglican 
Church is a branch of the Catholic Church, and be- 
lieve in the primacy of the pope, holding that their 
Church was only accidentally severed from the Cath- 
olic. Others still insist on the branch-theory. It is 
estimated that over 4000 ministers are enrolled in 
the Anglo-Catholic movement and several religious 
communities of men and women. In over 1000 
Anglican churches confessions are heard. Anglo- 
Catholics aim at union with the Greek and Russian 
Churches. (ed.) 

Anglo-Saxon Church, the church of the Teu- 
tonic tribes from northwestern Germany who in- 




ANGLO-SAXON CHURCH TOWER AT EARLS BARTON 

churches. Some of 



vaded Britain south of the Rivers Forth and Clyde 
in the 5th century, displacing the Celtic inhabitants 
towards Wales and Cornwall. The invaders set up a 
number of independent kingdoms, often at war 
with each other; they were evangelized, as the 
chances of peace or alliance might offer, in the 
following order: Kent (See of Canterbury founded 
597; Rochester, 604); Essex (London, 604); 
North umbria (including the district called Deira; 
York, 625); East Anglia (Dunwich, 630); Mercia 
(Lichfield, 656); Wessex (Winchester, 669); Sus- 
sex, the neighboring kingdom to Kent, was the last 
to be converted (Selsey, 708). The Christian Celts 
who remained in Britain 
were too insignificant in 
numbers to convert their 
heathen conquerors, and 
the Celtic Church in Wales 
and Scotland seems to have 
made no effort to preach to 
the Saxons. Pope St. Gregory 
the Great, happening to see 
some fair-haired youths in the 
Roman slave-market, being 
told they were Angles from 
Deira, said: "Not Angles, but 
angels : de iea Dei ( from the 
wrath of God) they shall be 
saved." On the first oppor- 
tunity he sent the Roman 
monk St. Augustine to con- 
vert Kent, and Augustine be- 
came the first Abp. of Can- 
terbury. Nbrthumbria was 
evangelized by the Irish St. 
Aidan, a monk of Iona, Scot- 
land, who followed the Celtic 
traditions regarding the keep- 
ing of Easter, which differed 
from the Roman custom. He 
founded the monastery of Lin- 
disfarne, from whence came 
the brothers Sts. Cedd and 
Chad, who were the apostles 
of Essex and Mercia respec- 
tively, St. Cuthbert, who la- 
bored in the north, and St. 
Wilfrid, who converted Sus- 
sex and reconciled Northum- 
bria to the Roman Easter. 

In the interests of anti- 
papal controversy, too much 
has been made of the divergent customs of the 
Roman and Celtic missionaries; the latter were 
thoroughly loyal in spirit to the See of Rome. At 
the Synod of Whitby, 664, Oswiu, King of North- 
umbria, elected to stand by "the Roman Keybearer" 
(St. Peter). The following councils and synods, 
presided over by bishops or legates appointed from 
Rome, promoted unity and restrained the mutual 
interference of the clergy: Hertford, 673; Hatfield, 
680; that of 747, held at an unknown or uniden- 
tifiable place, made a thorough reform of the 
clergy; the Synod of Cealchythe (Chelsea ?), 787, 
recognized tithes, and made Lichfield an arch- 
bishopric. Ethelwolf, King of Wessex, gave the 



ANGLO-SAXON CHURCH 



47 



ANNA 



Church a tenth of his lands. His son, Alfred the 
Great, showed great devotion to the papacy and in 
his code of laws he, conjointly with Guthrum, the 
Danish ruler of East Anglia, declared apostasy a 
crime, and commanded the payment of Peterspence. 
St. Dunstan, Abp. of Canterbury, 960-988, aided by 
St. Ethelwold of Winchester and St. Oswald of 
York, sought to replace the secular clergy by monks 
to remedy the custom of married clergy, and to 
establish a more intimate communication with 
Rome; henceforward the archbishops went to Rome 
to receive the pallium. King Canute made a pilgrim- 
age to Rome, 1026-27, legislated in favor of the 
Church, and insisted on the payment of Peterspence. 
Under King Edward the Confessor there were ap- 
pointed to English sees many foreigners, who were 
probably more devout and capable than any English 
priests available at the moment; competent English- 
men were not passed over; the papal legate who 
visited England in 1062 appointed the great native 
churchman, St. Wulstan, to the See of Winchester. 
Latin was used in the liturgy and in the canoni- 
cal hours; the books were the Roman service books 
without any important additions of native growth. 
There was a strong likeness to the ritual of south- 
ern Italy, probably due to Adrian, Abbot of St. 
Augustine's, who brought the traditions of Monte 
Cassino to England. Interesting customs were: 
churchyard procession on Palm Sunday; dialogue 
beside the Sepulcher on Holy Saturday; episcopal 
benediction after the Pater Noster; multiplication 
of Prefaces; lay communion under both kinds. 
These were not peculiar to England, although some 
of them originated there. As regards the veneration 
of Our Lady, the Anglo-Saxons were far removed 
from the principles of the Reformation. Aldhelm 
and Alcuin sang her praises in Latin, Cynewulf in 
Anglo-Saxon; a 10th-century litany contains the 
following supplications to the Blessed Virgin (in 
Latin) : — 

Holy Queen of the World, 
Holy Saviouress of the World, 
Holy Redernptress of the World, 
Pray for us. 

— C.E. ; Lingard, History and Antiquities of the 
Anglo-Saxon Church, Lond., 1845. 

Angustia loci (Lat., smallness of a place), a 
basis for dispensation from a diriment impediment 
of matrimony, when, in the place of birth or domi- 
cile of a woman, her relationship is so widely spread 
that she is unable to meet anyone of a position 
equal to her own whom she can marry, except a 
relative by blood or by marriage, so that if no dis- 
pensation were granted she would be obliged to 
leave her country in order to marry. 

Anicetus, Saint, Pope (c. 157-c. 168), martyr, 
b. Syria. He allowed St. Polycarp and the Eastern 
Christians to celebrate Easter on the 14th day of 
Nisan, regardless of whether it fell on Sunday. 
Feast, 17 April.— C.E. 

Anima Christi, sanctifica me, or Soul of my 
Saviour, sanctify my Breast!, hymn usually 
found in the "Thanksgiving after Mass," in the 
Missal. It was written in the 14th century by an 
unknown author. There are about 15 translations; 
the English title given is found in "St. George's 




Hymn Book." It was a favorite prayer of St. 
Ignatius Loyola. — Britt. 

Animals, Worship of, a corruption of religion 
wherein an animal which apparently had been a 
mere symbol or emblem of an attribute, virtue, or 
quality, is considered either as the bearer of a 
tribe's tutelary spirit, as among the American 
Indians, and as such is the object of various degrees 
of worship; or, as in ancient Egypt's decaying re- 
ligious life, is identified with the god whose char- 
acteristic it represents, and shares with him in 
Divine honors. 

Animals in Christian Art have greater im- 
portance than in pagan art. In the catacombs we 
find the lamb, symbol of the soul, accompanying 
the Good Shepherd. The fish, symbol of Our Lord, 
is perhaps of widest distribution. After Constantine, 
most of the decorative 
schemes are derived 
from the Apocalypse: 
the dove is the Holy 
Spirit, the lamb is 
Christ the Victim, and 
the "four living crea- 
tures" (man, lion, ox, 
and eagle) are per- 
sonifications of the 
four Evangelists. The ANIMALS m christian aet 
fantastic animals of Byzantine art are found in 
Romanesque sculpture. In the 15th century in the 
cathedrals of France, especially Notre Dame of Paris, 
animal sculpture reached great perfection. With the 
Renaissance, animals were used only as an accessory 
to the human figure, and no thought of individual 
symbolism was retained. Saints are often represented 
with animals; thus, the lion is the emblem of St. 
Jerome, the dog of St. Roch. — C.E.; Henry, Catholic 
Customs and Symbols, N. Y., 1925. 

Animism (Lat., anima, soul), the doctrine that 
an immaterial principle is the basis of life; in 
ethnology, a ghost-theory of the origin of religion; 
the theory that all external bodies are animated 
by a soul like that of man. — C.E. ; U.K. ; Bruns- 
mann-Preuss, Fundamental Theology, St. L., 1928. 

Anise, plant mentioned by Our Lord (Matt., 23, 
23) as subjected to tithe by the Pharisees; a mis- 
translation for dill, which was made originally in the 
Wyclif version and let pass since, as of noi consequence, 
dill and anise being of the same parsley family. 

Anna (Heb., grace). (1) The pious and patient 
mother of Samuel. Vexed at the affronts cast at her 
long sterility, she made a vow, that should God 
put an end to her barrenness, she would consecrate 
her son to God ( 1 Kings, 1 ) . Samuel's birth was 
the fruit of her prayers and tears. She brought 
Samuel to Heli, the high priest, and consecrated 
him to God. In the joy of seeing her hopes realized, 
Anna chanted the sublime Canticle of Anna (1 
Kings, 2 ) . She is regarded as an image of the 
Church: persecuted in the beginning, and later 
fruitful and glorious. (2) Wife of Tobias, who was 
taken with him into captivity by Salmanasar (Tob., 
1). (3) A prophetess, daughter of Phanuel, of the 
tribe of Aser; the widow in the Temple who recog- 
nized Jesus, when presented to the Lord, as the 
Redeemer (Luke, 2).— C.E. (f, J. l.) 



ANNALS 



48 



ANNUAIRE PONTIFICAL 



Annals (Lat., annalis, yearly), chronological 
records registering from day to day events of each 
year. The prototype of medieval annals is the 
"Chronographus" of 354, an official document of 
the Roman Empire. In England the custom arose 
of writing lists of events on margins of paschal 
tables. Anglo-Saxon missionaries introduced the 
practise of annal-writing into other countries. The 
Carlovingian annals were at first concerned with 
monastic records; later, secular annals were written. 
Medieval annals usually are anonymous; the chro- 
nology is often inaccurate and, as is the case with 
chronicles, care must be taken to distinguish legend 
from historical facts. — C.E. 

Annals of the Four Masters, sometimes called 
the Annals of Donegal, the most extensive and 
the earliest authentic records of Irish history, tra- 
ditionally begun c. a.m. 2242 (1762 b.c), and com- 
piled (22 Jan., 1632, to 10 Aug., 1636), at the 
instance of Fr. John Colgan (d. c. 1657), the hagiog- 
rapher and historian, mainly by Michael O'Clery, 
afterward a Franciscan monk. They continue down 
to a.d. 1616, but of the original compilation, the 
present name of which was conferred by Fr. Colgan, 
scarcely one volume remains. Michael O'Clery and 
his three assistants, Peregrine O'Clery, Farfassa 
O'Mulconry, and Peregrine O'Duignan, are the 
"Four Masters." The Annals contain the reigns, 
deaths, genealogies,, etc., not only of high-kings, but 
of provincial kings, chiefs, dignitaries, ecclesiastics, 
and others, with some account of battles, murders, 
and wars. They have been published in three edi- 
tions, the principal one, in seven quarto volumes, 
being that of John O'Donovan, both in Irish and 
English, "Annala Rioghachta Eireann" (Annals of 
the Kingdom of Ireland), Dublin, 1851.— C.E., VI, 
163. 

Anna Maria Taigi, Blessed (1769-1837), b. 
Siena, Italy; d. Rome. In 1789 she married Dom- 
enico Taigi, some years later was received into the 
Third Order of Trinitarians, and thenceforth de- 
voted herself to a life of holiness and good works. 
Soon after her death her name was venerated at 
Rome and she was beatified, 30 May, 1920. — C.E., 
XIV, 430. 

Annas, Jewish high priest A.D. 6-15, son of Seth. 
His son-in-law, Caiaphas, was high priest during 
the ministry of Our Lord, but Annas was still 
influential. He interrogated Our Lord and delivered 
Him bound to Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin for trial 
(John, 28).— C.E. 

Annates, first year's revenue of a benefice paid 
to the papal Curia; now paid on the occasion of 
appointments to dioceses not subject to Propa- 
ganda.- — C.E. 

Anne (Heb., grace), Saint, traditional name of 
the wife of Joachim and mother of the Blessed 
Virgin. No records of her life are found outside 
of the apocryphal literature, the Gospel of Pseudo- 
Matthew and the Protoevangelium of James. From 
these we learn that Anne and Joachim had reached 
old age and still remained childless; their prayers 
were answered, an angel of the Lord announcing to 
Anne that the fruit of her womb would be blessed 
by all the world. The belief that Anne, in the con- 
ception and birth of Mary, remained a virgin was 



condemned by the Holy See, 1677. Devotion to her, 
popular from an early date in the East, began in 
the West at Douai and spread rapidly through the 
Church after 1584. There are shrines to her in many 
churches, and those at St. Anne d'Auray, Brittany, 
and St. Anne de Beaupre, Canada, are popular 
places of pilgrimage. Patroness of Brittany, France, 
Canada, housewives, women in labor, cabinet- 
makers, and miners. Emblem: a door. Feast, R. 
Cal., 26 July.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Anne of Denmark (1574-1619), Queen of James 
I of Great Britain, b. Skanderborg, Denmark. The 
daughter of Frederick II, King of Denmark, she 
married, 1589, James VI of Scotland (I of Eng- 
land). Her parents were Lutherans, but through 
companionship with a niece of Emperor Charles V 
she acquired a knowledge of and an affection for 
Catholicism. She was advised by the Scottish Cath- 
olic nobles to seek spiritual advice from Robert 
Abercromby, a Jesuit, who received her into the 
Church, c. 1600. She proved the firmness of her 
Faith at the coronation, 1603, by refusing to receive 
the Protestant sacrament, declaring she preferred 
to forfeit her crown rather than take part in a 
sacrilegious profanation. — U.K. ; Strickland, Lives 
of the Queens of England, Lond., 1851. 

Annex=chapel, a special kind of chapel-of-ease. 

Annihilation (Lat., ad, to; nihil, nothing), the 
act of reducing to nothing. Annihilation is opposed 
to creation. As in creation the whole being is pro- 
duced from nothing, so in annihilation the whole 
being is reduced to nothing. It is a tenet of the 
original Adventists, of the Catharists, and, as some 
believe, of the Buddhists. God alone can annihilate. 
There is nothing in theology or modern science to 
lead to the belief that anything will be annihilated. 
— U.K.; Joyce, Principles of Natural Theology, 
N". Y., 1923. (c. v.) 

Annihilationism, school of thought which con- 
siders immortality itself to be a grace, and not the 
natural attribute of the soul; and that the finally 
impenitent will merely cease to exist. 

Anniversary (Lat., anniver sarins, returning 
with the year), a day celebrated yearly as it re- 
turns. The anniversary of the consecration of a 
bishop is celebrated in each diocese by a special 
Mass in the liturgy for this feast. The anniversary 
of the consecration (or dedication) of a church is 
celebrated by a special Mass and Office provided for 
this feast. The anniversary of the death of a person 
is celebrated annually and also on the third, sev- 
enth, and thirtieth day after the decease. There is 
a special Requiem Mass in the Roman Missal for 
the anniversary; it is customary also to offer other 
prayers and good works on this occasion. The anni- 
versary of burial is sometimes commemorated in- 
stead of the day of death, with the same rites. — 
Sullivan, Externals of the Catholic Church, N. Y., 
1918. (c. J. D.) 

Annotinum Pascha (Lat., anniversary Easter), 
in the early Church, anniversary celebration for 
those who had been baptized the previous Easter. 

Annuaire pontifical catholique, publication 
devoted to statistical information with regard to 
the Catholic Church, founded by Mgr. Albert Bat- 
tandier, 1898, and published by Maison de la Bonne 



ANNUAIRE PONTIFICAL 



49 



ANSELM 



Presse, Paris. The first twenty volumes cover the 
following topics: (1) the Roman Calendar, com- 
prising the Latin and Oriental rites, causes of the 
Servants of God, reforms in the liturgy; (2) the 
Sovereign Pontiffs, comprising the family, birth, 
early life, and papal acts of the reigning pope and 
a list of popes with some biographical notes; (3) 
the Cardinals, comprising their sees, duties, and 
biographical notes; (4) the Episcopate, comprising 
the bishops, with their sees and biographical notes, 
the Eastern churches, schismatical and heretical 
churches, and occasionally a few dioceses treated in 
detail; (5) Missions, giving their scope, societies, 
and activities; (6) Religious Orders, comprising a 
general list of the Orders, with notes on each; (7) 
the Pontifical Court and prelates; (8) the Eccle- 
siastical Courts and Roman Congregations, com- 
prising congregations, tribunals, offices, and commis- 
sions; (9) the Vicariate of Rome, comprising the 
Curia, parishes, cemeteries, hospitals, and popula- 
tion; (10) Miscellanea, comprising information 
which is liturgical, theological, archaeological, his- 
torical, statistical, bibliographical, and necrological. 
To the remaining volumes were added, from time 
to time, notes on the Church in different lands, 
new sees, a history of 
the Holy Year, notes on 
the popes in different 
centuries, a history of 
the Syrian Catholic 
Church, a general list 
of prelates, chamber- 
lains, and attaches to 
the pope, a list of all 
known titular sees, and, 
beginning in 1926, there 
is a general list of the 
cardinals of the first 
fourteen centuries which is continued in later vol- 
umes, etc. Its articles are valuable for historical as 
well as ecclesiastical information. — C.E. 

Annulment (Lat., ad, to; nullus, none: to noth- 
ing), a declaration by the ecclesiastical or civil 
authorities that a reputed marriage never was 
valid because owing to some known or hidden in- 
validating impediment it was not contracted validly 
and is therefore null and void. The impediments 
are listed under Diriment Impediments. — Petro- 
vits, New Church Law on Matrimony, Phila., 
1928. (ed.) 

Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
the annunciation (Lat., ad., to; nuntius, messen- 
ger) to Mary by the angel Gabriel that she was to 
be the Mother of God (Luke, 1), the Word being 
made flesh through the power of the Holy Spirit. 
The feast of the Annunciation, called also in old 
calendars the feast of the Incarnation, is celebrated 
25 March. It probably originated about the time of 
the Council of Ephesus, c. 431, and is first men- 
tioned in the Sacramentary of Pope Gelasius (d. 
496). The Annunciation is represented in art by 
many masters, among them Fra Angelico, Hubert 
Van Eyck, Jan Van Eyck, Ghirlandajo, Holbein 
the Elder, Lippi, Pinturicchio, and Del Sarto. — C.E. 

Annunziata, Order of the, a Piedmontese sec- 
ular military order which in its later form dates 




THE ANNUNCIATION 



from Charles III, Duke of Savoy, in 1518. It was 
first dedicated to the Blessed Virgin at the time 
of Felix V, antipope, 1434. The order considered 
itself the successor of the Order of the Collar, as it 
celebrated the feast of the Annunciation in the 
Charterhouse of Pierre-Chatel in Bugey, where the 
former held its chapters. On the cession of Bugey to 
France the Order of the Annunziata transferred its 
chapters to the Camaldolese Monastery near Turin 
(1627). 

Anoint (Lat., inunctio, besmearing), to touch 
any part of the body with oil. In Baptism it means 
the laying on of oil of catechumens, signifying a 
life of faith and good works, and oil of chrism, 
symbolizing union with Christ. It is also used in 
Extreme Unction and Holy Orders (qq.v.), and at 
the coronation of monarchs. — C.E. ; Schuster, The 
Sacramentary, N". Y., 1924. (f. t. b.) 

Anschar (Ansgarius or Scharies), Saint, con- 
fessor (801-865), apostle of the North, b. Picardy, 
France; d. Bremen, Germany. A Benedictine monk 
at Corbie, he went as a missionary to Sweden and 
on his return was made first Abp. of Hamburg and 
papal legate of the northern nations. He revived 
the Abbey of Turholt in Flanders and established 

a school there. Winning 
the protection of King 
Eric of Denmark, he 
continued his mission- 
ary labors in Sweden 
and Denmark. A monu- 
mental cross has been 
erected in his honor on 
an island in Lake Malar, 
near Stockholm. The 
preface to his "Life of 
St. Willehad" is a mas- 
terpiece. Relics at Bre- 
men, Hamburg, and Copenhagen. Feast, 3 Feb. — C.E. ; 
Butler. 

Ansegisus, Saint, abbot (c. 770-c. 833). A 
Benedictine of Fontenelle, he was entrusted by 
Charlemagne and later Louis le Debonnaire with 
the reform and restoration of the monasteries of 
St. Sixtus, St. Memius, Flay, and Luxeuil. Becom- 
ing Abbot of Fontenelle he made this monastery 
famous for learning, discipline, and its library. He 
divided among various monasteries the riches he 
obtained from his diplomatic missions. His "Capitu- 
lars," or collection of the laws of Charlemagne and 
Louis, are famous. Feast, 20 July. — C.E.; Butler. 
Anselm, Saint, confessor (1033-1109), Doctor 
of the Church, b. Aosta, Italy; d. Canterbury, Eng- 
land. He entered the monastery at Bee, studied 
under Lanfranc, and was made prior, 1063, and 
abbot, 1078. After the death of Lanfranc, Anselm 
succeeded him as Abp. of Canterbury, 1093. This 
see having been vacant for four years, the revenues 
had been seized by the state. Anselm devoted him- 
self to abolishing this encroachment by the state 
and to reforming ecclesiastical circles, thus incur- 
ring the hostility of the king, against whose wishes 
he went to consult the pope on the question of in- 
vestiture. Banished by William, he was recalled by 
Henry I, but the quarrel was renewed and it was 
not until 1107 that settlement was made, resulting 



ANSELM 



50 



ANTHONY OF PADUA 



in a victory for the Church. He influenced deeply 
Catholic philosophy and theology, his chief achieve- 
ment in philosophy being the ontological argument 
for the existence of God, viz., that God exists in 
reality, because He is that than which nothing 
greater can be thought, and since to exist in reality 
is greater than to exist in the mind. He therefore 
has real existence. Feast, R. Cal., 21 April. — Rule, 
Life and Times of St. Anselm, Lond., 1883; C.E.; 
Butler. 

Anselm of Lucca, Saint, bishop (c. 1036-86), 
called the Younger to distinguish him from his 
uncle, Pope Alexander II, b. Mantua, Italy; d. 
there. Made Bp. of Lucca by his uncle, he accepted 
lay investiture from Henry IV of Germany, and in 
remorse became a Benedictine. Gregory VII ordered 
him to return to his see, where he made many re- 
forms. He wrote against lay investiture and the 
antipope Guibert. Patron of Mantua. Because 
through his prayers was obtained the rout of the 
enemies of Gregory VII, he is represented before an 
army in confusion. Feast, 18 March. — C.E.; Butler. 

Anstey, Thomas Chisholm (1816-73), lawyer 
and politician, b. London; d. Bombay, India. After 
his conversion he championed Catholic interests in 
Parliament, where he represented Youghal, Ireland. 
Later he became attorney-general of Hong Kong 
but was suspended on account of radical reforms he 
inaugurated. A judge at Bombay, he was forced to 
resign for denouncing commercial abuses in the 
Bengal government; later he practised law in Bom- 
bay with great success. He wrote pamphlets on 
legal and political subjects. — C.E. 

Ant. = antiphon. 

Antecedent Grace, an illumination of the in- 
tellect, or an inspiration of the will, due partially 
to the vital activities of these faculties, partly to 
Divine intervention in the mind's natural process. 
Both the illumination and inspiration transcend in 
intrinsic worth the natural good thoughts and de- 
sires of man, by reason of the dignifying influence 
of God's assisting activity in the eliciting of the 
thought or desire. The antecedence in question is 
relative to the subject's deliberation. Consequently 
antecedent grace is the gift of God, preceding, en- 
nobling, and elevating man's mental actions. — Pohl- 
Preuss, Grace, St. L., 1921. 

Antediluvians (Lat., ante, before; diluvium, 
flood), the people who lived before the time of the 
Flood. 

Antependium (Lat., ante, before; pendere, 
hang), the curtain covering the altar, hanging 
from the table to the floor. 

Anterus, Saint, Pope (235-236), b. probably 
Greece; d. Rome. Little is known of his pontificate 
of 42 days, except that he caused notaries to col- 
lect the Acts of the Martyrs, and had them de- 
posited in the Roman archives, for which act he 
was probably martyred. His tomb, with his name 
in Greek, is in the papal crypt of the cemetery of 
Callistus. Feast, 3 Jan. — C.E. 

Anthony, Saint, abbot (251-c. 356), founder of 
Christian monasticism, b. Coma, Egypt; d. Mt. 
Colzin, near the Red Sea. At the age of twenty, 
he divided his inheritance among the poor and 
retired to a cell in the mountains. Later he with- 



drew to Der el Memun, a mountain on the east 
bank of the Nile, and lived there in solitude for 
20 years. About 305 he emerged to organize 
monastic life for the crowds who followed him. He 
again retired to the desert lying between the Nile 
and the Red Sea and lived for 45 years on the 
mountain where stands the monastery named for 
him, Der Mar Antonios. During this time he made 
two visits to Alexandria: in 311 to strengthen the 
Christian martyrs in persecution, and in 350 to 
preach against the Arians. Patron of Hospitallers, 
domestic animals, butchers, brush-makers, basket- 
makers, grave-diggers, and graveyards. Invoked 
against pestilence, epilepsy, erysipelas, and skin- 
diseases. Emblems: /aw-shaped cross (St. An- 
thony's cross), small bell, hermit, pig, book. Relics 
near Vienne. Feast, R. Cal., 17 Jan. — St. Athana- 
sius, St. Anthony the Hermit, N. Y., 1924; C. E.; 
Butler. 

Anthony, Sister (Mary O'Connell; 1815-97), 
nurse, b. Limerick, Ireland; d. Cumminsville, O. 
She became a Sister of Charity in 1835, and during 
the Civil War in America was called "Ministering 
Angel of the Army of the Tennessee." The Hospital 
of the Good Samaritan, Cincinnati, was a gift to 
Sister Anthony from some Protestant business men 
of that city; she was in charge, 1866-82. 

Anthony Baldinucci, Blessed (1665-1717), 
Italian Jesuit missionary. He labored in the 
neighborhood of Frascati and Viterbo, Italy, his 
work being characterized by processions, during 
which Anthony and many of his flock scourged 
themselves with disciplines; his success was largely 
due to his propagation of devotion to the Blessed 
Virgin, whose image was always carried before him 
on his missions. — C.E., II, 219. 

Anthony Daniel, Blessed, martyr (1601-48), b. 
Dieppe, France; d. near Ontario, Canada. Having 
joined the Society of Jesus in 1621, he arrived in 
Canada, 1632, and was stationed at Cape Breton. 
He was sent to the Huron mission, Ihonatiria 
(1634-48), where he was slain in the Iroquois at- 
tack and his body was thrown into the burning 
chapel in which he had just celebrated Mass. — 
C.E., IV, 621; Wynne, Jesuit Martyrs of North 
America, N. Y., 1925. 

Anthony of Padua, Saint, confessor (1195- 
1231), b. Lisbon, Portugal; d. Vercelli, Italy. Edu- 
cated at the cathedral school, he joined the Canons 
Regular of St. Augustine in 1210; in 1212 he re- 
tired to the Convent of Santa Croce where he 
remained for eight years in study and prayer. He 
became a member of the Order of Friars Minor; set 
sail for missionary work in Africa, but was ship- 
wrecked off the coast of Italy; and retired to the 
hermitage of Montepaolo to celebrate Mass for the 
lay brothers. He later won a reputation as a 
preacher and teacher of theology and received the 
praise of St. Francis; made numerous converts and 
performed many miracles; and was made provincial 
of the monastery at Limousin, France, 1226. Devo- 
tion to him is popular throughout the Church. Alms 
given to obtain his intercession is known as "St. 
Anthony's bread." Patron of the poor, of barren and 
pregnant women, and of travelers; invoked for 
recovery of lost things and against shipwreck. Em- 



ANTHONY OF PADUA 



51 



ANTINOMIES 



blems: bread, apparition of the Infant Jesus, book, 
lily. Relics at Padua. Feast, R. Cal., 13 June. — 
Stoddard, Wonder Worker of Padua, Notre Dame, 
Ind., 1896: C.E.; Butler. 

Anthony's Fire, Saint, a form of erysipelas. 
Miraculous cures having been brought about by the 
intercession of St. Anthony, whence the name, the 
Order of Canons Regular of St. Anthony was 
founded, 1090, for the relief of those afflicted with 
this disease. 

Anthony Zaccaria, Saint, confessor (1502-39), 
founder of the Barnabites, b. Cremona, Italy; d. 
there. He studied theology and medicine and re- 
ceived Holy Orders, 1528. He worked among the 
poor at Milan, and established the Confraternity of 
Eternal Wisdom and the congregation of secular 
clergy to relieve the conditions in northern Italy. 
Canonized, 1897. Feast, R. Cal., 5 July.— C.E. 

Anthropology (Gr., anthropos, man; logos, sci- 
ence of), strictly speaking, should embrace the 
study of all that constitutes a human being, body 
and soul, social relations, past history and de- 
velopment, but its meaning is restricted to the 
study of the physical or bodily characteristics of 
a human being only, measurement of various parts 
of the body, shape of head, jaw, hand, color of 
skin, eyes, hair, characteristics of speech. Too 
often the term is confused with ethnology which 
properly considers the racial and social traits of 
man and data for the comparative study of re- 
ligions. The conclusions to which anthropologists 
have so far arrived are not of great importance, nor 
are they well established.— C.E., XII, 620. 

Anthropomorphism (Gr., anthropos, man; 
morphe, form), representation or conception of the 
Deity under a human form or with human attributes 
and subject to human vices and passions. This was 
very common among the pagans of Greece and Rome. 
In the 4th century, some few Christians in Syria 
and Scythia, under the leadership of Audaeus, in- 
terpreting certain texts of Genesis literally, held 
that God had a human form; they were called 
Anthropomorphites. That the numerous anthropo- 
morphic expressions in the Bible are to be under- 
stood metaphorically, is evident from the emphatic 
teaching of the Scriptures that God is an infinitely 
perfect spiritual being. — C.E.; U.K. (r. v. w.) 

Anti- (Lat., against, opposed to), prefix in com- 
mon use designating opposition or counteraction, 
as in anti-Catholic, and anti-Christian, anti-Trini- 
tarian. 

Antibes Legion, troops organized at Antibes, 
France, by Napoleon III, and placed at the dis- 
posal of Pope Pius IX in 1866, for the defense of 
Rome against the Italian government. 

Antichrist, in general, any person, idea, or or- 
ganization opposed to Christ and His Church; in 
particular, a signal enemy of Christ who is to ap- 
pear before the Last Judgment and seduce many 
before his destruction by Christ. Daniel, 7, speaks 
of him as the "man of sin." Some see allusions to 
him in the "False Christs," the "abomination of 
desolation," and "the one who shall come in his 
own name" of the Gospel. St. Paul in 2 Thes- 
salonians, 2, quite fully describes him and his 
destiny. In his first two epistles St. John speaks 



of several Antichrists, but more especially of one 
par excellence. — C.E.; Pohle-Preuss, Eschatology, 
St. L., 1924. (n. G.) 

Anticipate (Lat., ante, before; capio, take), to 
read the Divine Office, in private but not in choir, 
before the time usually assigned for it; e.g., to 
read Matins, which should be read before Mass, on 
the evening before, i.e., after 2 p.m., and Vespers 
in Lent an hour before noon instead of afternoon. 

Antidicomarianites (Gr., antidikos, opponents; 
Mariam, Mary), name given by Epiphanius, about 
the end of the 4th century, to adversaries of the 
Divine maternity and of the perpetual virginity of 
Mary.— C.E. 

Antidoron (Gr., anti, instead of; doron, a gift), 
in the Greek Rite, remains of loaves from which 
portions have been cut for Consecration, distributed 
after Mass for consumption by the faithful. — C.E.; 
O'Brien, History of the Mass, N. Y., 1882. 

Antigonish, Diocese of, Canada, comprises An- 
tigonish, Cape Breton, Guysborough, Inverness, 
Pictou, Richmond, and Victoria counties, in Nova 
Scotia; transferred from Arichat in 1886; suf- 
fragan of Halifax. Early missionaries: Fr. Angus 
MacEachern; Abbe Lejamtel; Frs. Alexander Mc- 
Donell, William Chisholm, Colin Grant, James 
Grant; Fr. Vincent, founder of former TrappSst 
monastery at Tracadie. Bishops: William Fraser 
(1844-51); Colin MacKinnon (1852-77); John 
Cameron (1877-1910); James Morrison (1912). 
Churches, 115; priests, 114; religious women, 511; 
university, 1 ; high schools, 30 ; primary schools, 
28; institutions, 8; Catholics, 83,847. 

Antigua, island of the Leeward Group, British 
West Indies, administered by a nominated executive 
council and a legislative council; area, 108 sq. m.; 
est. pop., 29,470. Ecclesiastically Antigua belongs 
to the Diocese of Roseau (q.v. ) in the Island of 
Dominica, B.W.I. It has 1 church, 1 priest, and 400 
Catholics. 

Antimasons, members of a political party in 
the United States (1827-35) formed to combat the 
Freemasons, under the belief that legislatures, 
judges, juries, and newspapers were under their in- 
fluence. The party originated in N. Y. State under 
Thurlow Weed, W. H. Seward, and others, follow- 
ing upon the mysterious disappearance in 1826 of 
William Morgan of Batavia, 1ST. Y., a Mason who 
had threatened to divulge the secrets of the order. 
The party nominated Gen. William Wirt for presi- 
dent in 1832, and he received seven votes in the 
Electoral College. In 1875 the party was revived as 
the "American Party." — Annual Report of the 
American Historical Society, 1902; U.K. 

Antimensium (Gr., anti, instead of; Lat., 
mensa, table), consecrated corporal of silk or linen 
containing relics of saints, which is spread on the 
altar of Greek churches for the celebration of 
Mass. — C.E.; O'Brien, History of the Mass, N. Y., 
1882. 

Antinomianism. See Antinomy. 

Antinomies (Gr., anti, against; nomos, law). 
In his classic analysis of the historical significance 
of the Catholic Church, Charles Stanton Devas 
enumerates and explains away ten of its apparent 
contradictions or inconsistencies: 



ANTINOMIES 



52 



ANTIPOPE 



The Church appears in opposition to intellectual civiliza- 
tion and yet to foster it. 

appears in opposition to material civilization 
and yet to foster it. 

represents a religion of sorrow and yet of 
gladness; teaches a morality which is 
austere and yet joyful. 

appears the opponent and yet the support of 
the State; its rival and yet its ally. 

upholds the equality of men and yet the in- 
equality of property and power. 

is full of scandals and yet all holy; proclaims 
a law at once difficult and yet easy. 

upholds and yet opposes religious freedom and 
liberty of conscience. 

is one and yet Christendom has ever been 
divided. 

is ever the same and yet ever changing. 

is ever being defeated and yet ever vic- 
torious. 

Antinomy (Or., anti, against; nomos, law), a 
term made familiar by the heresy of Antinomianism 
preached by Johannes Agricola as a deduction of 
Luther's teaching on justification by faith alone. 
If good works, argued Agricola, do not help to 
salvation so evil ones do not hinder it and there- 
fore justified Christians are not bound to observe 
the law. The deduction is logical, but Luther re- 
pudiated it and preached earnestly against it. 
Though often acted upon by some extremists in 
Germany and England, it was never favored by any 
Protestant sect. (ed. ) 

Antioch, in Pisidia, city, situated in Asia 
Minor, on the s. slope of the mountains that 
separated Phrygia from Pisidia, 2 in. E. of the 
ruins of Yalo-bacli. Acts, 13, gives a lengthy ac- 
count of Paul's stay here, and shows the influence 
of his and Barnabas's work. — C.E. 

Antioch, in Syria, ancient Greek capital on the 
Orontes river in Asia Minor, at the junction of the 
Lebanon and Taurus ranges, founded 300 B.C.; next 
to Rome and Alexandria the greatest city of the 
Roman Empire. Here Christianity received its name 
(Acts, 11). Its first community was founded by 
Christianized Jews, driven from Jerusalem by perse- 
cution. Peter's long residence here is proved by the 
episode of the observance of the Jewish ceremonial 
law even by Christianized pagans, as related by 
Paul (Gal., 2); the Chair of Peter is com- 
memorated as a feast on 22 Feb. From Antioch 
Paul and Barnabas started on their missionary 
journeys through Asia Minor and Greece (Acts, 13; 
18).— C.E. 

Antioch, School of, designation given to the 
Fathers of Antioch, who insisted more on the so- 
called grammatico-historical sense of the Holy 
Scripture than its moral and allegorical meaning. 
They steered a course between Origen and Theodore, 
avoiding the excesses of both, and thus laying the 
foundation of the principles of interpretation which 
Catholic exegetes follow. The principal representa- 
tives of the school are: John Chrysostom, Theodore 
of Mopsuestia, Isidore of Pelusium, and Theo- 
doret, Bp. of Cyrus. 

Antiochene Rite, the family of rites originally 
used throughout the Patriarchate of Antioch. The 
oldest form, the pure Antiochene, is marked by the 
absence of saints' names and Pater Noster. This 
form was displaced at an early date by a rite 
derived from it, that of Jerusalem, called the 
Liturgy of St. James. In the main the latter is the 
same as the former, with some modifications. The 



Liturgy of St. James became the rite of the whole 
patriarchate, i.e., all western Syria. In its oldest 
form, the Liturgy of St. James is Greek, but was 
translated into Syriac. The Greek St. James is now 
used but twice a year by the Orthodox. The Syriac 
version is used by the Jacobites in Syria and 
Palestine, and by the Syrian Uniats. For another 
form see Maronite Rite. — C.E.; Fortescue, The 
Mass, N". Y., 1914. (m. e. d.) 

Anti=paedobaptists (Gr., anti, against; pais, 
child), those who object to infant baptism; some- 
times applied to the Baptist sect, in America and 
elsewhere. 

Antipas, Saint, martyr (92), d. Pergamum. In 
the reign of Domitian he was Bp. of Pergamum, 
where he suffered martyrdom. In the Apocalypse he 
is called the "faithful witness" of Jesus Christ. 
Feast, 11 April. 

Antipasch, Low Sunday in the ecclesiastical 
year of the Greek Orthodox Church. 

Antiphon (Gr., anti, against; phone, voice: 
singing opposite, alternate chanting). (1) A psalm 
or hymn sung in alternate chant by two choirs or 
by choir and congregation. A form of chant, intro- 
duced in the West about the 4th century gradually 
displaced the responsorial form. (2) A short verse 
or sentence sung before and after a psalm or canticle 
to determine its musical mode and to provide the 
key to its liturgical or mystical meaning. An- 
tiphons are of three kinds : psalterial, from the 
psalm which follows; historical, from the mystery 
or festival; mixed, from the psalm and feast. (3) 
An anthem. 

To double antiphon is to recite the entire anti- 
phon both before and after the psalm. To announce 
antiphon is to recite the antiphon before the psalm, 
only as far as the asterisk. — C.E. (j. g. k. ) 

Antiphonary, liturgical book for use in the 
choir, containing music and texts of all sung por- 
tions of the Roman Breviary. The Gregorian Anti- 
phonary, attributed to Pope Gregory I, is an official 
codification of the collection of antiphons occurring 
in Divine Office. 

Antipodes (Gr., anti, against; pous, foot), term 
designating the position of human beings on the 
other side of the earth "with their feet against 
ours" when the earth was supposed to be flat. 
Churchmen like Augustine were interested in the 
question only because it cast doubt on the unity 
of the human race. The apostle of Germany, Boni- 
face, imputed this among other erroneous opinions 
to Vergilius, a missionary in Bavaria. Pope St. 
Zachary bade Boniface to bring him to trial for 
his perverse teachings. There is no evidence that he 
was ever tried or condemned. On the contrary, he 
became Abp. of Salzburg and is revered as a 
saint. He must have made it clear that he did not 
believe in a race of human beings not sprung from 
Adam. — C.E. (ed. ) 

Antipope, a false claimant to the Holy See in 
opposition to a pontiff canonically elected. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the 37 antipopes, whose histories 
will be found under their respective names: Aleric; 
Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy; Anastasius Biblio- 
thecarius; Benedict XIV; Boccadipecora, Teobaldo; 
Cadaloiis, Peter; Conti, Gregorio; Cossa, Baldas- 



ANTIPOPE 



S3 



APE-MEN 



sare; Dioscorus; Eulalius; Franco, Boniface; Fran- 
gipani, Lando dei; Felix II; Gregory VI; Guibert 
of Ravenna; Guido of Crema; Hippolytus; John; 
John, Abbot of Struma; John, Bp. of Sabina; 
Laurentius; Luna, Pedro de; Maginulf; Maurice, 
Abp. of Braga; Mincius, John; Muiioz, Gil San- 
chez; Novatian; Octavian; Paschal; Philagathus, 
John; Philip; Pierleone, Pietro; Rainalducci, Pie- 
tro; Robert of Geneva; Theodore; Theodoric; Ti- 
berius; Ursicinus. — C.E.; U.K. 

Anti=semitism, the agitation in European coun- 
tries to oppose the commercial, political, and finan- 
cial influence of the Jews. 

Antitrinitarians, those who deny the Trinity 
of Persons in the Godhead; in early days, the 
Sabellians, Macedonians, and Arians; in later times 
Protestant bodies such as the Socinians and Uni- 
tarians. — Pohle-Preuss, The Divine Trinity, St. L., 
1922. 

Antitype (Gr., anti, corresponding to; typos, 
type), some one or something prefigured or typified 
by biblical persons, or objects, or events. Adam, 
Noe, Moses, David are some of the O.T. types of 
Christ. He is their antitype. 

Antonelli, Giacomo (1806-76), cardinal, secre- 
tary of state to Pius IX, b. Sonnino, Italy; d. 
Rome. He held various offices under Gregory XVI. 
and became cardinal, minister of finance, and 
prefect of the sacred palaces under Pius IX. He 
arranged the flight of the pope to Gaeta, where he 
was made secretary of state, and returned to Rome 
with the pope, 1850. Until 1870 he was practically 
the temporal ruler of Rome, and vigorously de- 
fended the rights of the Holy See. He has been much 
praised and severely criticized; he was a states- 
man rather than a churchman, never having been 
ordained priest, although zealous in his religious 
duties. — C.E. 

Antonians, popular name for the members of 
various orders under the patronage of St. Anthony 
or professing to follow his rule. The original society 
was founded in the 4th century by St. Anthony. 
There are now four important orders so known: 
Maronite Congregation of Aleppo, or Aleppines, 
founded in 1695, having in 1910, 10 convents, 8 hos- 
pices, 75 priests, and 45 lay brothers; Maronites 
of the Baladite Congregation, founded in 1695, 
having in 1910, 31 convents, 27 hospices, 400 priests, 
and 300 lay brothers; Maronites of the Congre- 
gation of St. Isaias, founded in 1700, having in 
1925, 22 convents, 9 residences, 20 parishes, 12 hos- 
pices, 15 schools, 150 priests, and 100 lay brothers; 
Chaldean Antonians of the Congregation of St. 
Hormisdas, founded in 1808 by Gabriel Dembo, and 
having 3 convents and 70 religious, of whom 20 
are priests. — C.E., I, 555. 

Antoninus, Saint, confessor (1389-1459), Abp. 
of Florence, b. Florence; d. there. In 1405 he en- 
tered the Dominican Order and was a zealous 
promoter of the reforms of Bl. John Dominic. He 
was made vicar of the convent of Foligno, 1414, 
and governed several other convents until in 1446 
he was raised to the archiepiscopal see of Flor- 
ence. Among his writings are a valuable work on 
moral theology and a history of the world. He 
was among the first to attempt to adapt eco- 



nomic traditions to modern developments. Emblems: 
scales, lily. Canonized, 1523. Feast, R. Cal., 10 May. 
—C.E. 

Antoninus of Pamiers, Saint, apostle of the 
Rouergue (1st century), b. Fredelacum (later Pa- 
miers). Having embraced Christianity he visited 
Rome, was ordained, and returned to Gaul to 
preach the Gospel in Aquitania, and especially on 
the frontier of the Rouergue where he is credited 
with many miracles. Relics at Pamiers and Palen- 
cia. Feast, 2 Sept. 

Antra deserti, teneris sub annis, or Thou, in 

THY CHILDHOOD, TO THE DESERT CAVERNS, hymn for 

Matins on 24 June, feast of St. John the Baptist. 
It was written by Paul the Deacon (720-799). The 
English title given is from the translation by M. 
Blacker and G. Palmer. — Britt. 

Antwerp (Anvers), city, Belgium, on the 
Scheldt, 60 m. from the sea. In the 10th and 11th 
centuries, capital of the Margravate of Antwerp, it 
rose to the height of its prosperity in the 16th 
century under Charles V, at whose death it fell to 
Austria. France held it from 1794 to 1815, and 
Holland, from 1815 to the foundation of the new 
Kingdom of Belgium in 1830. As an intellectual cen- 
ter it was the home of Plantin, Lipsius, Ortelius, 
Mercator, and De Backer, the Jesuit biographer. 
As an art center, it encouraged Metsys, Rubens, 
Van Dyck, Jordaens, Teniers, and Leys. It also 
sheltered the English religious orders who fled 
persecution in England. The cathedral, built 1354- 
1530, is cruciform, with triple aisles and an am- 
bulatory, has a tower 400 ft. high, and contains 
Rubens's "Descent from the Cross." Other churches 
are St. Charles Borromeo, St. Jacques, and St. 
Paul. Antwerp was the seat of a diocese from 1559 
to 1801, suffragan of Mechlin.— C.E. 

Antwerp Bible, a great polyglot Bible in six 
volumes, the "Biblia Regia," published at Antwerp, 
1569-73, by the Plantin press at the expense of 
Christopher Plantin. t 

Anvil, emblem in art associated with St. Eli- 
gius, goldsmith and metal-worker. 

A. P. A. See American Protective Association. 

Apelles, Saint, martyr, Bp. of Smyrna. Paul 
greeted him as "approved in Christ" (Rom., 16). 

Ape=men, apes resembling man and therefore 
considered by evolutionists as beings midway be- 
tween ape and man, the link between man and ape. 
They claim to have found within the last few 
decades several specimens of real ape-men. There 
are apes resembling man in anatomical structure 
and physiological functions; they are known in 
zoology as anthropoids (Gr. cmthropos, man; eidos, 
like) and include the gorilla, chimpanzee, and 
ourang-outang. Yet man is essentially different 
from them all, for he is rational; and no matter 
how defective, or even deranged, a human being 
may be, he is never essentially irrational as the 
animal is. As regards the alleged specimens of 
real ape-men, it is well to distinguish two classes. 
The first are the rather extensive finds of races 
hitherto unsuspected, such as the Neanderthal and 
the Cro-Magnon race. Judged by their mode of 
burial, these must be classed as men, though per- 
haps of a race now extinct. The second are bold 



APE-MEN 



54 



APOCRYPHA 



reconstructions from a few parts of a skeleton, e.g., 
the famous Java man, or pithecanthropus erectus 
(erect ape-man), determined from the top part of a 
skull, a thigh bone, and two molar teeth (which 
may not have belonged to the same individual ) , and 
the Heidelberg man built up from a jaw. There is 
no authority, however, for the accuracy of these 
reconstructions. In spite of resemblances in an- 
atomical structure, man is essentially different 
from the ape, and to the unprejudiced student it 
would seem that the wish is father to the thought; 
that the evolutionists find ape-men because they 
are necessary to substantiate the evolutionist 
theory. — Devivier, ed. Messmer, Christian Apolo- 
getics, N. Y., 1903. (a. c. c.) 

Apiarius of Sicca, priest of the Roman Prov- 
ince of Africa, whose appeal to Rome from his 
bishop's sentence of excommunication for miscon- 
duct (c. 418) led to a dispute between the African 
Church and the popes about the regulation of local 
discipline. This case has been made much of by 
opponents of papal supremacy; it was merely an 
expression of the desire of African bishops to retain 
privileges they had been allowed to assume during 
periods of persecution. — C.E. 

Apocalypse, the book placed last in the Bible. 
The author, named John in 1, 1, and 22, 8, tradi- 
tion has generally identified with the Apostle. It 
was written either during the persecution of Nero 
(54-68) or of Domitian (90-94), during St. John's 
exile at Patmos, to encourage the persecuted Chris- 
tians by foretelling the fall of Rome as an anti- 
Christian power and the trials but complete victory 
of the Church. The work is prophetical, dealing 
with the future rather than with the present, yet 
not without many references to events of St. John's 
own time. He pictures various phases of the 
Church's conflict with the world by means of dif- 
ferent symbolical visions. The book is very difficult 
of interpretation; at each new crisis its prophecies 
seem fulfilled, the end seems, at hand and yet it 
does not come. Its message seems to be: "Watch, 
for ye know not the day nor the hour." The intro- 
duction (1, 1, to 3, 22) gives the title and descrip- 
tion of the book and, after a prefatory salutation, 
seven Epistles to various Churches of Asia Minor, 
commending those who are faithful, reproving and 
warning the lukewarm and the sinful. Chapters 4, 
1, to 11, 19, contain a description of the judgment 
and destruction of Jerusalem. Chapters 12, 1, to 19, 
10, describe the struggle between the Church and the 
world, ending in the destruction of Babylon. In 
chapters 19, 11, to 22, 5, are related the final tri- 
umph of the Word of God and the glory of the New 
Jerusalem. The epilogue (22, verses 6-21) insists 
on the credibility of the Apocalypse and the quick 
fulfillment of its prophecies. The Apocalypse takes 
us to the very court of heaven picturing for us God 
in all His Majesty, surrounded by angels who do 
His bidding in heaven and on earth, and Christ, the 
Lamb of God, slain for man's Redemption but now 
surrounded by the elect who have kept His word. 
Satan, too, the great dragon, appears as the 
Church's chief enemy, but is finally conquered, 
bound, and cast into a pool of fire. — C.E. ; Gigot, 
Westminster Version of the Sacred Scriptures, IV, 



iii, N. Y., 1915; Blanc, Les Visions de Saint Jean, 
Paris, 1924. (n. g.) 

Apocalyptic Number, the mystical number, 
666, in the Apocalypse. The Greek letters of the 
word Lateinos (i.e., Pagan Rome) are also numerals 
which, added together, amount to this number. 
There are other interpretations, e.g., Antichrist. 

Apocatastasis (Gr., apo, from; kata, down; 
histemi, stand), the doctrine of the final salvation 
of all mankind; a restoration. 

Apocreos, in the Greek Rite corresponds to 
Sexagesima Sunday; the last day on which meat 
may be eaten before Lent. 

Apocrypha (Cr., apokryphos, hidden), origi- 
nally writings that claimed a sacred origin and 
were supposed to have been hidden for generations; 
later, a well-defined class of literature with scrip- 
tural or quasi-scriptural pretensions, but lacking 
genuineness and canonicity, which were composed 
during the two centuries before Christ and the 
early centuries of our era. Protestants apply the 
term improperly to denote also O.T. books, not 
contained in the Jewish canon, but received by 
Catholics under the name of deuterocanonical. The 
following is a list of the Apocrypha: 

Apocrypha of Jewish Origin. — Jewish Apoc- 
alypses: Book of Henoch; Assumption of Moses; 
Fourth Book of Esdras; Apocalypse of Baruch; 
Apocalypse of Abraham. Legendary Apocrypha of 
Jewish Origin: Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis; 
Third Book of Esdras; Third Book of Machabees; 
History and Maxims of Ahikar, the Assyrian. Apoc- 
ryphal Psalms and Prayers: Psalms of Solomon; 
Prayer of Manasses. Jewish Philosophy: Fourth 
Book of Machabees. 

Apocrypha of Jewish Origin with Christian 
Accretions: Sibylline Oracles; Testaments of the 
Twelve Patriarchs; Ascension of Isaias. 

Apocrypha of Christian Origin. — Apocryphal 
Gospels of Catholic Origin: Protoevangelium Jacobi, 
or Infancy Gospel of James, describing the birth, 
education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin; 
Gospel of the Pseudo-Matthew; Arabic Gospel of 
the Infancy; History of Joseph the Carpenter; 
Transitu Marian, or Evangelium Joannis, describing 
the death and assumption of the Blessed Virgin. 
Judaistic and Heretical Gospels: Gospel according 
to the Hebrews ; Gospel according to the Egyptians ; 
Gospel of Peter; Gospel of Philip; Gospel of 
Thomas; Gospel of Marcion; Gospel of Bartho- 
lomew; Gospel of Matthias; Gospel of Nicodemus; 
Gospel of the Twelve Apostles; Gospel of Andrew; 
Gospel of Barnabas; Gospel of Thaddeus; Gospel 
of Philip; Gospel of Eve; Gospel of Judas Iscariot. 
Pilate Literature and Other Apocrypha concerning 
Christ: Report of Pilate to the Emperor; Narra- 
tive of Joseph of Arimathea; Pseudo-Correspond- 
ence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa. Gnostic 
Acts of the Apostles: Acts of Peter; Acts of John; 
Acts of Andrew; Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew: 
Acts of Thomas; Acts of Bartholomew. Catholic 
Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles: Acts of Peter and 
Paul; Acts of Paul; Acts of Paul and Thecla; Acts 
of Philip; Acts of Matthew; Acts of Simon and 
Jude ; Acts of Barnabas ; Acts of James the Greater. 
Apocryphal Doctrinal Works: Testamentum Domini 



APOCRYPHA 



55 



APOSTLES 



Nostri Jesu ; Preaching of Peter, or Kerygma Petri. 
Apocryphal Epistles: Pseudo-Epistle of Peter; 
Pseudo-Epistles of Paul; Pseudo-Epistles to the 
Laodiceans; Pseudo-Correspondence of Paul and 
Seneca. Christian Apocryphal Apocalypses: Apoc- 
alypse of Peter; Apocalypse of Paul. 
— C.E.; U.K.; Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepi- 
grapha of the Old Testament, Oxford, 1913; Walker, 
Apocryphal Gospels, Acts and Revelations, Edin., 
1873. 

Apodeipnon (Gr., the after-supper service), the 
last part of the Greek Divine Office, corresponding 
to the Latin Compline. 

Apodosis (Gr., apo, back; didomi, give), the 
last day on which prayers in commemoration of a 
feast are said in the Greek Church. — C.E. 

Apollinarianism, heresy begun by Apollinaris 
the Younger, Bp. of Laodicea, c. 376, teaching that 
Christ had a human sensitive soul, but had no 
human rational mind, the place of which was taken 
by Divine Logos. It was condemned by Roman 
Councils, 377 and 381, and the Council of Constan- 
tinople, 381. The sect perished about 416, some 
members returning to the Church, while the rest 
became Monophysites, believing that Christ had 
only a divine, but no human, will. — C.E.; Pohle- 
Preuss, Christology, St. L., 1922. 

Apollinaris, Saint, martyr (c. 79), first Bp. of 
Ravenna, b. probably Antioch; d. Ravenna, Italy. 
According to his Acts he was a disciple of St. 
Peter, by whom he was raised to the See of Ra- 
venna. He suffered almost constant persecution, but 
persisted in preaching. Banished from Ravenna with 
the other Christians, by a decree of Vespasian, he 
was discovered while passing through the gates, 
tortured, and put to death. Emblem: sword. Relics 
at Ravenna. Feast, R. Cal., 23 July. — C.E.; Butler. 

Apollinaris Claudius, Saint (2nd century), 
Bp. of Hierapolis, Phrygia. He wrote against here- 
tics. His eloquent "Apologia" (c. 177) for Chris- 
tians was addressed to Marcus Aurelius. Feast, 8 
Jan.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Apollo (1st century), learned Jew, b. Alex- 
andria. He was renowned for his knowledge of the 
Scriptures. Although imperfectly instructed in 
Christian doctrine, he was teaching at Ephesus, 
when Aquila and Priscilla (q.v.) brought about his 
complete conversion and baptism. A friend of St. 
Paul, he preached the Gospel in Corinth with great 
success (Acts, 18). 

Apollonia, Saint, virgin, martyr (c. 249), 
deaconess, d. Alexandria. She was seized by the in- 
surgent heathen populace who tortured her by 
knocking out her teeth. A pile of faggots was pre- 
pared to burn her and the other martyrs, but, 
threatened with death, Apollonia chose to embrace 
it voluntarily and sprang into the fire. Invoked 
against toothache and diseases of the teeth. Em- 
blems: tooth, pincers. Feast, R. Cal., 9 Feb. — C.E.; 
Butler. 

Ap oily on, Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word 
Abaddon, meaning destruction, destroyer. 

Apologetics (Gr., apologia, apology, defense), 
the theological science which aims at explaining 
and justifying religious doctrine in order to show 
its reasonableness in answer to objections of those 



who deny the reasonableness of any religion, es- 
pecially of a revealed religion, such as Christianity, 
and more particularly the reasonable grounds of 
the Catholic religion. Since the name of apologetics 
has not the same significance in English as the 
Greek word from which it is derived, theologians to- 
day prefer to call the science fundamental theology, 
which explains the grounds of religion, revelation, 
Christianity, and Catholicity. See Fundamental 
Theology. — C.E. ; U.K.; Walsh, Catholic Apolo- 
getics, Lond., 1926. (ed. ) 

Apologia, a defense or vindication, such as 
Plato's "Apology" of Socrates, "Apology" of Thomas 
More, Newman's "Apologia Pro Vita Sua" (Vin- 
dication of His Own Life). 

Apologist, Christian, one who writes or speaks 
in defense of Christian beliefs and practises. Some 
of the Fathers of the Church in the 2nd and 3rd 
centuries, e.g., St. Justin, St. Irenasus, are called 
by that name because it devolved upon them to de- 
fend the Church against her first enemies within 
and without the fold. (l. a. a.) 

Apolusia, in Eastern rites, washing of catechu- 
mens in church, eight days before Baptism. They 
are also given white garments, which they must 
wear until baptized. 

Apolysis (Gr., dismissal), the blessing by the 
Greek priest at the end of Mass, Matins, or Ves- 
pers. — C.E. 

Apolytikion (Gr., dismissed), a dismissal 
prayer or hymn said or sung at the end of the 
Greek Mass, and during Matins and Vespers. — C.E. 

Apophthegmata Patrum (Maxims of the 
Fathees), name given to various collections of 
aphorisms and anecdotes illustrative of the spiritual 
life, of ascetic and monastic principles, and of 
Christian ethics; attributed to the more promi- 
nent hermits and monks who dwelt in the Egyp- 
tian deserts in the 4th century. — C.E. 

Apostasy (Gr., apostasis, el standing-off ), a 
total defection from the Christian religion, after 
previous acceptance through faith and baptism. 
Refusal to accept a particular tenet of the faith 
is properly called heresy. Apostasy may be merely 
interior, or exteriorly manifested as well. It may 
be formal (with full consciousness of the obligation 
to remain in the faith), or material (without such 
consciousness). Exterior formal apostasy involves 
excommunication, reserved in a special manner to 
the Holy See (can. 2314). Apostasy from religious 
life is the unauthorized departure from a religious 
house of an inmate under perpetual vows, with the 
intention of not returning; or, if the departure 
be legitimate, a subsequent refusal to return in 
order thus to withdraw from the obligations of re- 
ligious obedience (can. 644). Such apostates incur 
excommunication (can. 2385). — C.E.; P.C. Augus- 
tine, (a. c. k.) 

Apostle (in Liturgy), name given, in the 
Greek Church, to the Epistle of the Mass, which is 
invariably of Apostolic origin and never taken 
from the Old Testament, and also to the book con- 
taining the epistles and antiphons for every Sun- 
day and feast-day. — C.E. 

Apostles (Gr., apo, off; stello, send), envoys, 
messengers, missionaries; name given especially to 



APOSTLES 



56 



APOSTLES 



those first selected by Christ. They are distin- 
guished from the other disciples by the general 
power of jurisdiction and teaching. Their names are 
as follows (Matt., 10; Mark, 3; Luke, 6): Simon 
Peter, Andrew, James the Greater, John, Philip, 
James the Lesser, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, 
Matthias (elected in place of Judas), Thaddeus or 
Jude, Simon. Though not one of the twelve Apostles, 
St. Paul is numbered as an Apostle of the first 
rank. The name is also given to St. Barnabas. 
— C.E. (e. f. d.) 

Apostles' Creed, a formula of belief which con- 
tains in 12 statements or "articles" the funda- 
mental doctrines of Christianity, and whose au- 
thorship tradition ascribes to the Apostles. It is 
not certain whether the Apostles themselves ac- 
tually composed it. In substance, however, it may 
be attributed to them, for all its elements are 
found in the N.T. At a very early date the Western 
Church required catechumens to learn and recite 
it before admitting them to Baptism. — C.E.; Mac- 
Donald, The Apostles' Creed, St. L., 1925. (p. k.) 

Apostleship of Prayer, a pious association, 
otherwise known as a league of prayer in union 
with the Heart of Jesus, founded at Vals, France, 
by Francis Gautrelet, 1844. It owes its popularity 
to Henry Ramiere, S.J., who adapted its organiza- 
tion for various Catholic institutions, 1861. Its ob- 
ject is to promote the practise of prayer for the 
mutual intentions of the members, in union with 
the intercession of Christ in heaven. Three prac- 
tises constitute three degrees of membership: first, 
a daily offering of one's prayers, good works, and 
sufferings; second, daily recitation of a decade of 
beads for the special intentions of the Holy Father; 
third, reception of Holy Communion with the mo- 
tive of reparation, monthly or weekly. The general 
of the Society of Jesus is its moderator-general. 
The "Messenger of the Sacred Heart" is a magazine 
edited monthly by this association. Among 75 na- 
tions there are 1,900,000 subscribers. In 1929 
circulation was: U. S., 340,122; England, 27,- 
000; Ireland, 255,000; Canada, 37,500; Australia, 
52,000. It is published in 38 languages: Eng- 
lish, French, Spanish, German, Italian, Hun- 
garian, Portuguese, Danish, Finnish, Flemish, 
Dutch, Polish, Greek, Rumanian, Lithuanian, 
Czech, Albanian, Catalan, Breton, Basque, Irish, 
Arabic, Chinese, Ruthenian, Croatian, Slovenian, 
Slovak, Tamil, Malayalam, Gujarati, Telugu, Can- 
arese, Marathi, Togo, Malagasy, Fiji, Cree, Mal- 
tese. 

Apostles of Erin, The Twelve, Irish saints of 
the 6th century, who studied at the school of 
Clonard, Meath; although not apostles, strictly 
speaking, they were so called by ancient Irish 
writers. They are said to have been: Ciaran of Sai- 
ghir (Seir-Kieran), Ciaran of Clonmacnoise, Bren- 
dan of Birr, Brendan of Clonfert, Columba of Tir- 
da-glasl (Terryglass), Ruadhan of Lorrha, Senan 
of Iniscathay (Scattery Island), Columba of Iona, 
Mobhl of Glasnevin, Ninnidh the Saintly of Loch 
Erne, Lasserian mac Nadfraech, and Canice of Ag- 
haboe. — C.E. 

Apostles other than the Twelve. The follow- 
ing are popularly known as apostles, of some region 



where, or of a people among whom, they planted 
or revived the Faith: 



Adalbert, St. 

Adrian IV, Pope 

Aidan, St. 

Albert, Bp. of Riga 

Albini, Charles Dominique, 

O.M.I. 
Alexander Sauli, St. 
Allouez, Claude, S.J. 
Amand, St. 
Anchieta, Jose, S.J. 
Andeol, St. 
Andrew Corsini, St. 
Anschar, St. 

Antoninus, St. 

Astericus Anastasius, O.P. 
Augustine of Canterbury, St. 
Austremonius, St. 
Azevedo, Luis de, S.J. 
Barbelin, Felix Joseph, S.J. 
Barcena, Alonso de, S.J. 
Barnabas, St. 
Barradas, Sebastiao, S.J. 
Bartholomew the Little, O.P. 
Benignus, St. 
Bernardine of Siena, St. 
Bernard of Menthon, St. 
Berno, Bp. of Mecklenburg, 

O.Cist. 
Berthold, Bp. 
Birinus, St. 
Blanchet, Augustin M., Bp. 

of Walla Walla 
Boniface, St. 
Boso, Bp. of Merseburg 
Bruno, St. 

Bruno of Querfurt, St. 
Cancer de Barbastro, Luis, 

O.P. 
Ceadda, St. 
Christian, St. 
Columba, St. 

Cyril and Methodius, Sts. 

Denis, St. 

Durbin, Fr. Elisha John 

Eloi, St. 

Ephesus, St. 

Euphrasius, St. 

Felix, St. 

Fenwick, Edward, O.P. 

Francis de Sales, St. 

Francis Xavier, St. 

Frumentius, St. 

Gall, St. 

Gregory the Illuminator, St. 

Henry, St. 

Hubert, St. 

Irena3us, St. 

Jeningen, Philipp, S.J. 

John of Avila, Bl. 
Killian, St. 

Las Casas, Fr. Bartolome 

Lazarus, St. 

Livinus, St. 

Ludger, St. 

Martha, St. 

Martin of Tours, St. 

Maruthas, St. 

Matthias, St. 

Ninian, St. 

Nino, St. 

Olaf, St. 

Otto, St. 

Palladius, St. 

Patrick, St. 

Paul, St. 

Paul de Leon, St. 

Peter Claver, St. 

Philip Neri, St. 

Piat, St. 

Picquet, Francois, P.S.S. 

Plechelm, St. 

Porto, Antonio do, O.F.M. 

Rumold, St. 

Sebastian Valfre, Bl. 

Severinus, St. 

Sigfrid, St. 

Suitbert, St. 

Titus, St. 

Valentine, St. 



Prussia; the Slavs 

The North (Scandinavia) 

Northumbria (England) 

Livonia 

Corsica 

Corsica 

The Ottawas (Indians) 

Flanders 

Brazil 

Switzerland 

Florence 

Denmark ; Sweden ; the 

North (Scandinavia) 
The Rouergue (district in 

southern France) 
The Magyars (Hungarians) 
England 

Auvergne (France) 
The Agaus (African tribe) 
Philadelphia 
Peru 

Cyprus and Antioch 
Portugal 
Armenia 
Burgundy 
Italy 
The Alps 
The Mecklenburg Wends ; 

the Obotrites (Slav tribe) 
Livonia 
Wessex (Saxon England) 

Washington (state of U. S.) 

Germany 

The Wends 

Ruthenia (Russia) 

Prussia 

Central America 

Mercia (Saxon England) 

Portugal 

The Highlanders; Scotland; 

the Picts 
The Slavs 
The French 
Western Kentucky 
Tournai (Belgium) 
Sardinia 
Spain 
East Anglia; Valencia 

(Spain) 
Ohio 

Chablais (France) 
The Indies 
Abyssinia 
Switzerland 
Armenia 
Finland 

The Ardennes (France) 
The Gauls 
The Ries (district in South 

Germany) 
Andalusia (Spain) 
Franconia (now Bavaria, 

etc.) 
The West Indies 
Provence (France) 
Flanders 
Westphalia 
Provence (France) 
France 
Persia 

Asiatic Ethiopia 
North Britain; the Picts 
Georgia (Russia) 
Norway 
Pomerania 
Scotland 
Ireland 
The Gentiles 
Brittany 

The Negro Slaves 
Rome 

Tournai (Belgium) 
The Iroquois (Indians) 
Guelderland (Holland) 
Bassein (India) 
Mechlin (Belgium) 
Turin 

Austria; Bavaria 
Gothland (Sweden) 
Friesland (Germany) 
Crete 
Tyrol 



APOSTLES 



57 



APOSTOLIC LETTERS 



Vedast (Vaast), St. 
Vigil, St. 

White, Andrew, S.J. 
Wilfrid, St. 
Willibrord, St. 



Artois (France) 

Carinthia (Yugoslavia) 

Maryland 

Sussex (England) 

Brabant; Flanders; Holland; 

Zealand; the Friesians 
Saxony 



Willihad, St. 

Apostle Spoons, any set of 13 spoons, usually 
of silver, with figures of Our Lord and the Apostles 
on the handle ends. They were favorite baptismal 
gifts in the 15th and 16th centuries. The place of 
Judas Iscariot was supplied sometimes by Paul, 
more often by Matthias. — C.E. 

Apostolicae Sedis Gratia (By the favor of 
the Apostolic See) , title used by bishops in formal 
documents, since the 12th century. 

Apostolic Camera, once the central board of 
finance in the papal administration; the officers are 
now quasi-honorary. — C.E. 

Apostolic Churches, term used from the 2nd 
to the 4th century to signify the Churches founded 
or ruled by an Apostle; e.g., Alexandria, by St. 
Mark. Later "Apostolic church" was used frequently 
to mean the whole Church, especially in connection 
with the expression, Catholic Church. — C.E. 

Apostolic Church Ordinance, 3rd-century 
pseudo-Apostolic collection of moral and hierarchi- 
cal rules and instructions, which served as a law- 
code for the Egyptian, Ethiopian, and Arabian 
Churches, rivaling the Didache, under which name 
it often went. — C.E. 

Apostolic Constitutions, a 4th-century collec- 
tion of independent treatises on Christian discipline, 
worship, and doctrine, wrongly purporting to be in- 
structions of the Apostles compiled by Clement of 
Rome.— C.E. 

Apostolic Dataria, an office of the Roman 
Curia, which looks into the fitness of candidates for 
nonconsistorial benefices reserved to the Holy See; 
composes and expedites the Apostolic letters for the 
conferring of such benefices; grants exemption from 
conditions required in conferring a benefice, the col- 
lation of which does not pertain to the Ordinary; 
attends to pensions and burdens imposed by the 
supreme pontiff when conferring the aforementioned 
benefices. The dataria is presided over by the car- 
dinal-datary. He is assisted by a subdatary, or re- 
gent, and several subordinate officials and consul- 
tors. This office dates back to the 13th century. It 
used to grant besides concessions pertaining to bene- 
fices other graces of the external forum, such as 
matrimonial dispensations. Leo XIII gave it a more 
modern form and Pius X reorganized it completely. 
The Code of Canon Law outlines its functions as 
noted above. — P.O. Augustine; Woywod. (h. L. m. ) 

Apostolic Delegate, a papal representative 
who in the territory assigned to him has the power 
and duty of watching over the status of the Church 
and of keeping the Roman pontiff informed regard- 
ing the same. Besides this ordinary power he has 
faculties that are delegated to him by the Holy 
See. In countries that have established relations 
with the Holy See the papal representatives have 
also a diplomatic character because of their office 
concerning the relations between the Church and 
the respective state or states. In countries that have 
no established relations with the Holy See the 
representatives of the pope have a purely ecclesias- 



tical character. To this latter class belongs the 
Apostolic delegate. The prescribed exercise of the 
delegate's office does not interfere with the juris- 
diction of the local Ordinaries, since the rights and 
duties of both offices flow from the properly con- 
stituted government of the Church. The function of 
vigilance in its regular course brings about a 
strengthening of the general condition of the Church 
throughout all ecclesiastical units of the delegate's 
territory, and thus confirms, unifies, and facilitates 
the labors of the Ordinaries. The delegate takes 
precedence in honor over all Ordinaries of his ter- 
ritory who are not cardinals. He likewise enjoys 
several other concessions of an honorary nature. 
The Apostolic delegation is not a tribunal of jus- 
tice, but the delegate may decide conflicts in com- 
petence, as specified by church law (can. 1612, 2). 
The Roman pontiff's right to send representatives 
to any part of the world flows from the constitution 
of the Church, i.e., from the papal primacy of jur- 
isdiction. Since the pope himself cannot personally 
fulfill the office of vigilance over the condition of 
the Church in the various countries of the globe, 
it is logical that he should have representatives 
who perform this duty for him and forward to him 
the necessary information. Hence we find the exer- 
cise of this right contemporary with the freedom 
and spread of Christianity. As early as the 4th 
century the Holy See had a permanent representa- 
tive in Illyricum. In the 5th century the Vicariate 
of Aries was constituted as the territory of the 
pope's representative in Gaul. Throughout the cen- 
turies the exercise of papal representation kept 
apace with the spread of the Gospel into new ter- 
ritories. — P,C Augustine; Woywod. (h. l. m.) 

Apostolic Indulgences, those which the Roman 
pontiff attaches to pious articles, such as crucifixes, 
rosaries, and medals, when he, or one authorized 
by him, blesses them. Painted or printed pictures, 
and crosses and crucifixes, etc., made of pewter, 
iron, lead, or fragile material, are excluded. The 
blessed article must be carried on one's person, if 
possible, otherwise kept in a suitable place, and the 
prescribed prayers recited. — C.E. ; Beringer, Les In- 
dulgences, Paris, 1905. (a. c. ) 

Apostolicity, one of the marks by which the 
Church founded by Christ on His Apostles can 
always be recognized among the large number of 
dissident creeds. It implies Apostolicity of mission, 
that is, Christ's Church is a moral body, possessing 
the mission entrusted by Him to His Apostles 
of baptizing and teaching all men in His name 
and transmitted through them and their lawful 
successors in the episcopacy in an unbroken chain 
to their present representatives. His Church being 
infallible, there is also implied Apostolicity of doc- 
trine, which means that the deposit of faith en- 
trusted to the Apostles has been preserved intact. 
— C.E.; Gibbons, Faith of Our Fathers, N. Y., 1917. 

Apostolic King, hereditary title borne by the 
kings of Hungary. St. Stephen (c. 975-1038) is 
supposed to have received it from Pope Sylvester 
II. It was first used by Emperor Leopold I (1657- 
1705) as King of Hungary. 

Apostolic Letters, broadly speaking, all docu- 
ments issued by the Holy See, Before Pius X these 



APOSTOLIC LETTERS 



58 



APPARITOR 



were divided into bulls and briefs. Now the term 
is restricted to documents in brief form used for 
lesser appointments and for erecting and dividing 
mission territory, designating basilicas, and approv- 
ing religious congregations. (J. D.) 

Apostolic Mission House, a Catholic mission- 
ary union, affiliated with the Catholic University of 
Washington, founded 1902, under the management 
of the Paulists. Its object is to prepare priests for 
giving missions in city and rural parishes; stu- 
dents, 29. 

Apostolic Schools, name given to institutions 
founded as preparatory schools for boys or young 
men of insufficient means, who desire to enter a 
missionary order, or to join the secular clergy with 
the intention of laboring in a mission field. The 
first of these schools was established by Fr. Alberic 
de Foresta, S.J., in 1865, at Avignon, France. The 
pupils were admitted at twelve years of age, or 
later, and studied the classics, modern languages, 
and mathematics, so as to be ready for the novitiate 
of an order, or for later courses in a seminary. 
They were supported by the contributions of the 
faithful, augmented by voluntary offerings from 
their parents. Within a decade there were schools 
at Amiens, Poitiers, and Bordeaux in France, Turin 
in Italy, and Turnhout in Belgium. Nearly all the 
religious orders have followed the Jesuits in es- 
tablishing such institutions. There are well-known 
apostolic schools at: Mungret, Ireland, under the 
Jesuits; Wernhoutsburg, Holland, under the Vin- 
centians; Tournai, Belgium, under the Salesians; 
and Freshfield, England, under the Missionaries of 
St. Joseph's, Mill Hill. Among these schools in the 
United States are those at Cornwells, under the 
Fathers of the Holy Ghost; Perryville, Mo., under 
the Congregation of the Mission; South Langhorne, 
Pa., under the Society of Mary; and San Antonio, 
Tex., under the Oblates of Mary.— C.E., XIII, 585. 

Apostolic See, the seat or diocese of the 
pope because only he personally has the right from 
the Apostles to convert the whole world. From the 
earliest Christian centuries Rome was called the 
Apostolic see. A see founded or governed by an 
Apostle was called an Apostolic see, e.g., Alexan- 
dria, founded by St. Mark. — C.E. (j. d.) 

Apostolic Signatura (Lat., signare, to sign), 
or the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Sig- 
natura, a tribunal of the Roman Curia, which 
exercises ordinary jurisdiction in matters referring 
to: (a) violation of secrecy by the auditors of the 
Sacred Rota, and damages inflicted by said audi- 
tors in consequence of their placing an invalid or 
unjust act; (b) exception of suspicion against 
an auditor of the Sacred Rota; (c) complaints of 
nullity against a rotal sentence; (d) petition of 
restitution in integrum against a rotal sentence 
that has passed into a res judicata; (e) recourses 
against rotal sentences in matrimonial causes which 
the Sacred Rota refuses to submit to a new investi- 
gation; (f) conflict of competence between certain 
inferior tribunals. It exercises delegated jurisdiction 
regarding petitions to the Holy Father for the in- 
troduction of certain causes before the Sacred Rota. 
The sentences of the Signatura have full force even 
if they do not contain the reasons in fact and in 



law. The Signatura is composed of several" cardinals 
one of whom acts as prefect, or presiding official. 
The method of procedure is determined by the Code 
of Canon Law and by certain rules established 
for this tribunal. The history of this institution 
dates back to the 13th century. Originally a double 
Signatura, it was divided in 1492 into two distinct 
Signaturas, one of grace, and one of justice. Pius X 
suppressed both and created the Apostolic Signa- 
tura in its present form. — P.C. Augustine; Woy- 
wod. (h. l. m.) 

Apostolic Succession, the uninterrupted suc- 
cession of lawfully-ordained bishops extending from 
the Apostles down to the present bishops of the 
Church, who thus have received the powers of or- 
daining, ruling, and teaching bestowed on the 
Apostles by Christ. — C.E. 

Apostolic Union of Secular Priests, associa- 
tion of secular priests who observe a rule em- 
bodying the common duties of their state, afford 
mutual assistance in the functions of the ministry, 
and keep themselves in the spirit of their vocation 
by spiritual conferences. It had its origin in the 
association of secular clergy founded in Bavaria in 
the 17th century by Ven. Bartholomew Holzhauser, 
was revived and reorganized in France in the 19th 
century by Canon Lebeurier, and was established by 
papal brief, 18G2. There are diocesan associations 
in France, Belgium, Austria, Ireland, Germany, 
Switzerland, Italy, United States, Canada, South 
America, Australia, and parts of Asia. The Union 
had the special commendation of Pius X, who was 
a member of it. Its official organ is "Etudes Ec- 
clesiastiques." — C.E. 

Apotheosis (Gr., deification), elevation of a 
human being to the rank of a god ; especially among 
the Greeks (Philip of Macedon; Alexander the 
Great), and the Roman emperors. It is often used 
to signify the transition of a person from this life 
to eternal life and glory. — C.E. 

Apparition of Our Saviour, representation in 
art associated with St. Martin of Tours and St. 
Francis of Assisi, to both of whom Our Saviour 
appeared. 

Apparition of the Infant Jesus, representa- 
tion in art associated with St. Anthony of Padua, 
because of his vision of the Infant Jesus; St. Fran- 
cis of Assisi, by reason of his vision when receiving 
the stigmata; St. Christopher, as ferryman carrying 
the Infant Jesus. 

Apparitions, extraordinary and remarkable ap- 
pearances or manifestations of some object pre- 
sented to man by God in a most singular way. 
They are also called corporeal visions, because in 
them the objects themselves, or at least their 
species, make an organic impression upon our 
senses. The senses perceive an objective reality 
naturally invisible to man. It is not necessary that 
the object perceived be flesh and blood, it suffices 
that it be a sensible or luminous form. — Tanquerey, 
Theologie Ascetique et Mystique. (m. j. w. ) 

Apparitor (Lat., public servant), an officer of 
the former ecclesiastical courts, who acted as con- 
stable and sheriff. The Convocation of the Anglican 
Church still employs an official thus named. — 
C.E. 



APPEAL 



59 



AQUARIANS 



Appeal. A party to an ecclesiastical trial who 
considers that he has a grievance against the sen- 
tence, as well as the promoter of justice and the 
defender of the bond, in suits in which they took 
part, have the right of appealing from the sentence 
to the next highest court or to the Holy See. Within 
ten days from the notification of the sentence, the 
appeal is lodged before the lower court. It should 
as a rule be in writing, though an oral application 
is allowed at times. Within the next month, unless 
the lower judge grants an extension of the time, 
the one appealing must follow up his application 
by calling on the higher court to amend the de- 
cision, enclosing a copy of the sentence and of his 
own bill of appeal. The appeal suspends the effects 
of the first sentence, unless the law states other- 
wise. The court of appeal has to confine itself to 
the exact case decided by the lower court, but will 
admit any additional proofs that have come to light 
in the meantime. There is an appeal from non- 
judicial acts which is an appeal in the wide sense 
and is treated under the word Recourse. — Code of 
Canon Law, can. 1879-91. (J. Mace.) 

Appellant Controversy, a dispute occasioned 
by the refusal of the Sorbonne and certain French 
ecclesiastics and bishops to accept the Bull "Uni- 
genitus" of 1713, which condemned the Jansenist 
doctrines as set forth in Quesnel's "Moral Reflec- 
tions." The name has also been applied to the dis- 
pute in England known as the Archpriest Con- 
troversy (q.v. ). 

Appetite (Lat., ad, to; petere, to seek), bent 
of mind or body for attaining some object; of mind 
for truth, of will for affection, of each sense for 
its proper object under due control of reason. — C.E.; 
Maher, Psychology, Lond., 1909. (ed.) 

Appian Way, road constructed by Appius 
Claudius in 312 B.C. between Rome and Capua, and 
later extended to Brindisi. St. Paul journeyed over 
it on his way to Rome. It is mentioned frequently 
in the Roman Martyrology as the site of the suf- 
ferings and burial of many martyrs. — Chandlery, 
Pilgrim Walks in Rome, St. L., 1924. 

Apple, the fruit, Malus communis, Pyrus malus, 
or Malus malus, the native home of which is said 
to be Asia Minor. In the Bible (Gen., 3) it is iden- 
tified as the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge eaten 
by Adam and Eve. The tree, in Hebrew thap- 
puakh, is referred to in Canticle of Canticles, 2 
and 8, whence such place-names as Tappuah or 
Taphua (Jos., 12 and 15) or Beth-tappuah (Jos., 
15). Adam's apple {Pomum Adami) is the promi- 
nence in the fore part of the throat so called 
from the belief that a piece of the forbidden fruit 
lodged in Adam's throat. Apple of Sodom, or Dead 
Sea apple, is a fruit said to grow on or near the 
site of the biblical Sodom; it turns to smoke and 
ashes when plucked. Apple-of-Cain is not an apple 
but is the strawberry-tree, Arbutus unedo. In 
religious symbolism and ecclesiastical art, the 
apple is used as a decoration on a church; the 
Infant Christ is represented' holding an apple, 
the fruit of Paradise that became the cause of 
Adam's fall; it is also (rare) the apple of obedi- 
ence and of life; Sodom's apple symbolizes sin, or 
sinful lust. 



DEO SANC ^ VN1 '"' < - 



LVCITE, 
£ CV7VIPA, 



lit" 




Approbation, approval; an act by which a 
legitimate superior authorizes an ecclesiastic ac- 
tually to exercise his ministry. — C.E. 

Appropriation (Lat., appropriare, to make 
one's own ) , in theology the attributing of certain 
names, qualities, or operations to one of the Per- 
sons of the Blessed Trinity in preference to, but 
not to the exclusion of, the others; thus we char- 
acterize the Father by omnipotence, the Son by 
wisdom, the Holy Ghost by love, though all Three 
possess these essentially and in an infinite degree. 
— C.E.; Pohle-Preuss, The Divine Trinity, St. L., 
1922. 

Apries (c. 589-569 B.C.), Egyptian king, the 
Pharao of Jeremias, 37. He incited Judea and 
Phenicia to rebellion against Nabuchodonosor, and 
was later defeated and killed by his own general, 
Amasis. 

Apronianus, Cemetery of, Christian burying 
ground, of the 2nd cen- 
tury, on the Latin Way, 
near Rome, discovered, 
1596, and containing re- 
markable drawings and 
inscriptions. 

Apse (Lat., apsis, 
arch ) , semicircular or po- 
lygonal termination to the 
choir or aisles of a church, 
in which the altar was 
placed ; so called from be- 
ing vaulted. The term may 
be applied to the canopy 
over the altar; a dome; 
the arched roof of a room ; 
the bishop's seat; a reliquary; a semicircular recess 
with a roof. The apse is always solid below, gen- 
erally with windows above. The chevet is an apse 
enclosed by an open screen of columns, opening into 
an aisle, then into three or more apsidal chapels. 
The term was first used in reference to a Roman 
basilica, of which the apse was an important fea- 
ture and was retained after the basilica was trans- 
formed into the Christian Church. It was retained 
in Byzantine churches, was universally adopted in 
Germany, and was common in France and Italy. 
England preferred the square termination. In the 
larger Gothic churches of France the apse is polyg- 
onal and becomes the chevet, with its radial chapels. 
—C.E. 

Apse Chapel, a chapel radiating from one of 
the bays of the apse and reached by an ambulatory 
(passageway). St. Martin's, Tours, France, is the 
common example of the ambulatory and radiating 
chapels. It is a continental form rare in England. — 
C.E. 

Apsidiole (Absidiale), a small or secondary 
apse, one of the apses on either side of the main 
apse in a church with three apses, or one of the 
apse chapels when they project from the exterior 
of the church. — C.E. 

Aquamanile (Lat., aqua, water; manale, ewer), 
ancient name for the basin in which the priest 
washes his hands during Mass. 

Aquarians (Lat., aqua, water), a group of 
early sects, notably the followers of Tatian (2nd 



inscription 

FROM CEMETERY 
OF APRONIANUS 



AQUARIANS 



60 



ARBUTHNOTT MISSAL 



century), who rejected the use of wine as sinful, 
even in the Eucharist. — C.E. 

Aquila and Priscilla (1st century), Jewish 
tent-makers. Converted to Christianity, they en- 
tertained St. Paul in Corinth and later at Ephesus. 
They are mentioned in Acts, 18; Romans, 16; 1 
Corinthians, 16; and 2 Timothy, 4. Feasts, 8 July. 
— C.E.; U.K. 

Aquileia (now Aglar), a city at the head of the 
Adriatic Sea, Italy, for many centuries seat of a 
patriarchate. A city of the empire under Charle- 
magne, it became in the 11th century a feudal pos- 
session of its patriarch, whose temporal authority 
was disputed by the nobility. The see, according to 
tradition, was founded by St. Mark, and num- 
bered Hermagnos and Helarus among its martyr 
bishops. In the 6th century its patriarchal dignity 
caused a schism, which lasted fifty years, and re- 
sulted in the establishment of the Patriarchate of 
Aquileia in Grado. After a brief revival of power 
under German feudal influence it was held by the 
Venetians. In 1751 the pope divided the patri- 
archate into the two archdioceses of Udine and 
Gorz, leaving to Aquileia only the parish church, 
directly subject to the Apostolic see. Its rector was 
granted the use of the episcopal insignia seven 
times a year. — C.E. 

Aquileian Rite, a variation of the liturgy that 
developed from the 4th century in the Province 
of Aquileia. It differed from the Roman Rite and 
was probably a variation of the Gallican Use, 
and related to those of Milan and Ravenna. In 
1250 the Aquileian province adopted the Roman 
Rite. 

Aquinas. See Thomas Aquinas, Saint. 

Arabia, country occupying the most south- 
westerly peninsula of the Asiatic continent, includ- 
ing the Sultanate of Nedjed, the Imamate of 
Yemen, the British Protectorate of Aden, the Prin- 
cipality of Asir, the Hadramaut, the Sultanate of 
Oman, the Sultanate of Koweyt, and the Emirate 
of Bahrein; approximate area, 1,250,000 sq. m. ; est. 
pop., 8,000,000, practically all Mohammedans. 
Though Christianity in Arabia dates from Apostolic 
times, the Arabs, being of a lax and sensual nature, 
were indifferent in the practise of their religion, 
fell easily into the heresies of Arianism, Nes- 
torianism, and Monophysitism, and lost all traces 
of Christianity after the appearance of Islam. Mis- 
sionary work has been conducted along the out- 
skirts, but the interior of the country is almost 
impenetrable. The Catholic Church is represented 
by the Vicariate Apostolic of Arabia, established 
as a prefecture Apostolic, 1875, erected into the 
Vicariate Apostolic of Aden, 1888, and the name 
changed to Arabia, 1889. It is entrusted to the 
Capuchins. Vicar Apostolic: Ange de Treppio, O.M. 
Cap. (1927). Churches, 3; priests, 12; sisters, 23; 
Catholics, 1500.— C.E. ; U.K. 

Aragon, former kingdom in the Iberian penin- 
sula, now forming the provinces of Huesea, Sara- 
gossa, and Teruel in Spain. After conquest by the 
Carthaginians, Romans, and Arabs, the realm arose 
from several independent counties in the mountains, 
principally Sobrarbe recovered from the Moors at 
the beginning of the 8th century under Garcia 



Ximenes. It was taken by Sancho, King of Navarre, 
at the end of the 9th century, and the Aragonese 
monarchy was definitely established in the 11th 
century by Ramiro, son of Sancho the Great and 
ruler of Aragon, Ribagorza, and Sobrarbe. He made 
generous donations to the Church, founded several 
abbeys, notably that of San Juan de la Pefia, 
and paid tribute to Pope Alexander II when the 
Roman liturgy was introduced into Aragon. Sancho 
Ramirez (1069-94) recovered from the Moors a 
large part of the valley of Cinca. His son, Alfonso 
the Fighter (1104-34), took Saragossa and willed 
his lands to the military orders of Jerusalem, but 
his subjects obliged his brother Ramiro, a monk, 
to accept the crown, and the pope dispensed him 
from his vows. By the marriage of his daughter to 
Ramon Berenguer V, Count of Barcelona, Aragon 
and Catalonia were united. Alfonso II completed 
the reconquest of Aragon and Pedro II the Cath- 
olic (1196-1213) made the kingdom a dependency 
of the Holy See. To check the invasion of Albi- 
gensian heretics the Inquisition was introduced into 
Spain by Jaime I the Conqueror who recovered 
Valencia from the Moors, 1238. Pedro II (1276-85) 
took possession of Sicily. As John I and Martin 
(1395-1410) died without heirs the Compromiso de 
Caspe awarded the crown to Ferdinand of Ante- 
quera, Infante of Castile. The marriage of his de- 
scendant Ferdinand the Catholic with Isabella of 
Castile united the two kingdoms. 

Aramaic (from Aram, a country in south- 
western Asia), a Semitic language, used in Baby- 
lonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, etc., and spoken by the 
Jews during and after the Babylonian exile (606- 
536 B.C.). It was used by Christ. Fragments of the 
O.T. (Dan., 2, 4, to 7, 29) and St. Matthew's Gospel 
were written originally in Aramaic. Free para- 
phrastic translations of the Hebrew Bible into Ara- 
maic (see Targum) were made at first orally in 
the synagogues and later reduced to writing. — 
U.K.; Grannan. (l. o. ) 

Aran, Monastic School of, on the island of 
Aran Mor, Ireland. It was an ancient center of 
sanctity and learning, c. 500-800. St. Enda attracted 
followers thither, among them, Brendan the Navi- 
gator, Finnian of Clonard, Columcille, and Ciaran. 
Nearly all the "Twelve Apostles of Erin" visited 
Aran. Remains of distinct monasteries at Killeany, 
Kilronan, Kilmurvey, and at the "Seven Churches," 
can now be seen side by side with the ruins of 
pagan architecture. — C.E. 

Arbroath, Benedictine abbey in Forfarshire, on 
the east coast of Scotland, founded, 1178, by King 
William the Lion. There remain extensive ruins of 
a 13th-century church and other buildings of the 
monastery. The monks constructed a harbor and 
placed the bell on Inchcape Rock, a dangerous reef 
in the North Sea 12 m. se. of the abbey, the subject 
of Southey's ballad. Of the 32 mitered abbots the 
last was Card. Beaton. — C.E. 

Arbuthnott Missal, written by James Sibbald, 
priest of Arbuthnott, Scotland, 1491, and now in 
Paisley Museum. It was written on vellum in 
Gothic characters with illuminations, and is the 
only extant missal of the Scottish Use. It mainly 
follows that of Sarum, — C,^ ? 




ARCHAEOLOGY 



1. ETrCHARISTIC SYMBOL, END OF SECOND CENTURY 3. STATUETTE OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD 

2. ORANTF. (MOSAIC) 4. GLASS BOWL, MOSES SMITING THE ROCK 

.-. fRVI'T OF ST. CECILIA. CATACOMB OF ST. CALLISTUS 




ARCHAEOLOGY 



1. CHRIST AND HIS APOSTLES. TV CENTURY 3. MOSAIC, NARTIIEX <>F ST SOPHIA 

2. PAPAL CRYPT, III iKXTl'KV 4. IRoM I II K I < 1 M H <>F l*'U'|'. AN'lF.Rl'? 

5. STM.NE TABLET FROM HERul/s TEMPLE 



II CENTURY 



ARCA 



61 



ARCHEOLOGY 




Area, a box in which the Eucharist was kept by 
the primitive Christians in their homes; a chest 
for safe keeping of church money offerings, such as 
endowment funds for churches, schools, and vari- 
ous pious uses, known as the area- seminarii. mis- 
sionum, piorum operum. — C.E. 

Arcadelt, Jacob (c. 1514-c. 1575), composer, b. 
Netherlands; d. probably Paris. He went to Rome, 
1539, where he directed the boys' choir at St. 
Peter's, and from 1540-49 sang in the papal choir. 
Six books of his madrigals appeared at Venice, 
1538-56, and three books of Masses and other sacred 
compositions, in Paris, 1557. As a musician of the 
Netherland school his influence helped to found the 
16th-century Italian school. — C.E. 

Arcadius, Probus, Paschasius, Eutychianus, 
and Paulillus, Saints, martyrs (437) b. Sala- 
manca. The last three are brothers, the youngest 
of whom, Paulillus, was sold into slavery and died 
later of exposure. They accompanied the Vandal 
King Genseric to Africa, but when persecution broke 
out were banished from court. 
Imprisoned for using the Ni- 
cene Creed they died under 
torture arid are considered the 
proto-martyrs of the Vandal 
persecution. Relics at Medina 
del Campo, Spain. Feast, 13 
Nov. 

Arcani Disciplina. See 
Discipline of the Secret. 

Arch= (Gr., archos, chief, 
head), in etymology, a prefix 
forming, with other terms, 
compounds signifying a per- 
son, unit, or institution that 
has preeminence over other 
persons or institutions, e.g., 
archbishop. arc 

Arch, in architecture, a 
structure built of separate and rigid blocks shaped 
like wedges and put together on a curved line so as to 
keep their position by mutual pressure when the arch 
is supported only at its two ends. The separate blocks 
are called voussoirs or arch-stones, the lowest mem- 
bers of which are termed springers, and the uppermost 
or central one, when a single stone is thus used, is 
called the keystone. The under or concave side of 
the voussoir is called the intrados or soffit; the 
upper or convex, the extrados. The supports of 
the arch are called piers, pillars, and abutments, the 
two former receiving the vertical pressure and the 
latter resisting the lateral thrust. The upper part 
of the pier is the impost, the span being the distance 
between the opposite imposts, above the line of 
which the highest point of the intrados is called the 
rise. The thrust is the pressure exerted outward, 
and is counteracted by the abutments or buttresses. 
Of the various types exemplified in the illustration 
the pointed arch is stronger than any other kind. 

Archaeology, Christian, that branch of the sci- 
ence of archaeology which has for its ultimate ob- 
ject the study of ancient Christian life, as inferred 
from the remains of the Christian monuments (sup- 
plemented by literature, objects of art, etc.) erected 
during the first six centuries of the Christian era. 





The Roman catacombs are the great treasure-house 
of the monuments of primitive Christianity; the 
Bible is the first indispensable literary source. 
Many Catholics and other Christians have made 
valuable researches in the field of Christian archae- 
ology. 

Catholics. — Paul Allard (1841-1916) had a mi- 
nute knowledge of Christian archaeology, especially 
in regard to the Roman catacombs. He translated 
Northcote and Brownlow's "Roma Sotterranea 1 ' 
(1874) and enriched it with valuable notes and 
additions. Flavio Biondo (1388-1463), secretary of 
Pope Eugenius IV, was the author of a valuable 
study of the ancient monuments of Rome. Antonio 
Bosio (1575-1629), known as the "Columbus of the 
Catacombs" and the "Father of Christian Archae- 
ology," was the first to begin the systematic ex- 
ploration of the Roman cemeteries. After his death 
the results of his investigations were edited by the 
Oratorian Severano and published at the expense 
of the Order of Malta under the title of "Roma 
Sotterranea." Jean- Jacques 
Bourasse (1813-72) gave a 
course of archaeology at the 
preparatory seminary at Tours 
and made researches that en- 
title him to be considered a 
veritable pioneer in France of 
the science of Christian ar- 
chaeology. The best known of 
his various works is "Arche- 
ologie chretienne," 1841. Gio- 
vanni Giustino Ciampini 
(1633-98) was the author of 
some minor archaeological stud- 
ies and of an investigation 
of "Liber Pontificalis" (1693), 
as well as two useful works, 
ies one a history of the ancient 

churches built by Constantine 
the Great, and the other a history of the art of mosaic. 
Giovanni Battista de Rossi (1822-94) elevated 
Christian archaeology to the dignity of a science. 
He was commissioned by Pope Pius IX to system- 
atically investigate the catacombs on scientific 
principles; his immense learning and careful obser- 
vations were shown by his voluminous literary out- 
put. His "Roma Sotterranea Cristiana" (Rome, 
1864) is almost indispensable to the student of 
Christian archaeology, as is his periodical "Bulletino 
d'archeologia cristiana," a publication begun in 
1863 and ended in 1894. Raffaele Garrucci (1812- 
85 ) , Jesuit, edited the notes of Jean L'Heureux on 
the Roman catacombs and wrote a general history 
of early Christian art. Franz Xaver Kraus (1840- 
1901), priest and professor, began his literary ca- 
reer with small works on the history of early Chris- 
tian literature in the first centuries and in the 
Middle Ages and was led on to the study of Chris- 
tian archaeology in general and then to Christian 
art in all its aspects; in this field of research he 
accomplished valuable work, and published merito- 
rious volumes of description and criticism. Edmond 
Frederic Le Blant (1818-97) was inspired by De 
Rossi to undertake in France the scientific work 
which Rossi had undertaken in Rome. He was com- 




ARCHEOLOGY 



62 



ARCHIEP. 



missioned to collect the inscriptions of the earliest 
days of Christianity in Gaul, and made an inves- 
tigation of manuscripts, printed books, museums, 
churches, and the Gallo-Roman cemeteries. He wrote 
learned articles on the method of Christian epigra- 
phy, on Christian art, on the origin, progress, pop- 
ular beliefs, and moral influence of Christianity in 
ancient Gaul. The most important of his works are 
"Recueil des inscriptions chretiennes des Gaules 
anterieures au VIII e siecle" and "Etudes sur les 
sarcophages chretiens de la Gaule." He was elected 
a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et 
Belles Lettres, and in 1883 became director of the 
Ecole Franchise at Rome. 

Giuseppe Marchi (1795-1860), Jesuit, proved the 
Christian origin of the catacombs, discovered the 
grave of St. Hyacinth in the Catacomb of St. Her- 
mes, and inspired his famous pupil De Rossi to 
great achievements. He planned an exhaustive work 
on early Christian art and published one volume 
of it in 1841, but various things prevented the 
completion of his task. Joseph Alexandre Martigny 
(1808-80), canon of Belley, published "Dictionnaire 
des antiquites chretiennes," Paris, 1865, the first 
work of its kind; the vast erudition displayed 
therein has caused the book to be justly valuable. 
James Spencer Northcote (1821-1907), convert, 
priest, and president of Oscott College, collaborated 
with William R. Brownlow (1836-1901), who was 
later Bp. of Clifton, in writing "Roma Sotter- 
ranea," a comprehensive work on the catacombs 
which has become a classic reference. He was also 
the author of "A Visit to the Roman Catacombs" 
(London, 1877), "Epitaphs of the Catacombs" 
(London, 1878), etc. Onofrio Panvinio (1530-68), 
Augustinian monk, inaugurated the scientific study 
of Christian antiquity. Most important among his 
published works are one on the basilicas of Rome 
and one on the cemeteries and sepulchral rites of 
the early Christians, Jean Baptiste Frangois Pitra 
(1812-89), Benedictine, cardinal, and librarian of 
the Vatican, made many important archaeological 
discoveries; perhaps the best known is his decipher- 
ing of the inscription on a sepulchral monument at 
Autun, which inscription he included in "Spicile- 
gium Solesmense" (Paris, 1852). He also contrib- 
uted numerous archaeological articles to various 
scientific periodicals of France. Charles Rohault de 
Fleury (1801-75) was the author of several im- 
portant books, all splendidly illustrated. Among 
them are "Un Tabernacle chretien du Vsiecle" e 
(Arras, 1880) and "La Messe, etudes archeologiques 
sur ses monuments" (Paris, 1883-98). 

Other Christians. — Joseph Bingham (1668- 
1723), clergyman, was the author of an important 
work on Christian antiquities. Samuel Cheetham 
(1827-1908), an English divine of the Established 
Church, wrote a history of the Christian Church 
during the first six centuries, and other similar 
books, but is best known for his "Dictionary of 
Christian Antiquities," of which he was co-editor 
with Sir William Smith. Sir William Smith (1813- 
93) edited several valuable archaeological works, 
"Dictionary of Christian Biography," etc., and col- 
laborated with Samuel Cheetham in editing the 
important "Dictionary of Christian Antiquities." 



— C.E., IV, 705; Cabrol, Dictionnaire d'archeologie 
chretienne; Grisar, History of Rome and the Popes 
in the Middle Ages, St. L., 1911; Lanciani, Wan- 
derings through Ancient Roman Churches, Lond., 
1925. 

Archaeology, Commission of Sacred, official 
pontifical board founded, 1851, by Pius IX, for the 
purpose of promoting and directing excavations in 
the Roman catacombs and other sites of Christian 
antiquarian interest. It has made extensive exca- 
vations in the catacombs and other parts of Rome, 
and formed the Museum of Catacomb Inscriptions 
in the Lateran Palace. — C.E. 

Archangel (Gr., ruling angel), in its wider 
meaning, any angel of higher rank, thus all the 
higher orders of angels. St. Michael, therefore, is 
called Archangel although he is the prince of the 
Seraphim. In its more restricted sense, the archan- 
gels are those blessed spirits who compose the sec- 
ond choir of the lowest order in the angelic hier- 
archy (see Angel). As distinct from the guardian 
angels, the archangels are God's messengers to man 
in matters of graver moment, e.g., Gabriel to the 
Virgin Mary, Raphael to Tobias; and to the arch- 
angels God entrusts the care of persons of exalted 
rank or sanctity. — O'Connell, The Holy Angels, 
N. Y., 1923. (a. j. s.) 

Archbishop (Gr., archos, chief; episkopos, bish- 
op), the bishop of an archdiocese who presides over 
one or more dioceses, forming an ecclesiastical prov- 
ince. He is also styled metropolitan, because his 
see is usually the most important city of the prov- 
ince. Today an archbishop usually cannot interfere 
with the affairs of a diocese other than his own, 
but he has the right and duty to call the bishops to 
a provincial council, and also to act as first judge 
of appeal from a decision of one of his suffragan 
bishops. In the Eastern Church archbishops as a 
rule are merely titular. — C.E. 

Archchancellor of the Empire, title held by 
archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier, until 
the extinction of the Holy Roman Empire in 
1806. 

Archchaplain, the superior of the chaplains at- 
tached to the early French courts; later grand 
almoner and high chancellor of the realm. 

Archconfraternity, a confraternity or sodality 
authorized to aggregate to itself sodalities erected 
in other places and to communicate its privileges 
to them. — C.E.; P.C. Augustine. 

Archdeacon (Gr., archos, chief; diakonos, serv- 
ant), formerly an important official who, in virtue 
of jurisdiction delegated by his bishop, adminis- 
tered part of a diocese; today his duties are per- 
formed by the vicar-general and vicars-forane 
(rural deans). In the Anglican Church the as- 
sistants of the bishops are still called archdeacons. 
—C.E. 

Archdiocese, the diocese of an archbishop. 

Arches, Court of, the court of the Abp. of 
Canterbury, acting also as a court of appeal from 
diocesan tribunals within the Province of Canter- 
bury; formerly held at the church of St. Mary of 
the Arches (St. Mary-le-Bow) , Cheapside, London. 
—C.E. 

Archiep. = archiepiscopus (archbishop). 






T 1 




ARCHITECTURE 



BAROCCO: S. MARIA DK1.1.A SAl.UTK, VKNICF. 

Goruu" i hi". I'.M'iiKiuni <>i sr si i-:i'iii'.\ vi 



R«)MA\KSg[TK: THE CATHEDRAL, SPEYER 
HI \v ;l .... I II K I M l 'Mill- l>U \1 A \[ IKN'S 




ARCHITECTURE 



BYZANTINE: ST. MARKS, VENICE 
basilican: ST. PAUL-WITHOUT-THE-WALLS, ROME 



renaissance: st. peters, rome 
english gothic: lincoln cathedral 



ARCHIEPISCOPAL CROSS 



63 



ARCHIVES 



ARCHI- 
EPIS- 
COPAL 
CROSS 



Archiepiscopal Cross or Patriarchal Cross, 
a cross with two cross-bars, which forms a part of 
the heraldic arms of an archbishop. It is carried 
before him in processions, etc., in his own 
ecclesiastical province. (J. F. S. ) 

Archiereus (Gr., archos, chief; hieros, 
holy ) , Greek word for bishop, used in Greek 
prayer-books in services corresponding to the 
pontifical services of the Roman rite. — C.E. 
Archimandrite (Gr., archos, chief; 
mandra, monastery), superior of a monas- 
tery in several of the Oriental Churches, in- 
cluding the Melchite or Uniat Greeks; also 
an honorary title of certain officials attached 
to the chanceries of the great Oriental patri- 
archates. — C.E. 

Archiparaphonista, a chief officer of the Ro- 
man Schola Gantorum (school of singers). His 
duties included: choosing the chanters for a Pontif- 
ical Mass; preceding the pope and placing a kneel- 
ing-stool before the altar for him; and bringing the 
water to the sub-deacon during the celebration of 
Mass. 

Archippus, Saint (1st century), companion of 
St. Paul; possibly of Colossse or of Laodicea. In his 
Epistle to the Colossians, Paul bids him "take heed 
to the ministry which thou hast received in the 
Lord, that thou fulfil it." According to tradition 
he was one of the 72 disciples. He is honored as a 
martyr. Feast, 20 March. 

Architecture, Ecclesiastical, the architec- 
ture of Christian and Catholic edifices such as 
churches, cathedrals, chapels, and monasteries. 
Strictly Christian and Catholic styles are the Latin 
or Basilican, the Byzantine, Romanesque, and 
Gothic. Ecclesiastical architecture in general com- 
prises : ( 1 ) Early Christian, Latin, or Basilican, 
dating from the edict of Constantine (a.d. 313) to 
the time of Pope Gregory the Great, a chronology, 
however, which is somewhat obscure. An example is 
St. Paul-without-the-Walls, Rome. In England, this 
same style, modified by the Celtic, formed the Anglo- 
Saxon. (2) Byzantine, of which examples are 
numerous, with particular reference to St. Sophia's, 
Constantinople, and St. Mark's, Venice. It dates 
approximately from the time of Justinian. Under 
Justinian as emperor the architects Anthemius and 
Isodorus designed its principal examples. (3) 
Romanesque, which was developing at the end of 
the Byzantine period, flourished after the decline of 
the Roman Empire, and lasted until the rise of the 
pointed arch in the 13th century. An example is 
the cathedral of Speyer. This style included Italian, 
French, German or Rhenish, Spanish, Anglo-Saxon, 
and Norman. The name of Einhard is associated 
with Romanesque design, although many nameless 
ecclesiastical architects labored only for the glory 
of God. (4) Gothic, beginning at the end of the 
12th century, before the decline of Romanesque. 
It includes numerous sub-styles such as English 
and French Gothic. An example of pure Gothic is 
the Cathedral of St. Stephen's, Vienna. Lincoln 
Cathedral, an example of Early English Gothic, is 
said to have been the beginning of this particular 
style, among the exponents of which Alan of Wal- 
singham was responsible for the finest examples of 



Decorated English Gothic. Robert de Coucey de 
signed the French Gothic cathedral of Rheims. 
(5) Renaissance, which began in Italy in the early 
part of the 15th century, an example of which is 
St. Peter's, Rome. It includes Italian, Florentine, 
French, German, Spanish, and English (including 
Elizabethan ) , numbering among its distinguished 
designers Bramante and Michelangelo, and may be 
said to have ended with the Barocco or Baroque or 
Rococo, best exemplified by the works of Bernini 
and Borromini. Barocco flourished in the 17th and 
18th centuries, an example of which is the church 
of S. Maria della Salute, Venice. (G) Modern ec- 
clesiastical architecture begins with a Gothic re- 
vival in the early 20th century, associated prin- 
cipally with the name of Augustus Welby Pugin 
(1812-52) through the impetus which he had given 
it during his time. Other names distinguished 
in modern ecclesiastical art are those of Bentley, 
Scott, McGinnis, Walsh, Monaghan, and Rambusch, 
Gothic is the style generally accepted for ec- 
clesiastical building, since the present era is one 
of appraisal and criticism, and there are, in conse- 
quence, no new striking or individual styles. Consult 
special articles on these styles of architecture and 
on architectural terms such as Apse, Arch, Archi- 
trave, etc. 

Architrave, in classical architecture the lowest 
division of an entablature, the epistyle (a stone 
beam ) . In the case of a square opening it may be 
any moulded or similarly ornamented band framing 
a square window or door, or projecting from it. 
A banded architrave is one spaced at intervals by 
projecting blocks. A jack architrave is, in certain 
orders, the lowest fascia (band or strip) of the 
architrave proper. Architrave trim is a casing car- 
ried around the sides and top of an opening; it 
resembles an architrave. 

Archives, Diocesan, a compartment established 
at or in a safe and convenient place, in which all 
written matter, which pertains to the temporal as 
well as the spiritual affairs of the diocese, is de- 
posited and guarded under lock and key. Within 
these archives there is another called the secret 
archives, in which the documents must be preserved 
secretly. Canon law requires that a catalog or an 
index of all the documents, with a summary of the 
individual papers, be made. The archives are to be 
locked, and permission of the bishop or of both the 
vicar-general and the chancellor are required for 
admission, or to take out papers. The chancellor 
keeps the key. (d. r. ) 

Archives of the Holy See (Vatican Ar- 
chives), collections of documents pertaining to the 
acts of the Holy See; also the place where they are 
kept. Compiled for administrative purposes, they 
furnish a mine of information for historians, and 
are the most important archives in the world. They 
existed in the earliest days of the Church, but ex- 
tensive remains of documents do not antedate the 
thirteenth century. According to a fairly reliable 
estimate of the arranged documents, the principal 
sections of what are called the Secret Archives total 
in round numbers 35,000 volumes and 120,000 loose 
documents. The management of these archives is 
entrusted to a cardinal with various workers under 



ARCHIVES 



64 



ARGENSON 



him. There are in the Vatican other archives besides 
the secret archives. — C.E., XV, 268. (J. c. T. ) 

Archpresbytery, a peculiar form of diocesan or- 
ganization, of which only one exists today, viz., Alta- 
mura, in southern Italy, which dates from 1248, is 
ruled by an archpriest, who is, however, a titular 
bishop, and has a Catholic population of 42,000. 

Archpriest, in dioceses of the fourth century 
and later, head of a college of presbyters as special 
representative of the bishop; also, in larger rural 
localities or in extensive dioceses in the West, head 
of the central mother-church or a diocesan subdivi- 
sion or deanery. Union of several of either con- 
stituted an archidiaconate whose individual deans 
or archpriests were subject to the archdeacon. In 
time this office underwent varying local changes; 
since the Council of Trent the duties of archpriest 
have been largely assumed by deans. — C.E. 

Archpriest Controversy, a dispute that di- 
vided the clergy of England, on the occasion of the 
appointment of George Blackwell in 1598 as arch- 
priest with jurisdiction over the English and Scot- 
tish secular priests, the ancient hierarchy having 
been extinguished some years earlier. An appeal to 
Rome against the legality of the appointment was 
denounced by Blackwell as schism ; the Holy See 
in 1602 upheld the appointment but censured Black- 
well for his severity and freed the appellants from 
the charge of schism. This ended the controversy, 
but some mistrust and 
friction still remained 
and in 1621, on the death 
of the third archpriest, 
the office was abolished 
and the first vicar Apos- 
tolic appointed. 

Arcosolium (Lai., 
arcus, arch; solium, 
seat ) , arched recess used 
as a burial-place in the 
catacombs, especially in 
Rome in the 3rd century. 
Mass was often celebrated 

on the marble slab placed horizontally over the open- 
ing. It was sometimes decorated with symbolic fres- 
cos in the vault of the arch and in the lunette. — C.E. 

Arcturus (Gr., arktos, bear; ouros, guardian), 
a bright star in the constellation Bootes, so called 
because it is near the constellation of the Great 
Bear. The name is mentioned, four times in the 
Vulgate and twice in the Authorized Version, the 
only common reference being in Job, 9. It is diffi- 
cult to identify Hebrew names of stars, and though 
it may refer to the Great Bear, more probably 
Pleiades was intended. 

Arculae (Lat., dim, of area, box), small boxes 
of gold or other precious metal worn suspended 
from the neck and probably used by the faithful 
to carry the Blessed Sacrament. They date from 
the 2nd century and were found in the Roman cata- 
combs. 

Ardagh, ar-da/ or ar-da', Diocese of, Ireland, 
includes nearly all Longford, greater portion of 
Leitrim, and parts of Offaly, Westmeath, Roscom- 
mon, Cavan, and Sligo counties; established in the 
5th century; suffragan of Armagh. St. Patrick con- 




THE ARDAGH CHALICE 




ARCOSOLIUM 



secrated the first bishop, St. Mel. Several of the 
O'Feral clan occupied the see, 14th and 15th cen- 
turies. Under Bp. Flynn, 1729, the Diocese of Clon- 
macnoise, seat of the famous ancient abbey and 
school, was united with it. Present bishop, James 
McNamee, consecrated 
1927 ; residence, Longford. 
Churches, 75 ; priests, sec- 
ular, 97 ; priests, regular, 
4 ; college, 1 ; high schools, 
8 ; intermediate schools, 3 ; 
industrial schools, 2 ; na- 
tional schools in many 
parishes; institutions, 3; 
Catholics, 94,827 ; others, 
7553. 

Ardagh Chalice, vessel of Irish workmanship 
of the 9th or 10th century, found near Ardagh, now 
in the Irish Academy, Dublin. It is a "ministerial" 
chalice, with two handles, made of silver alloy, 
richly ornamented with gold and enamel. The in- 
scription gives the names of the Apostles. It is prob- 
ably the work of the School of Clonmacnoise. 

Ardchattan, ard-chat'tan (Gael., the height of St. 
Chattan), Priory of, Loch Etive, Argyleshire, Scot- 
land, a house of the Order of Vallis Caulium, founded 
by Duncan Mackoul, c. 1230, later incorporated into 
the Cistercian Order, and secularized at the Refor- 
mation. It is the only ancient monastery in Scot- 
land part of which re- 
mains in actual use. — 
C.E. 

Area (Lat., field), 
name given to the open- 
air cemeteries (as distinct 
from catacombs) of the 
early Christians, espe- 
cially in Africa. 

Areopagite (a mem- 
ber of the court of the 
Areopagus). See Diony- 
sius the Areopagite. 
Areopagitica, famous 
series of four ecclesiastical treatises and ten letters 
by an unknown author, probably a 5th-century Syr- 
ian, professing to be the composition of Dionysius 
the Areopagite ( q.v. ) . 

Areopagus (Gr., Ares, Mars; pagos, hill: Hill 
of Mars), low hill situated near the Acropolis at 
Athens ; court held on this hill before which St. 
Paul was brought to explain his doctrine (Acts, 
17).— C.E. 

Arethas and Companions, Saints, martyrs 
(523), inhabitants of the Christian city of Ned- 
shran (Negran), Arabia, killed by the Jew Dhu 
Nowas (Dunawan), King of the Hymerites. Are- 
thas, ninety-six years old, was beheaded; some of 
the others were burnt alive. Feast, 27 July. 

Argenson, Pierre de Voyer, Viscount d' (1626- 
1710), fifth Governor-General of Canada. Of an old 
Touraine family he was educated for the Church, 
tonsured in 1636, but entered the army, taking an 
important part in the sieges of Portolongone, La 
Bassee, Ypres, and Bordeaux, and the battle of 
Lens. As councillor of State and governor of Can- 
ada (1657-61), D'Argenson advised the French king 



ARGENSON 



65 



ARISTOTLE 



to grant self-government to the Canadian colonists. 
Conflicts between Church and State were constantly 
arising during the French rule because of D'Argen- 
son's wish that his noblemen rank above the ecclesi- 
astical dignitaries. He was a devout churchman, 
however, and so affected by his inability to get 
along with the bishop, and other hardships which 
he was forced to suffer, that he requested his own 
recall, and in 1661 returned to France. — C.E. 

Argenteuil, town, Seine-et-Oise, France, near 
Paris. The original monastic foundation was 
changed into a nunnery by Charlemagne, and the 
repentant Heloi'se, beloved of Abelard, was for a 
time abbess. The parish church contains the relic 
known as the Holy Coat, the seamless garment of 
Christ, an object of pilgrimages since 1247. 

Argentina, republic occupying the southeastern 
portion of South America; area, 1,153,119 sq. m. ; 
est. pop., 9,613,305. Christianity was introduced by 
the Spanish explorers in the 16th century, and to- 
day Catholicism is the established religion, required 
for the presidency, though freedom of worship is 
granted by the constitution to all others. Ecclesi- 
astical appointments are subject to the approval of 
the state, which provides a subsidy for clergy and 
churches. The civil marriage ceremony, established 
in 1888, is obligatory. Church administration is 
thus divided: 





Tear 


Ghs. 


Pp. 


Srs. 


Caths. 


Buenos Aires, A 


1582 


127 






1,679,763 


Catamarca, ~D 


1910 


112 


45 




115,000 


Cordova, D 


1570 








780,000 


Corrientes, D 


1910 


48 






375,000 


La Plata, D 


1897 


128 






2,300,000 


Parana, D 


1859 


115 


21.5 




518,000 


Salta, D 


1806 


131 






221,000 


San Juan de Cuyo, 












D 


1834 


172 






525,000 


Santa Fe, D 


1897 


153 






1,050,000 


Santiago del Estero, 












D 


1907 


46 






220,000 
400,000 


Tucuman, D 


1897 


67 






Northern Patagonia, 












V.A 


1883 


39 


50 


112 


115,000 



— C.E.; U.K. 

Argia (Gr., inactivity), in ecclesiastical lan- 
guage, abstention from : servile work on Sundays 
and Holy Days; recitation of the canonical hours 
by monks on certain days; some repasts (suppressed 
by the exceptional severity of certain fasts) ; ec- 
clesiastical functions (in the case of unworthy 
clerics). 

Argyll and the Isles, Diocese of, Scotland, 
comprises Argyll and part of Inverness counties, 
islands of Bute and Arran, and the Hebrides; suf- 
fragan of St. Andrews and Edinburgh. The dioceses 
of Argyll, founded about 1200, and the Isles, tra- 
ditionally established by St. Patrick who conse- 
crated the first bishop, were united in 1878 under 
Angus Macdonald (1878-92) ; succeeded by George 
Smith (1893-1918); present bishop, Donald Martin 
(1919); residence, Oban. Churches, 45; priests, 30; 
primary schools, 8; institutions, 2; Catholics, 
about 12,000. 

Arianism, the heresy propagated by Arius 
(q.v. ) denying the Divinity of Jesus Christ. Fol- 
lowing views which Gnostics had popularized, he 
regarded the Son of God as standing midway be- 
tween God and creatures; not like God without a 



beginning, but possessing all other Divine perfec- 
tions, not of one essence, nature, substance with 
the Father and therefore not like him in Divinity; 
an attribute of the Divine nature, the Logos, or 
Word, Reason. The heresy for a time threatened 
to rend asunder the Catholic Church, especially 
when favored by the emperors of the East. It was 
the root source of many heresies. Its antagonist 
Athanasius (296-373) contended for half a century 
for the term consubstantial (Gr., Homoousion, one 
and the same, as against Homoiousion, like only) 
to express the identity of the Son in essence, na- 
ture, substance with the Father, which was adopted 
at the Council of Nicsea, 325. This decision estab- 
lished the doctrine of the Divinity of Christ, and 
although it did not end the struggle of the Arians 
for ascendancy, it defeated their efforts to antici- 
pate Mohammed and to introduce Unitarianism as 
Catholic belief. — C.E.; Newman, Arians of the 
Fourth Century, N. Y., 1895. (ed.) 

Ariel, symbolic name of Jerusalem, as a strong 
city, occurring in Isaias, 29, and meaning "lion of 
God." 

Arimathea, ar'i-ma-the'a, city of Judea (Luke, 
23), home of the Joseph who buried Christ in his 
tomb (Matt., 27) ; location unknown, probably be- 
tween Jerusalem and Joppa, possibly Pamleh, 2 
m. s. of Lod. 

Aristarchus of Thessalonica, Saint (1st cen- 
tury), disciple of St. Paul whom he accompanied in 
his Apostolic missions (Acts, 20; 27) to Ephesus, 
Corinth, Jerusalem, and finally Rome. In the Epis- 
tle to the Colossians, Paul calls him "my fellow 
prisoner." Venerated as a martyr, 4 Aug. (e. f. d. ) 

Aristides, second-century Athenian apologist. 
His famous "Apology" for the Christians was sup- 
posed to have been written as a plea to Emperor 
Hadrian. It had a wide circulation among Chris- 
tians for centuries. — C.E. 

Aristotle (348-322 B.C. ), the greatest of ancient 
philosophers, surnamed Stagirite, because he was 
born at Stagira, a Grecian colony in the Thracian 
peninsula. He was a pupil of Plato at Athens from 
his eighteenth to his thirty-seventh year. He next 
married Pythias, adopted daughter of Hermias, at 
whose court in Asia Minor he spent three years. 
Recalled to Stagira by Philip of Macedon, he ac- 
quired influence with the young prince Alexander 
who aided him liberally in getting books and oppor- 
tunities for research in natural science. About 335 
he returned to Athens and opened his school of 
philosophy known as the Peripatetic School (Gr., 
peripateo, walk about) because he walked about 
with his disciples while teaching. Most of his works 
were composed at this time. They are a complete 
treatise of human knowledge. He was the first to 
make logic a science, and to put philosophical study 
on a sure foundation. He kept clear the distinction 
between matter and spirit, sense perception and 
mental, the principle of cause and effect, and the 
division of the four causes: the formal and ma- 
terial explaining the constitution of matter, the 
efficient accounting for the origin and changes of 
things, and the final establishing their purpose and 
destiny. Forced to leave Athens, his school con- 
tinued until it was closed by Justinian in 529. 



ARISTOTLE 



66 



ARKANSAS 



Translators and commentators carried on his sys- 
tem in Persia, Armenia, Syria. From these sources 
the Arabians derived it and they with its followers 
in Byzantium, who had always cultivated it, were 
the channels through which it reached the Univer- 
sity of Paris in the 12th century. The Scholastics 
favored it because of its logical method and because 
it emphasized the reality of things outside human 
consciousness. They, and principally St. Thomas 
Aquinas, purged the system of the materialistic and 
pantheistic elements the Arabians had introduced 
into it and by means of it established the consis- 
tency of reason with faith. In the revival of Scho- 
lastic philosophy by the movement known as neo- 
Scholasticism, Aristotle is still looked to as the 
exponent of principles which serve to refute the 
subjective philosophers which have had vogue since 
Descartes. — C.E.; Turner, History of Philosophy, 
N. Y., 1903; Glenn, History of Philosophy, St. L., 
1929. (ED.) 

Arius (c. 250-336), heresiarch, b. Libya; d. 
Constantinople. He quarreled with the Bp. of Alex- 
andria over Christ's Divinity (see Arianism) ; in 
325 his views were condemned at the Council of 
Nicaea, and he was banished. Supported by Eusebius 
of Nicomedia, a friend of Emperor Constantine, he 
created constant troubles for Athanasius in Alex- 
andria. Later he demanded that Alexander of Con- 
stantinople give him communion by the emperor's 
orders, but his sudden death prevented the sacri- 
lege.— C.E. 

Arizona, the 5th state of the United States in 
size, the 45th in population, and the 48th state to 
be admitted to the Union 
(14 Feb., 1912) ; area, 113,- 
810 sq. m.; pop. (1920), 
334,162; Catholics (1928), 
93,881. Spanish Franciscans 
began missionary work 
among the Moki Indians 
about 1629, but massacres 
during the revolt of 1680 put 
a temporary end to their ac- 
tivities. One of the first Jesuit 
missionaries to the Indians of the region was Fr. 
Eusebius Francisco Kino (Kuhn), who established 
the Mission of San Xavier del Bac, in Upper 
Pimeria, just south of Tuscon, about 1700. This 
and nine other missions, including Guevavi, later 
replaced by Tumacacori, were given over to the 
Franciscans after Spain had ordered the expulsion 
of the Jesuits in 1767. Fr. Francisco Garces, O.F.M., 
was killed with several companions in 1781. Two 
years later the foundations of the present fine 
Byzantine church of San Xavier were laid, two 
miles south of the earlier mission. It was completed 
in 1797. After the Spanish missionaries had been 
driven out by Mexico in 1827, religion suffered a 
severe setback until the appointment in 1853 of 
Rt. Rev. John B. Lamy as bishop of the new Dio- 
cese of Santa Fe. In 1859 he sent Rev. Joseph P. 
Macheboeuf to Tucson, where Mass was first said 
in a private house. In 1863 the Jesuits took over 
the parish and Mass was again offered in the aban- 
doned church of San Xavier del Bac. The Diocese 
of Tucson (q.v.) comprises the state. Catholic in- 




SEAL OF ARIZONA 



fluence on place-names in Arizona appears in the 
following: Christmas, St. David, St. Johns, St. 
Michaels, San Carlos, and San Simon. The U. S. 
Religious Census of 1916 gave the following sta- 
tistics for church membership in Arizona: 

Catholic Church 84,742 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 

(Mormons) 12,496 

Presbyterian Church in the TJ.S.A 4,353 

Methodist Episcopal Church 3,712 

Northern Baptist Convention 2*927 

Protestant Episcopal Church 2,318 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South 1,939 

Disciples of Christ 1,712 

All Other Denominations 2,815 

Total Church Membership 117,014 

— C.E.; U.K.; Shea. 

Ark (Lat., area, chest), the vessel of timber 
daubed with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 broad, and 
30 high, which Noe constructed at the command 
of God for the preservation of him and his family 
and two of all living creatures during the Deluge; 
also the chest in which were kept the tables of the 
Law, called the Ark of the Covenant (q.v.) . — C.E. 

Ark and Dove, names of the vessels in which 
the first colonists arrived in Maryland, 25 March, 
1034, under the leadership of Leonard Calvert, as 
governor, and the spiritual direction of the Jesuit 
chaplains Andrew White and John Altham. (ed.) 

Arkansas, the 26th state of the United States 
in size, the 25th in population, and the 25th state 
to be admitted to the Union (15 June, 1836) ; area, 
53,335 sq. m. ; pop. (1920), 1,752,204; Catholics 
(1928), 26,319. The Indians of eastern Arkansas 
were visited by Fr. Marquette on his voyage down 
the Mississippi in 1673. , Jesuit missionaries la- 
bored among them as early as 1689 and until 1730, 
with little encouragement, however, one of them, 
Fr. Paul du Poisson, having been killed by the 
Indians of Mississippi in 1729. An earlier victim 
was Fr. Nicholas Foucault of the Foreign Seminary, 
killed also in Mississippi, in 1702. When Arkansas, 
as part of Louisiana, was ceded to the United 
States in 1803, the memory of Catholicity had al- 
most died out. Missionary priests from the Diocese 
of New Orleans visited the region in 1822 and 
1824, and about 1826 a chapel was built at the 
Post of Arkansas and another soon after at Pine 
Bluff, although in 1830 there was still no resident 
priest. In the next two years two priests were sent 
there by Bp. Rosati of St. Louis, but little prog- 
ress was made until a bishop was named to care 
for the 700 scattered Catholics of the territory. The 
Diocese of Little Rock (q.v.) comprises the state. 
Catholic influence on the place-names of the state 
is shown in the following: Gethsemane, St. Charles, 
St. Francis, St. James, St. Paul. The U. S. Re- 
ligious Census of 1916 gave the following statistics 
for church membership in Arkansas: 

Catholic Church 21,120 

National Baptist Convention 174,157 

Southern Baptist Convention 113,192 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South 110,993 

African Methodist Episcopal Church 30,457 

Churches of Christ 26,239 

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church 15,269 

Disciples of Christ 13,275 

Methodist Episcopal Church 12,419 

Presbyterian Church in the U.S 10,762 

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 7,668 

Presbyterian Church in the TJ.S.A 7,451 

All Other Denominations 40,207 

Total Church Membership 583,209 

— C.E.; U.K.; Shea. 



ARK OF THE COVENANT 



67 



ARMAGH 



Ark of the Covenant, sacred chest measuring 
about 45 X 27 X 27 in. (Ex., 37) and containing 
the Tables of the Law and perhaps also a golden ves- 
sel of manna and the rod of Aaron (Ex., 16; Num., 
17; 3 Kings, 8; cf. Heb., 9). It was constructed of 
setim-wood overlaid with gold within and without, 
and furnished with rings through which passed 
setim-wood bars for carrying it. Upon its cover, 
termed the "propitiatory," were two cherubim of 
beaten gold. The ark was the only piece of furni- 
ture placed in the inner room (holy of holies) of 
the Temple. The one time it was carried to battle by 
the Hebrews, it fell into the hands of the Philis- 
tines who, however, were soon compelled to restore 
it to Israel (1 Kings, 4). From Cariathiarim David 
brought it solemnly to Jerusalem, and Solomon 
had it later on placed in the Temple. According to a 
tradition, the value of which is much discussed, 
the Ark, with the Tabernacle and the altar of in- 
cense, was hidden by Jeremias before the siege of 
Jerusalem by Nabuchodonosor (2 Mach., 2) ; how- 
ever, the view that it was 
carried to Babylon as a 
trophy (4 Esd., 10) seems 
to enjoy greater probabil- 
ity. — C.E.; Arnold, Ephod 
and Ark, Cambridge, Mass., 
1917. (c. L. s.) 

Ark of the Covenant, 
a title given to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary to signify her 
Divine motherhood, that as 
the ark of old, made of 
incorruptible wood and 
adorned with pure gold, 
contained the precious 
treasures of the Divine law 
and the manna from 
heaven, so she, the true 

ark, bore within her not merely the law but the 
Law giver, not merely the Divine presence as 
manifested over the ark of the covenant, but the 
Divine One Himself, and the Living Bread from 
heaven. (n. m. w.) 

A. R. M. = Alma Redemptoris Mater (Loving 
Mother of the Redeemer). 

Arma Christi (Lat., armorial bearings of 
Christ), the instruments of the Passion arranged 
heraldically on a shield; much used in devotional 
art in the 15th century. 

Armada, The Spanish, the naval and military 
force sent by Spain to invade England, 1588. Philip 
II had grievances against England in the buccaneer- 
ing voyages of Drake and other privateers and in 
the subsidizing of the Protestants in the Nether- 
lands. Spain, however, was unwise to attempt to 
prohibit all traffic to her colonies; and the cruelties 
of Alva in the Netherlands embittered the struggle. 
After long delay the Armada left Lisbon, 20 May. 
It consisted of 130 ships, at least half of which 
were transports, and 30,493 men, two-thirds of 
wdiom were soldiers. The commander was the Duke 
of Medina Sidonia, who had no experience in naval 
matters. In the first engagement the English 
proved to be superior in guns and naval tactics. In 
the battle off Gravelines the Spanish were entirely 



defeated. The retreat around the north of Ireland 
caused a loss of half the fleet and three-quarters 
of the men. The sympathies of Catholics outside 
England were with the Armada. Pope Sixtus V 
promised a large subsidy when they should land in 
England, and also to renew the excommunication 
of Elizabeth. On account of Spain's slowness, he did 
neither. In England, however, the Catholics, with 
few exceptions, fought against the Spanish invaders. 
— C.E. 

Armagedon, ar-ma-gecl'on (Heb., har-megiddo, 
mountain of Megiddo), mentioned in the Apoca- 
lypse, 1G, as the scene of the battle which will be 
fought on Judgement Day, between the kings of the 
earth and the hosts of Almighty God. Authorities 
locate it at Mageddo (Heb., Megiddo, place of 
troops), fortified Chanaanite capital, e. of the Plain 
of Esdraelon. 

Armagh, ar-mii/, Archdiocese of, primatial see 
of Ireland, comprises County Louth, and parts of 
the counties of Armagh, Derry, Meath, and 
Tyrone ; suffragans : Ar- 
dagh, Clogher, Derry, Down 
and Connor, Dromore, Kil- 
more, Meath, Raphoe. St. 
Patrick built a stone church 
on Ard-Macha (Hill of 
Macha, a legendary queen), 
and made it his see in 
445; he held a synod here 
in 448, one of the still- 
extant canons of which 
states that cases of con- 
science, if too difficult to 
be disposed of by the Abp. 
of Armagh, should be re- 
ferred to the See of Rome. 
Courtesy Jewish Encyclopedia King Brian Boru cap- 

AKK OF THE COVENANT ^^ ^ ^ j^ ^ ^ 

knowledged its primacy; he was buried here. The 
twelfth-century cathedral, on the site of the church 
built by St. Patrick, has been in Protestant hands 
since the Reformation. The last historical mention 
of the Culdees (q.v.) is at Armagh in 1633, when 
they were incorporated in the Catholic cathedral 
chapter by Primate Hugh O'Reilly; to this day, 
their estates belong to the "vicars choral" of the 
Protestant cathedral. Notable in the long line of 
archbishops are: St. Malachy O'Morgair, patron 
saint of the diocese (1134-37); Robert Wauchope 
(1539-51), who introduced the Jesuits into Ireland 
and assisted at the Council of Trent; Peter Lom- 
bard (1601-25); Hugh O'Reilly (1628-53), who 
took part in the Confederation of Kilkenny, and 
became generalissimo of the Catholic forces; Bl. 
Oliver Plunket (1669-81), martyr; Hugh MacMahon 
(1714-37), who in the penal times, said Mass and 
administered Confirmation in the open air; Patrick 
Curtis (1819-32,), who advanced the cause of Cath- 
olic Emancipation; William Crolly (1835-49), who 
began the new cathedral; Paul Cullen (1849-52), 
who became Abp. of Dublin and cardinal; Michael 
Logue (1887-1924), first Cardinal-Primate of Ar- 
magh, who completed the cathedral, which was con- 
secrated 24 July, 1904; Patrick O'Donnell (1924- 
27), second cardinal-primate; Joseph MacRory, 




ARMAGH 



68 



ARNULF OF METZ 



present archbishop. Parishes, 55; priests, secular, 
148; regulars, 39; religious women, 274; college, 1; 
seminary, 1; high schools, 14; primary schools, 
224; Catholics, 140,626, out of a total population 
of 233,332. 

Armagh, Book of, technically known as Liber 
Ae ( d ) machanus, celebrated Irish-Latin MS., pre- 
served at Trinity College, Dublin. It is a vellum in 
small quarto of 221 leaves, written in the Irish 
hand with fine penmanship. It was known as the 
"Canon of Patrick," but was discovered to be really 
the work of Ferdomnach of Armagh (d. c. 845). 
The earliest extant specimen of a continuous narra- 
tive in Irish prose, it contains valuable writings 
relating to St. Patrick. — C.E. 

Armagh, School of, oldest and most celebrated 
of the ancient schools of Ireland, c. 457. It num- 
bered St. Patrick, Benignus, and Gildas the Wise 
among its teachers. Plundered many times by the 
Danes in the 9th and 10th centuries, it was finally 
destroyed in the 12th. — C.E. 

Armenia, Socialist Soviet Republic of, eastern 
Asia Minor; area, 11,945 sq. m.; pop., 876,557. 
There is some uncertainty as to the introduction of 
Christianity into Armenia, some historians connect- 
ing the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus with 
its evangelization. This honor, however, is generally 
attributed to St. Gregory the Illuminator, who, in 
the third century, converted King Tiridates and 
many of his subjects, thus making Armenia the 
first Christian state. Hospitals and charitable insti- 
tutions were founded about 365 and the Bible trans- 
lated into Armenian in the 5th century. The first 
signs of heresy appeared in the 6th century with 
Gnosticism and Paulicianism, and later Nestorian- 
ism and Monophysitism became widespread. This 
latter gained a great hold among the Armenians 
who rejected the Council of Chalcedon, which con- 
demned it and adopted the Monophysite doctrine 
of a single nature in Christ, thereby breaking away 
from the papal allegiance and establishing a sepa- 
rate church, called the Gregorian, after Gregory the 
Illuminator. Some of them, however, accepted the 
Council of Chalcedon in 593, and thus divided the 
church. Numerous efforts at reconciliation with 
Rome have been attempted but the Church has 
remained split into two factions, the greater num- 
ber of Armenians belonging to the Gregorian or 
non-Uniat Church while the members of the Uniat 
Church, mainly scattered outside Armenia, acknowl- 
edge the pope as their head, retaining their own 
rite. Catholic statistics: 



Bzommar, P. 
Muse, D. 



Year Chs. Pp. Caths. 
1928 13 85 16,000 

1883 7 7 6,500 



— C.E.; U.K. 

Armenian College, a college for Armenian ec- 
clesiastical students, founded, 1883, by Leo XIII, 
with the generous aid of some Armenians, accord- 
ing to the plans of Gregory XIII proposed in 1584. 
Students attend lectures at the Propaganda. The 
president is an Armenian prelate. 

Armenian Rite, that used by the Armenian 
Church. It belongs to the Antiochene family. Origi- 
nally, the language was Syriac, but it is now an- 
cient Armenian. This rite is used by both Uniats 



and Gregorians, i.e., those separated from Rome. On 
Christmas Eve and Easter Eve Mass is celebrated 
in the evening. The use of curtains screening off, 
at times, the priest from the people is noteworthy, 
also the Roman Preparatory prayers and the Last 
Gospel, both introduced through the influence of 
Western missionaries. — C.E., XIII, 78; Fortescue, 
The Mass, N. Y., 1914. (m. e. d.) 

Armidale, Diocese of, Australia, comprises a 
portion of northeastern New South Wales; area, 
38,000 sq. m. ; erected, 1869; suffragan of Sydney. 
Fr. Timothy McCarthy was appointed first resident 
priest, 1853. Bishops: Timothy O'Mahoney (1869- 
77); Elzear Torreggiani (1879-1904); Patrick 
O'Connor (1904). Churches, 68; priests, 35; reli- 
gious women, 210; colleges, 2; high schools, 11; 
primary schools, 28 ; institution, 1 ; Catholics, 
30,339. 

Arminianism, doctrine held by a section of the 
Netherlands Calvinists in the 17th century, so called 
from the leader of the sect, Jacobus Arminius 
(1560-1609), professor at Leyden. His teachings are 
embodied in the five propositions of the "Remon- 
strants," as his followers were also called. He op- 
posed Calvin's doctrines of predestination, election, 
the teaching that Christ died for the elect only, 
and that grace benefits only the elect. The Calvinist 
Synod of Dort condemned the "Remonstrant" 
heresy, but extreme Calvinism never recovered from 
Arminius's defection. — C.E. 

Armor, emblem in art associated with St. Mar- 
tin of Tours, St. Theodore, and St. George of Eng- 
land, all soldiers; St. Michael, angelic soldier; St. 
Joan of Arc, maid-at-arms. 

Army Bishop, a bishop who by the authority of 
the Holy See exercises jurisdiction over a military 
diocese, composed of chaplains and members of the 
armed service of the government. At present the 
Abp. of New York is Bp. Ordinary of the U. S. 
Army and Navy. (k. b. m. ) 

Arnold of Brescia (c. 1100-55), demagog, b. 
Brescia, Italy; d. Rome. He became a priest, headed 
a movement in Brescia to abolish the temporal 
possessions of the Church as sinful, and was con- 
demned by Innocent II at the Lateran Council 
(1139). In Paris his propagation of his former 
ideas caused the Abbot of Clairvaux to have Louis 
VII exile him. In 1145 he made a solemn abjuration 
before Eugenius III, but a few months later he at- 
tacked the temporal power of the pope and headed 
a revolution which forced Eugenius out of Rome 
for three years. Under Adrian IV, Arnold was tried 
before the Curia, degraded, and probably put to 
death by the secular power in Rome. — C.E. 

Arnoudt, Peter Joseph (1811-65), writer, b. 
Moere, Belgium; d. Cincinnati, O. He entered the 
Society of Jesus at Florissant, Mo., and taught in 
the Jesuit colleges of that state. His "Imitation of 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus" has been translated into 
many languages. — C.E. 

Arnulf of Metz, Saint, bishop (c. 580-640), 
statesman, b. Laye-Saint-Christophe (now France) ; 
d. Remiremont. A chief minister of Theodebert II, 
King of Austrasia, he married, and had two sons. 
Later he became Bp. of Metz and an example of 
virtue and wisdom. After bein^ chief adviser of 



ARNULF OF METZ 



69 



ART 



the young King Dagobert, he resigned all his offices 
and ended his life in monastic solitude. One of his 
sons was the father of Pepin of Heristal, the 
founder of the Carlovingians. Patron of Metz, and 
of brewers and millers; invoked as finder of things 
lost. He is represented wearing armor under his 
cope; extinguishing a fire by his blessing; and find- 
ing his episcopal ring inside a fish. Relics at Metz. 
Feast, at Metz., 19 Aug.— C.E.; Butler. 

Arphaxad, the third son of Sem. From Ar- 
phaxad in a direct line proceeded Heber, Abraham, 
Jacob, and consequently all the people of Israel 
(Gen., 10). Following the Vulgate, Arphaxad was 
35 when his son Sale was born, and lived 303 years 
after that (Gen., 11). (f. j. l.) 

Arrow, emblem in art associated with St. 
Sebastian and St. Ursula, because of the manner 
of their martyrdom, and St. Giles, who saved a 
hind shot by arrows. 

Art, Christian, a term which may be applied to 
the fine arts either when they are representative of 
Christian ideals, or when they are used directly 
in the service of the Church. The beginnings of art 
inspired and guided by the Christian religion are 
found in the Roman catacombs. In the earliest days 
of the Church the decoration of these burial-places, 
in imitation of the earlier Roman custom, gradu- 
ally developed a symbolism which represented 
Christian truths to the initiated. The triumph of 
Christianity under Constantine, in the 4th cen- 
tury, permitted a freer decoration of the catacombs, 
and the first churches, basilicas adapted from the 
plan of Roman courts, offered wall-spaces which 
were soon filled with mosaic figures of Christ and 
His Apostles, or with scenes from the Old Testa- 
ment. These served not only to adorn the house of 
God, but also to instruct the faithful. As St. Greg- 
ory said: "The picture is to the illiterate what the 
written word is to the educated"; and it was the 
growing importance of this phase of art that led 
later to strict rules governing the representation 
of Bible scenes or incidents from the lives of the 
saints. With the emergence of the Church from the 
catacombs came also the beginnings of Christian 
sculpture, in sarcophagi of stone or marble adorned 
with carvings typifying belief in immortality. Con- 
stantine's capital, the former Byzantium, became 
the new art center of the world and the Byzantine 
art developed there under the patronage of the 
Church, preserving art through the ages when west- 
ern Europe was overrun by barbarians. A tem- 
porary rebirth of art in the West, where it had 
persisted at least in church architecture under the 
Merovingian kings, was fostered by the schools of 
Charlemagne in the 8th and 9th centuries. Every- 
where too the great monasteries offered an ideal 
shelter for the development of arts, as at Mount 
Athos, Cluny, Monte Cassino, or Fulda. Miniature, 
perfected in the illumination of Bibles, had a large 
part in the development of wall-painting. More- 
over the spread of religious orders carried art from 
one country to another, and Crusade and pilgrim- 
age helped in the same way. | 

Italian art, which gradually replaced Byzantine 
and substituted nature for the stiff formalism of 
the latter, had its birth in the tender piety of 



St. Francis of Assisi. Giotto and his followers in- 
augurated a reverent but human treatment of re- 
ligious themes, which was developed through such 
artists as Fra Angelico, Sandro Botticelli, Filippo 
Lippi, the Bellini, and Perugino, and crowned by 
the glorious masterpieces of Raphael, Michelangelo, 
Da Vinci, Titian, and Tintoretto. In Flanders, too, 
religious art progressed from exquisitely spiritual 
beginnings in the work of the Van Eycks, through 
Memling and Quentin Matsys, to the great achieve- 
ments of Rubens and Van Dyck. In Germany the 
highly religious School of Cologne fostered an art 
that grew to maturity in Dlirer, and Holbein. In 
Spain religious art flourished early in architecture 
and handicraft, and reached its climax in paint- 
ing, later than the rest of Europe, with Velasquez 
and Murillo. For centuries art was devoted almost 
exclusively to the decoration of church, or mon- 
astery, or commemorative chapel. It was only dur- 
ing the Renaissance that the adornment of homes 
or public buildings took on any importance. Even 
the lesser arts were developed mainly in the serv- 
ice of the Church, in illuminated manuscripts, 
carved ivories, sacred vessels of wrought gold or 
silver, jeweled clasps, memorial brasses, embroid- 
ered vestments, rich tapestries, and silken hangings. 

In architecture, churches are the living monu- 
ments of the influence of religion. Basilicas in 
Rome, Asia Minor, or northern Africa; Byzantine 
edifices of Constantinople, Italy, or France; Roman- 
esque churches in southern Europe; Norman in 
France and England; marvels of Gothic architecture 
which were the glory of the 13th century, as the 
cathedrals at Chartres, Reims, York, or Cologne; 
Renaissance churches, like St. Peter's in Rome, which 
adapted the classic styles to the uses of Christian- 
ity; even the over-elaborate Barocco edifices; all 
these still testify to the fact that the glorification 
of religion was the chief preoccupation of artist 
and artisan almost to the 17th century. In medieval 
France sculpture and stained glass achieved what 
painting did in Italy, and religious truth was 
taught in chiseled portico or glowing window. In 
Italy and Germany, too, sculpture had its place, 
and the names of such artists as Donatello, the 
Pisani, Ghiberti, Delia Robbia, Veit Stoss, Peter 
Vischer, and Adam Krafft are associated with 
carved ornamentation, baptismal fonts, bronze doors 
and tombs, altars of stone or wood. 

The preponderating influence of religion in art 
ended with the Reformation and the rise of Puri- 
tanism. In Germany and England there was no 
longer a place for art in the church. Elsewhere, 
too, after the Renaissance a growing luxury offered 
a new field to art, and kings and wealthy patrons 
replaced popes and cardinals in employing artists. 
Religion however still inspired important move- 
ments in art, as in the creation of what was called 
the "Jesuit style" in architecture, typified by the 
Gesu in Rome, a protest against Reformation cold- 
ness ; or in the German return to primitive religious 
simplicity, inaugurated early in the 19th century by 
Overbeck and the Nazarenes, Schadow and the 
School of Dusseldorf. The English Preraphaelites 
were inspired by the religious ideals of medieval 
Italy, and in our own day an important movement 



ART 



70 



ASCETICAL THEOLOGY 



in ecclesiastical art is sponsored by the Benedic- 
tines of Beuron. See Catacombs; Architecture; 
Painting; Sculpture; Brasses; Ivory; Manu- 
scripts ; Vestments. 

— C.E., V, 248; Frothingham, Monuments of 
Christian Rome, N. Y., 1925; O'Hagan, Genesis of 
Christian Art, N. Y., 1926. 

Artemius Megalomartyr (G-r., great martyr), 
Saint, martyr (363). Appointed, by Emperor Con- 
stantius, imperial prefect of Egypt, he was a fanati- 
cal Arian, hunting down Athanasius and other bish- 
ops, monks, and virgins. Converted to the Catholic 
faith after the death of Constantius, he was accused 
by heathens of destroying idols, was conducted to 
Antioch, and after many tortures put to death. 
Feast, 20 Oct.— Butler. 

Arthur (Celt., art, stone), King, 6th-century 
British chieftain. He championed the oppressed na- 
tives against Angle and Saxon invaders. A cycle of 
romance grew up about his adventures and his 
"Knights of the Round Table" which inspired 
Malory's "Morte Arthure," Spenser's "Faerie 
Queene," and Tennyson's "Idylls of the King." 
Arthur is the type of perfect Christian knighthood. 

Articulo mortis (Lat., at the point of death), 
phrase used in such expressions as : an indulgence 
granted to a person in 
articulo mortis, i.e., 
about to die. 

Artoklasia (G-r., 
art os, bread; klao, 
break ) , concluding serv- 
ice of Vespers in the 
Greek Church, in which 
five loaves of bread, a 
measure of wine, and a 
measure of oil are in- 
censed andblessed. — C.E. 

Arundell, Humphry (1513-50), landowner, of 
Lanherne, Cornwall, England, b. England; d. Ty- 
burn. He was executed at Tyburn as leader of the 
uprising of Cornish-speaking people (1549) in favor 
of the Catholic Church and against the imposition 
of the "Book of Common Prayer." 

Arundell, Thomas (1560-1639), 1st Lord Arun- 
dell of Wardour, Wiltshire, England, soldier. He 
was imprisoned in 1580 for refusing to attend Prot- 
estant services. As a patriotic Englishman he con- 
tributed liberally to the defense of England against 
the Armada. He went abroad and was distinguished 
for valor in imperial service against the Turks in 
Hungary, 1595. In 1605 he was created baron by 
James I for his loyalty. 

— Thomas (1584-1643), 2nd Lord Arundell of 
Wardour, son of preceding, d. Oxford, England. 
He fought for Charles I against the Parliament, 
in 1642, and was wounded in battle. His wife, Lady 
Blanche Arundell (1583-1649), was the daughter 
of Edward, Earl of Worcester. During the absence 
of her husband, in the spring of 1643, she defended 
Wardour Castle for eight days, with 25 men 
against a Parliamentary force of 1300. She refused 
the proffered terms of quarter for women and chil- 
dren only, and succeeded in obtaining mercy for all. 
— Henry (1607-94), 3rd Lord Arundell of War- 
dour, son of preceding, d. Breamore, Hampshire, 




THE ASCENSION 



England. He arranged the preliminaries of the 
secret Treaty of Dover between Louis XIV and 
Charles II. Falsely implicated in the Oates Plot 
he was imprisoned in the Tower for five years. He 
was made Keeper of the Privy Seal by James II, 
1687.— C.E. 

Asaph (Asa), Saint, confessor (c. 550), second 
bishop of the Welsh See of St. Asaph. Local tradi- 
tion at Tengenel, near Holywell, points out his 
ash-tree, well, and valley (Onen Asa, Fynnon Asa, 
Llanasa, Pantasa). Feast, Eng., 1 May. — C.E.; 
Butler. 

Ascendancy, term used to express the assump- 
tion or claim of Protestants in southern Ireland 
to a position of advantage or superiority over the 
Catholics there. (ed.) 

Ascension (Lat., ad, to; scandere, to climb), 
the elevation of Christ into heaven through His 
own power on the fortieth day after His Resurrec- 
tion, in the presence of His disciples (Mark, 16; 
Luke, 24 ; Acts, 1 ) . It probably took place on Mount 
Olivet; an oratory has been erected on the site, 
the original Christian basilica having been de- 
stroyed and rebuilt and finally destroyed by the 
Mohammedans. It is commemorated on Thursday, 
the fortieth day after Easter, and is an oecumenical 

feast and consequently a 
holy day of obligation, 
having a vigil and an 
octave. According to St. 
Augustine, the observ- 
ance of the feast is of 
Apostolic origin. Early 
customs connected with 
the liturgy were the 
blessing of beans and 
grapes after the Com- 
memoration of the Dead 
in the Canon of the Mass, blessing of first fruits, 
blessing of a candle, wearing of miters by deacon and 
subdeacon. The paschal candle is extinguished after 
the Gospel of the Mass. Among the many masters 
who have painted the subject of the Ascension are 
Fra Angelico, Perugino, Tintorretto, Delia Robbia, 
and Pinturicchio. — C.E.; Schuster, The Sacramen- 
tary, II, N. Y., 1925. 

Ascent of the Scorpion, place-name in the 
Book of Josue, identical with Acrabim; probably 
Naqb-es-Safa, between Hebron and Petra. 

Asceterion or Asceteey (Lat., asceteria, her- 
mitage), a monastery or home for monks; a house 
of retreats, place of retirement for following spir- 
itual exercises, especially those of St. Ignatius; 
name given to the first of such houses erected at 
Milan by St. Charles Borromeo. 

Ascetical Theology, that branch of theology 
which comprises the rules of Christian perfection, 
formulated by the monastic leaders beginning with 
the Fathers of the Desert, gathered together and 
systematized. Ascetics is the outcome of supernat- 
ural charity urging to a most perfect following of 
Christ and calls very particularly for a direction 
in every respect an art. Ascetical theology exam- 
ines and defines Christian perfection; explains the 
call, the obligations thereby induced, and the re- 
nunciation of worldly goods otherwise lawful in- 



ASCETICAL THEOLOGY 



71 



ASPERGILL 



eluded in the call. It expounds, in the degree proper 
to this mode of life, the Christian virtues of pov- 
erty, chastity, obedience, humility, mortification, 
charity, etc.; the external custody of the senses; 
the interior discipline of the soul by recollection, 
the presence of God, and conformity to His will; 
the vows giving permanence to this life; the vari- 
ous modes of ordinary prayer corresponding to 
progress made; how to discover and frustrate the 
devil's snares, to recognize God operating in the 
soul, and to free oneself from false notions and 
scruples that hinder progress. Among theologians 
Fr. Alvarez de Paz holds an honorable place; the 
practical treatise of Fr. Alphonsus Rodriguez is 
known everywhere. Mystical theology is classed with 
ascetical rather for convenience than for any in- 
trinsic relation. The ascetic way is complete in 
itself. By it the highest perfection is reached. One 
might almost at any stage begin the mystic, should 
God permit. — Devine, A Manual of Ascetical The- 
ology, Lond., 1902. (h. j. w.) 

Asceticism (Gr., askesis, exercise), spiritual ex- 
ercises in the pursuit of virtue. Its object is the 
attainment of Christian perfection, the rules and 
principles of which are formulated and expounded 
by ascetical theology (q.v. ). — C.E. 

Aseity (Lat., a, from; se, self), the property by 
which a being exists of and from self, a prop- 
erty belonging to God alone, who exists without 
other cause than Himself, who is independent 
and self-sufficient; regarded by many Fathers 
and theologians as the best way of expressing 
the very essence of God. — C.E.; Pohle-Preuss, 
God: His Knowability, Essence, and Attributes, St. 
L., 1921. (ed.) 

Aser (Asher). (1) Eighth son of Jacob and 
Zelpha, handmaid of Lia, Jacob's wife. (2) One of 
the 12 tribes of Israel, descended from Aser. Its 
territory, described in Josue, included 22 cities, 
one of which is the modern Acre. The fertility of 
the land gave rise to the saying that in Aser oil 
flowed as a river. The tribe plays an unimportant 
part in history. — C.E. 

Ash Color, Vestments of, occasionally used in 
France. — Henry, Catholic Customs and Symbols, 
N. Y., 1925. 

Ashes, Blessed, a sacramental of the Church, 
used on Ash Wednesday to remind the faithful of 
their last end and of the necessity of contrition 
and penance during the Lenten season. The use 
of ashes to express humiliation and sorrow was 
common in ancient religions, and is frequently men- 
tioned in the O.T. Probably this practise was intro- 
duced into the early Church by converts from 
Judaism. For some centuries the ashes were im- 
posed only on public penitents, those who had 
given great public scandal; they appeared at the 
door of the church in penitential garb on Ash 
Wednesday and were sprinkled with ashes. Later, 
c. 1100, it became customary for all Catholics, in- 
cluding the clergy, to receive the ashes. They are 
placed on the head of each person, with the words, 
in Latin: "Remember, man, that thou art dust, and 
unto dust thou shalt return." They are obtained 
by burning the blessed palms of the previous Palm 
Sunday, and are blessed before the principal Mass 



of Ash Wednesday. — C.E.; Schuster, The Sacramen- 
tary, II, N. Y., 1925. (j. f. s.) 

Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent, so called 
from the custom of marking the foreheads of the 
faithful with blessed ashes. Its date depends upon 
that of Easter.— C.E. 

Asia, Proconsular, a Roman province which em- 
braced the western parts of the peninsula, Asia Mi- 
nor, including Mysia, Lydia, Caria, and a great part 
of Phrygia ; called proconsular to distinguish it from 
the continent of the same name. Some of its inhab- 
itants were present at Pentecost (Acts, 2), and its 
evangelization took place during St. Paul's third 
journey, when "all who dwelt in Asia heard the word 
of the Lord, both Jews and Gentiles" (Acts, 19). 

Asia Minor, westernmost peninsula of Asia, 
name first used by Orosius, c. 400; also known as 
Anatolia and the Levant. After receiving Greek 
civilization through the victories of Alexander it 
became a prosperous Roman province, combining 
the advantages of both civilizations. Christianity 
was introduced by the Apostles Peter, Paul, and 
John, and spread more rapidly than in any other 
part of the Roman Empire. It was the home of 
Sts. Irenaeus, Polycarp, Gregory of Nazianzus, 
Gregory of Nyssa, Basil the Great, and John 
Chrysostom, and the seat of the first General Coun- 
cil (Nicsea, 325). Divided into two ecclesiastical 
provinces, Asia under Constantinople, and Pontus 
under Antioch, it included more than 300 episcopal 
sees, one for practically every town. Though pro- 
tected for a short time from the Moslem invasions 
by the Byzantine Empire, Asia Minor has been 
controlled by the Turks since the 11th century, and 
a vicariate Apostolic has replaced the ruined sees. 
See Turkey.— C.E. ; U.K. 

Asmodeus (Ashmedai), demon, mentioned in 
the Book of Tobias, who fell in love with Sara, 
and slew her seven successive husbands on the 
night of their nuptials. At last Tobias drove him 
off and he fled to Egypt. In the Talmud he plays a 
great part in the legends concerning Solomon. — C.E. 

A solis ortus cardine, or From lands that 
see the sun arise, hymn for Lauds on 25 Dec, 
feast of Christmas. It was written by Sedulius in 
the 5th century. There are 18 translations. The 
English title given is by J. Neale. — Britt. 

Asp, word occurring 10 times in the Douay Ver- 
sion of the Bible, standing for four Hebrew names: 
(1) Pethen (Deut., 32), the cobra; (2) 'Akhshiibh, 
(Ps., 13; Rom., 3), a highly poisonous viper, also 
mentioned once in the Hebrew Bible; (3) Shdhdl, 
(Ps., 90), a snake; (4) gphoni (Is., 59), called 
"the hisser."— C.E., I, 517. 

Asperges (Lat., aspergere, to sprinkle), the 
sprinkling of the people with holy water on Sun- 
days before the principal Mass. The ceremony takes 
its name from the first word, in Latin, of a verse 
of the 50th Psalm, recited and sung: "Thou shalt 
sprinkle me with hyssop," etc. During the paschal 
time "Vidi aquam" is sung instead of "Asperges." 
— C.E.; MacMahon, Liturgical Catechism, Dublin, 
1927. (J. F. S.) 

Aspergill (Lat., aspergere, to sprinkle), a small 
brush or instrument for sprinkling holy water in 
liturgical services. 



ASPIRATIONS 



72 



ASSISTANCE 




ASS TEACHING 



Aspirations (Lat., aspiro, to breathe), any 
prayer said in a breath, containing therefore not 
more than 12 or 15 words; another term for ejacu- 
latory prayers. It is always applied to very short 
prayers, containing lofty sentiments, expressed in 
choice language, sometimes in rhyme, similar to 
proverbs, e.g., "My Jesus mercy"; "0 Sweetest 
Heart of Jesus I implore, that I may ever love Thee 
more and more"; "0 Mary conceived without sin 
pray for us who have recourse to thee." Many of 
these are indulgenced. — Beringer, Les Indulgences, 
Paris, 1905. (r. j. m.) 

Ass, animal mentioned over 130 times in Holy 
Scripture. It was popular for riding in the Holy 
Land because of even gait and surefootedness, and 
was ridden not only by the common people but also 
by those of highest rank. The triumphant entrance 
of Our Lord into Jerusalem on the first Palm Sun- 
day was upon an ass: "Fear not, daughter of 
Sion: behold, thy king cometh, sitting on an ass's 
colt." (John, 12.) 

Ass, The, in Caricature of Christian Beliefs 
and Practices. Onolatry (ass-worship) was at- 
tributed by Roman writers to the 
Jews and later to the Christians. 
The famous caricature of the Pala- 
tine represents a Christian worship- 
ing a crucified figure with the head 
of an ass. There are other represen- 
tations of the early centuries. In the 
Catacombs there is a fresco in which 
the ass represents Satan or heresy. 
— C.E. f 

Assam, Prefecture Apostolic of, British In- 
dia, comprises the provinces of Assam, Bhutan, and 
Manipur; established, 1889; entrusted to the Sa- 
lesians of Don Bosco (Turin, Italy). Prefect Apos- 
tolic, Louis Mathias (1922) ; residence at Shillong. 
Churches, chapels, and stations, 198; priests, 11; 
religious women, 37; schools and institutions, 51; 
Catholics, 7307. 

Assemblies of God, a religious organization in* 
corporated in Arkansas and in Missouri in 1914. An 
individual and evangelistic type of mission began 
in a number of churches, missions, and assemblies 
after the great revival in 1907. In 1914 a meeting 
was called and a group banded together under the 
name Assemblies of God. Basing their teaching on 
the Arminian doctrine, they emphasize the inspira- 
tion of the Scriptures. Although loyal to the gov- 
ernment of the United States, they claim that, as 
followers of the Prince of Peace, they cannot take 
part in war. They are governed by a combination of 
the Congregational and Presbyterian systems. They 
have two periodicals. In 1925 there were in the' 
United States: 1155 ministers; 900 churches; and 
50,386 communicants. 

Assemblies of the French Clergy, representa- 
tive meetings of the clergy of France to apportion 
their liabilities under the impost laid by the French 
kings upon the Church. Originally held every five 
years, they later became ten-yearly meetings and, 
after the suspension of the meetings of the States- 
General, became practically the only representative 
body during 200 years. The organization provided 
for the election of four deputies from each ecclesi- 



astical province; parish priests and even subdeacons 
were competent to act as delegates, but those se- 
lected were nearly always from the higher ranks, 
and a bishop invariably acted as president. A 
receiver-general was appointed for each ten years, 
over whom two ecclesiastics known as Agents 
Genevan® had jurisdiction. These Agents Generaux 
were also privileged to speak before the king's 
council; among them were Montesquieu and Tal- 
leyrand. The clergy had practically a separate ad- 
ministration apart from the state, a tribute to 
their reputation for reliability and fair dealing, 
the records showing the confidence with which pri- 
vate individuals made rental contracts with the 
Church. Several features were worthy of note for 
their progressiveness, notably the plan of converting 
annuities for the reduction of interest. During the 
Crusades contributions were frequently exacted 
from ecclesiastical property and immense sums for 
the defense of the kingdom were subscribed by the 
association at various times, notably during the 
wars of religion of the Reformation period, the siege 
of La Rochelle, and later wars, even for the ex- 
penses occasioned by the American Revolution. 
French kings on several occasions thanked the As- 
sembly for their services to the monarchy and the 
fatherland, and their relations with the throne con- 
tinued till the Revolution, the last meeting being in 
1788. Doctrinal and spiritual matters were also 
considered and the Conference of Poissy was as- 
sembled to discuss Protestantism and the reform 
doctrines and to devise measures to meet heresies 
and schisms. Against the philosophers of the 18th 
century, the Assembly strove to encourage and 
arouse Christian writers. The Assembly of 1682 
was summoned to consider the claim known as the 
Regale, by which the French kings assumed the 
right to appropriate the revenues of vacant sees 
and to appoint successors to benefices. The con- 
troversy was decided in favor of Louis XIV, who 
asked the Assembly to define the authority of the 
pope. Awed by the power of the king, the Assembly 
drew up the "Four Articles," which will be found 
under the title Gallicanism. 

Assic (Asicus), Saint, confessor (5th century), 
medieval miracle play, "Processus prophetarum," 
in which Balaam and his ass figured prominently 
It was especially popular in northern France but 
was suppressed in the 15th century because of the 
indecency into which it had degenerated. — C.E. 

Assic (Asicus), Saint, confessor (5th century), 
bishop, d. Racoon, Donegal, Ireland. He was a con- 
vert of St. Patrick, and, being an expert worker 
in metals, became his coppersmith. He was later 
consecrated bishop. Feast, Ireland, 27 April. — C.E. 

Assideans, maintainers of the Mosaic Law 
against the invasion of Greek customs. They joined 
the Machabees in the struggle against Antiochus 
IV. Some think that they are identical with the 
later Pharisees. — C.E. 

Assistance of the Holy Ghost, aid by which 
God prevents the teaching Church from falling into 
error, failing in her mission or losing His direction. 
In Christ's discourse to the Apostles at the Last 
Supper several passages occur which clearly im- 
ply this promise: "I will ask the Father, and he 



ASSISTANCE 



73 



ASSUMPTION 



shall give you another Paraclete, that He may abide 
with you for ever. The spirit of truth ... he shall 
abide with you and shall be in you. . . . But the 
Paraclete, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will 
send in my name, he will teach you all things and 
bring all things to your mind, whatsoever I shall 
have said to you" (John, 14). 

Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, prelate 
belonging to the papal chapel, who, in cope and 
miter, stands near tne throne of the pope at solemn 
functions. All patriarchs belong by their office to 
this body, others are specially appointed by the 
pope. The throne-assistants rank next after the 
cardinals and are Counts of the Apostolic Palace. 
— C.E. 

Association Catholique de la Jeunesse Fran= 
gaise (Catholic xIssociation of French Youth), 
organization founded, 1886, by Robert de Roquefeuil 
and six other students, at the suggestion of Al- 
bert de Mun, in order to unite Catholic youth of 
France in cooperative 
effort for the reestab- 
lishment of Christian 
social order. Non-politi- 
cal and without social 
distinctions, its pro- 
gram is formulated in 
its motto, "Piety, Study, 
Action." In 1914 it 
counted 4000 groups 
with 150,000 members, 
and, despite heavy war 
casualties, it still flour- 
ishes. 

Associations Cul= 
tuelles, designation 
given to certain "moral 
persons" or associations 
which, by Law of Sepa- 
ration of the Churches 
and the State, 1905, the 
French Republic, with- 
out any previous under- 
standing with the Holy 
See, wished to call into 
existence in each diocese 
and parish, for religious worship, to receive as pro- 
prietors church properties and revenues, with re- 
sponsibility of taking care of them. By Article 8, it 
belonged to the Council of State, a purely lay author- 
ity, to pronounce upon the orthodoxy of any associa- 
tion cultuelle; the revenues were to be subject to 
state control. Pius X in the Encyclical "Gravissimo 
officii," 1906, gave it as his judgment that this 
law, made without his assent, threatened to intrude 
lay authority into the natural operation of the 
ecclesiastical organization; the Encyclical prohib- 
ited the formation not only of associations cul- 
tuelles, but of any form of association whatsoever 
"so long as it should not be certainly and legally 
evident that the Divine constitution of the Church, 
the immutable rights of the Roman pontiff and of 
the bishops, such as their authority over the neces- 
sary property of the Church, particularly the sacred 
edifices, would, in the said associations, be irre- 
vocably and fully secure." This law was modified by 




that of 2 Jan., 1907, permitting exercise of religious 
worship in churches purely on sufferance and with- 
out any legal title; and further by a law passed 28 
March, 1907, classifying assemblages for religious 
worship as public meetings, and abolishing in re- 
spect of all public meetings the anticipatory dec- 
laration required by the Law of 1881 which the 
Church refused to make. By this precarious ar- 
rangement the Church carried on until 1923 when 
a new method of administering church properties 
was inaugurated without opposition from the gov- 
ernment. — Acta Apostolicse Sedis, 18 Jan., 1924. 

Associations Law, enacted by the French Gov- 
ernment, 1901, providing that no religious congre- 
gation of men or of women could be formed with- 
out a legislative act, which should determine the 
functions of such a congregation. This enactment 
was part of the scheme laid down previously by 
the Grand Orient Freemasons, by which the Cath- 
olic Church and Catholics as such in France were 

to be deprived of their 
rights. Further attempts 
to this effect were made 
in 1905, but, though the 
Church was seriously 
hampered in its activi- 
ties for a while, it suc- 
ceeded in carrying on 
until in 1928 these re- 
strictions and others be- 
came inoperative. — U.K. 
Assuerus, a biblical 
name, denoting Xerxes 
I, King of Persia, "who 
reigned from India to 
Ethiopia over a hundred 
and twenty-seven prov- 
inces . . . the city Susan 
was the capital of his 
kingdom" (Esth., 1), 
and to whom, in the be- 
ginning of his reign (c. 
485 B.C. ) the Samaritans 
addressed their com- 
plaints (1 Esd., 4), 
against the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem. He made Esther, a Jewess, his queen 
in the place of Vashti (Esth., 2 ) .—C.E. 

Assumption Abbey, Richardton, N. D., Bene- 
dictine abbey of the Swiss American Congregation, 
founded as the monastery of St. Mary by Vincent 
Wehrle, O.S.B., 1899, raised to an abbey, 1903. It 
conducts a seminary, college, and high school. 
Priests, 8; cleric, 1; brothers, 4. 

Assumption College, Sandwich, Ontario, Can- 
ada, founded 1870; conducted by the Fathers of St. 
Basil; professors, 13; students, 375. 

Assumptionists. See Augustinians of the As- 
sumption. 

Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
the assumption (Lat., ad, to; sumere, to take) of 
her body into heaven upon her death. According 
to Benedict XIV, it is a probable opinion, which 
it is impious to deny, though not an article of 
faith. It is commemorated by a special feast, 15 
Aug., the origin of which is not known but it was 



Courtesy F. Pustet 

THE ASSUMPTION 



ASSUMPTION 



74 



ASTRONOMY 



celebrated in Palestine before 500. It is a holy day 
of obligation, its vigil being a fast day, in all 
English-speaking countries except Canada. Among 
the many masters who have painted the subject of 
the Assumption are Fra Angelico, Ghirlandajo, 
Rubens, Del Sarto, and Titian.— C.E. ; Pohle-Preuss, 
Mariology, St. L., 1922; Orate Fratres, Collegeville, 
Minn., 11 Aug., 1929. 

Assyria (Heb., Aram-Naharaim, Aram of the 
two rivers ) , a country which occupied the northern 
and middle part of Mesopotamia, extended as far 
south as the Persian Gulf, and included Babylonia 
and Chaldea. The Assyrians were probably of 
Semitic origin, descendants of Assur, one of the 
sons of Sem (Gen., 10), and an independent As- 
syrian kingdom began about the seventeenth cen- 
tury B.C. The sources of Assyrian history are the 
O.T., the Greek, Latin, and Oriental writers, and 
the records and remains of the Assyrian people. 
Their religion and civilization were in many respects 
identical with that of Babylonia, their language 
belonged to the Semitic family, closely related to 
the Hebrew, and they had a cuneiform (Lat., cun- 
eus, wedge) system of writing. Their most famous 
rulers were: Theglathphalasar I (1120-1110 B.C.), 
under whom Assyria rose to the height of military 
glory; Asshur-nasir-pal (885-860 B.C.), in whose 
reign Assyria first came into touch with Israel ; 
Theglathphalasar III ( 745-727 B.C. ) , founder of 
the second Assyrian empire; Sargon II (722-705 
B.C.), who conquered Samaria and destroyed Israel; 
Sennacherib (705-681 B.C.), who invaded Juda and 
crushed the rebellion of Ezechias (4 Kings, 18) ; 
Esarhaddon (681-668 B.C.), a great ruler Avho con- 
quered Egypt and destroyed Sidon; and Asshur- 
bani-pal (668-626 B.C.), greatest of all Assyrian 
kings, to whom we owe part of our knowledge of 
Assyro-Babylonian history, as he caused the most 
important historical texts and inscriptions to be 
copied and placed in a fine library Avhich he built 
in his palace. With his death, Assyrian power de- 
clined. In 606 B.C. Nineveh was destroyed by the 
Medes and Babylonians, and Assyria became a 
province of these countries. — C.JL; U.K. 

Assyrian Captivity, the exile of the Israelites 
in the provinces of the Assyrian Empire. In 734 
B.C. Theglathphalasar III conquered Israel and de- 
ported many of the leading Israelites to Assyria 
(4 Kings, 15). Twelve years later (722 B.C.), Sar- 
gon destroyed Samaria, and carried off the upper 
classes to Mesopotamia and Media (4 Kings, 17; 1 
Par., 5 ) . The Book of Tobias gives a glimpse of 
the lot of these exiles, who on the whole enjoyed 
a considerable amount of liberty, but were at times 
subjected to persecution (Tob., 1). There is no 
record of their return to Palestine. (h. w.) 

Astaroth (Phenician, Ashtoret, Astarte), a 
Syro-Phenician female deity worshipped at Sidon 
and Tyre, in Carthage, Cyprus, and even Britain. 
She has been identified with the Babylonian goddess 
Ishtar, the Grecian Aphrodite, and the Latin Venus, 
and was regarded as the goddess of love and 
fecundity. In 4 Kings, 28, she is described as the 
"idol of the Sidonians." (a. h. ) 

Astericus Anastasius or Astrik-Anastaz 
(Slavic, Radla) , apostle of the Magyars (c. 955- 



c. 1036), first Abp. of Gran, Hungary, b. Bohemia. 
He entered the Benedictine Order and became 
co-operator with St. Stephen in establishing 
the Catholic religion in Hungary, being sent 
by the latter to beg papal approval for the or- 
ganization of the Church there and to ask for 
the crown of that kingdom. In 1000 he crowned 
Stephen first King of Hungary. Feast, Hungary, 
12 Nov. 

Asterisk (Gr., asteriskos, dim. of aster, star), 
a utensil used in the Greek Bite, made of two 
silver or gold curved bands crossing each other 
to form a double arch, and placed over the blessed 
bread in the early part of Mass, to prevent con- 
tact with the veil. — C.E. 

Astrology (Gr., astron, star; logos, knowledge), 
a pseudo-science dealing with the influence of the 
stars on human fate, or on the weather. The for- 
mer is termed mundane or judicial astrology, and 
its predictions rely upon the planets' positions, at 
the time of a human being's birth, in the twelve 
houses into which the heavens are divided. The 
houses symbolize such factors as riches, success, 
children, etc. The signs of the zodiac, each of 
which rules over a certain part of the human body, 
exercise a particular influence on the bodily health 
of an individual and the position of the sun in 
the zodiac at the moment of birth is a vital factor 
in determining his fate. The calculations essential 
to the settling of these positions are called casting 
the horoscope. The second division, termed natural 
astrology, predicts weather variations as effected 
by the positions of the planets, especially the 
moon. The Assyrians and Babylonians were the 
leading exponents of this science among the an- 
cients, while the Egyptians developed it approxi- 
mately to its present condition. The Assyro-Baby- 
lonian and Egyptian priests expounded these 
astrological views to the Greek astrologers, whence 
knowledge of it came to the profane world and to 
Rome where for about five hundred years it ruled 
public life. The advent of Christianity and its active 
antagonism to astrological teachings, as illustrated 
by Constantine's edict of death to the Chaldeans, 
Magi, and other astrologers, dealt a severe blow 
to it, effective for several centuries. Early Christian 
legend distinguished between astronomy and astrol- 
ogy and St. Augustine (De Civitate Dei, VIII, xix) 
vigorously opposed the amalgamation of the two. 
During the Middle Ages, owing to Jewish scholars, 
astrology became important again and numbered 
emperors and popes among its votaries, including 
the Emperors Charles IV and V and Popes Sixtus 
IV, Julius II, Leo X, and Paul III. Petrarch con- 
tinually attacked it, and it met successful antago- 
nists in the Catholic scientists and philosophers, 
Pico della Mirandola and Paolo Toscanelli, and, in 
the later Renaissance, the Franciscan, Nas. The vic- 
tory of the Copernican system, the recognition of 
the moral and psychical dangers of astrology and 
the progress of experimental science reduced it to 
the status of a superstition, a position it still occu- 
pies, in spite of the recent revival of occultism. — - 
C.E. 

Astronomy (Gr., astron, star; nomos, distribut- 
ing), the science which treats of the motions, 



ASTRONOMY 



75 



ASTRONOMY 



positions, constitution, and relations of the heavenly 
bodies and of the earth in its relation to them. 
Valuable contributions to the science have been 
made by Catholics and other Christians. 

Catholics. — Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625- 
1712) determined the period of rotation of Jupiter, 
Venus, and Mars, made researches on lunar libra- 
tions and on the zodiacal light, advanced a theory 
of comet motion, discovered four Saturnian satel- 
lites, suggested oval paths in place of the ellipses 
of Kepler which were named "Cassinians" in his 
honor, and was first director of the Paris Observa- 
tory. Mary Agnes Gierke (1842-1907) wrote several 
standard astronomical works, most important of 
which was "A Popular History of Astronomy in 
the Nineteenth Century." Nicolaus Copernicus 
(1473-1543), Dominican, originated the Copernican 
system which superseded the Ptolemaic. Andrew 
Claude de la Chevois Crommelin (1865 • ), as- 
sistant at Royal Observatory, Greenwich (1891- 
1927), made valuable investigations on eclipses, 
and in conjunction with P. H. Cowell, on Halley's 
Comet, 240 b.c.-a.d. 1910; author of several astro- 
nomical works. Francesco Denza (1834-94), Barna- 
bite, did notable photographic research on the 
heavenly bodies, was instrumental in establishing 
over 200 meteorological stations in Italy, and re- 
built the Vatican observatory for that purpose. 
Herve Auguste Etienne Albans Faye (1814-1902) 
discovered the comet known by his name, made ad- 
vances in the system of astronomical measure- 
ments, and discovered the zenithal collimator. Gali- 
leo Galilei (1564-1642) did distinguished telescopic 
work; he discovered the gibbous phase of the moon, 
the four satellites of Jupiter known as the Galilean 
satellites, the phases of Venus, and the daily and 
monthly librations of the moon, co-discovered the 
rings of Jupiter, did research on sun-spots, and 
made improvements on the telescope. Edward Heis 
(1806-72) founded the "Journal of Astronomy, 
Meteorology and Geography," first ascertained the 
point of departure of meteors, drew up a chart of 
naked-eye stars visible from Central Europe, which 
indicated 5421 stars, included the first authentic 
map of the Milky Way, and has been used as a basis 
for other star charts, and made valuable observa- 
tions of variable stars. Johann Von Lamont (1805- 
79), director Munich Observatory, determined the 
mass of Uranus, made geodetic and meteorological 
researches, and invented an instrument for record- 
ing phenomena in this field. TJrbain Jean Joseph Le 
Terrier (1811-77) made the mathematical discovery 
of the planet Neptune, first developed the gravi- 
tational method of determining solar parallax, did 
brilliant research on the planetary system, and 
computed the orbits of Mercury and Uranus. 
Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1826), Theatine, discovered 
the first planetoid Ceres, 1 Jan., 1801, and was 
author of a star catalog including about 7000 fixed 
stars. Lorenzo Respighi (1824-89) distinguished 
chiefly for spectroscopic research, notably on stellar 
luminosity and protuberances on the sun, discovered 
three comets and drew up a catalog of the declina- 
tion of 2534 stars. Giovanni Sante Gasparo Santini 
(1787-1877) computed paths for several comets and 
did important research work on planets. Christoph 



Scheiner, S.J. (1575-1650), first made a systematic 
investigation of sun spots. P. Angelo Secchi, S.J. 
(1818-78), invented the "meteorograph," an instru- 
ment for the automatic registration of meteor- 
ological phenomena, made important measurements 
of double stars, observations on solar protuberances, 
and the extensive spectroscopic classification of 
stars known by his name. Wilhelm Tempel (1821- 
89) discovered several nebulae and comets and drew 
up valuable star maps. Francesco de Vico, S.J. 
(1805-48), directed the Observatory . at Rome and 
made valuable observations of the comets and 
Saturn. 

Other Christian Astronomers. — Johann Bayer 
(1572-1660) compiled a famous Uranometria com- 
prising 51 maps of the heavens, and inaugurated the 
system of designating the stars of a constellation by 
Greek and Latin letters which are usually assigned 
in order of brightness. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel 
(1784-1846), first to successfully measure stellar 
parallax when he measured 61 Cygni, founded a 
system of reduction, improved the use of the heli- 
ometer, and was director of the Observatory at 
Konigsberg. Tycho Brake (1546-1601) initiated pre- 
cision in astronomical observations, discovered 
(1572) a nova of Cassiopeia, compiled a catalog 
of 777 fixed stars, drew up a plan of the cosmos 
known as the Tychonic plan, drafted a chart of 
refraction, made numerous corrections on astro- 
nomical observations, and rediscovered lunar varia- 
tion. Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane (1773-1860), 
distinguished in nautical astronomy, drew up tables 
for computing time from the altitudes of celestial 
bodies, established the first important Australian 
observatory, and compiled the Brisbane Catalogue 
of 7385 stars. Johann Franze Encke (1791-1865) 
furnished data on transits of Venus which aided in 
obtaining the distance of the sun, proved that the 
periodic comet named in his honor moved in an 
elliptical orbit, and directed work of charts of the 
celestial equator. John Flamsteed (1646-1719), au- 
thor of the famous "Historia Coelestis Brittanica," 
drew up the catalog of fixed stars designated by 
his name, first demonstrated the construction and 
use of the quadrant, initiated a method of deter- 
mining the position of the equinox, and made im- 
portant researches on sun spots whence he drew up 
a theory of the sun's constitution; he was first 
astronomer royal of England. Sir William Eerschel 
(1783-1822), foremost astronomical discoverer and 
explorer of the 18th century and "founder of side- 
real science," initiated an era of astronomical optics 
and stellar photometry, discovered the planet 
Uranus and two of its satellites, Oberon and Ti- 
tania, discovered the sixth and seventh satellites of 
Saturn, first determined Saturn's rotation period, 
did noteworthy researches on variable stars, dis- 
covered that in the binary systems the stars cir- 
culated around each other, thus demonstrating 
that the same law of mechanics functioned in the 
stellar system as did in our solar systems, first 
indicated the approximate position of the apex of 
the sun's way, first determined the direction of the 
sun's motion, added about 2400 nebulae to the- 
known number of 103, compiled famous star cata- 
logs, constructed a reflecting telescope with an 



ASTRONOMY 



76 



ATHANASIAN CREED 



aperture of four feet and a focal length of forty, 
and discovered the infra-red solar rays. Sir John 
Frederick William Herschel (1792-1871) continued 
the stellar researches of his father and completed 
his work on luminaries and nebulae, made valuable 
photometric observations of stars' magnitude, e.g., 
discovered that a star of the first magnitude is 100 
times as bright as a sixth magnitude star, invented 
a reflector for telescopic observations, was the au- 
thor of theory of meteoric origin of sun spots, ini- 
tiated the use of the terms positive and negative in 
photographic representations, did research on the 
stellar distribution in heavens and drew up his 
famous catalog of southern stars. Johann Hevelius 
(1611-87) founded lunar topography, did valuable 
work on sun-spots, first suggested that the orbits 
of comets were parabolic, discovered four comets, 
made the discovery of the libration of the moon in 
longitude, and compiled a catalog of 1564 stars. 
Sir William Iluggins (1824-1910), pioneer in 
astronomical photography, spectroscopy, and spec- 
trum analysis, did noted research on the chemical 
stellar composition, discovered spectroscopically 
that luminous gas composed the irregular and plan- 
etary nebulae, proved that cometary light was 
mainly derived from incandescent carbonic vapors, 
made the first investigation with a spectroscope of 
a temporary star, and proved the presence of cal- 
cium in the chromosphere and solar prominences. 
Johann Kepler (1571-1630), author of the Kep- 
lerian planetary theory, established the three great 
laws of planetary motion designated by his name, 
viz., the laws of equal areas, elliptical orbits, and of 
the relation between distances and periods, made 
notable researches on the orbit of Mars and an 
explanation of lunar attraction causing tides, and 
established a theory of vortices; he made an ex- 
position of refraction by lenses and of the invert- 
ing telescope and may be considered the founder 
of the science of dioptrics. Joseph Louis Lagrange 
(1736-1813) supplied the analytic foundation for 
calculus of variations, did valuable researches on 
differential equations, and made contributions to 
the solution of equations particularly by the 
method of combination. Canon A. Stark (d. 1839) 
did researches valuable in ascertaining sun-spot 
periodicity. 

Asylum (Gr., asylos, safe from violence), a 
place in which a person threatened with danger is 
protected from harm. Historically, the term com- 
monly refers to the custom of endowing holy places, 
shrines, churches, etc., with the right of asylum 
against secular force. This meant that a person 
pursued by the officers of the law or other secular 
power, could by fleeing to such a place escape 
arrest. The practise was founded upon two princi- 
ples, that the exercise of secular power in a place 
dedicated to God was irreverent and sacrilegious, 
and that the secular power was too often tyrannical 
and unjust, and that a refuge was needed in which 
it was powerless to abuse the innocent. The decay 
of religious faith and the growth of civil order Ijave 
both brought it about that the right of asylum is 
today neither claimed nor exercised. The present 
use of the word is in reference to institutions in 
which the helpless are relieved from their necessi- 



ties; e.g., the asylums for such dependent classes 
as the orphans, aged, insane and feeble-minded, and 
the hopelessly poverty-stricken. Such institutions 
were practically unknown among pagan peoples. 
Their origin may be traced to Our Lord's insistence 
on the corporal and spiritual works of mercy as a 
necessary condition for attaining heaven (Matt., 
25). The care of widows, the poor, and orphans, 
was characteristic of the first Christians; and all 
through history, the faithful have generously sup- 
ported and endowed institutions for such purposes, 
while the founders of many religious orders of men 
and women have made service in such asylums the 
chief purpose of their orders. With good reason, 
modern social workers insist that the dependent, 
especially orphans and children, should in every 
possible case be placed in normal family life. The 
individual's own family society should be aided or 
corrected, when that is possible. If that is impos- 
sible, a foster home suited to his character and 
needs should be provided. Only when this is im- 
possible, should resort be had to the institutional 
asylum, when the given case is, for physical, moral, 
social, or economic reasons, beyond hope of normal 
treatment. The proper Christian view is that char- 
ity must always work for the greatest success as 
well as for the highest motives. Hence stubborn 
insistence on the old-fashioned institutional methods 
is not true charity, when others are available that 
procure better the physical, moral, educational, and 
spiritual well-being of the dependent. Catholics, 
therefore, find in modern child-placing, mothers' 
pensions, old-age insurance, etc., simply the op- 
portunity for more effective charity, and thus in- 
form these very modern and technical works with 
age-old Christian motives and virtue. At the same 
time, the Catholic will insist that the institutional 
asylum still has work to do; and that those who 
contribute to it and those who serve it out of 
spiritual motives are doing an admirable work 
blessed with much spiritual merit. (e. f. MacK. ) 

Ateneo of Manila, established, 1859, by Jesuits 
and directed by them; comprises a military school, 
preparatory school, and high school, and classical, 
scientific, pre-inedical, and college courses leading 
to degrees of a.b. and B.s. ; professors, 57; stu- 
dents, 1100. There is a night school for working 
men under its patronage. 

Athalie, tragedy by Racine, based on the story 
in the Books of Kings and Paralipomenon. Chris- 
tianity is foreshadowed in many moving passages 
and its destiny hangs in the balance. It was first 
performed, 1690, and has been the theme of nu- 
merous composers. 

Athanasian Creed, one of the ecclesiastically 
approved formularies of faith which contains a 
brief but philosophically exact summary of the 
fundamental doctrines of the Trinity and Incarna- 
tion together with a cursory reference to other 
dogmas. Shortly after the 5th century it was quite 
generally accepted both in the East and West. 
Nothing certain is known as to its origin and time 
of composition. For about ten centuries St. Atha- 
nasius of Alexandria was erroneously taken to be 
its author. Since 1644, however, scholars regard it 
as being of Western origin. Nevertheless, the creed 



ATHANASIAN CREED 



77 



ATRIUM 



undoubtedly owes its existence to Atlianasian in- 
fluences, for it contains a clear and succinct state- 
ment of his doctrine on the dogmas mentioned 
above. Some think it originated during the second 
half of the 4th century, while others assign it to 
the 5th. The Church enjoins its recitation at Prime 
on certain Sundays of the year. It is accepted by 
orthodox Protestants. — C.E. (p. k. ) 

Athanasius (Gr., immortality), Saint, confes- 
sor, Doctor of the Church (296-373), Bp. of Alex- 
andria, called "Father of Orthodoxy," as the chief 
champion of belief in the Divinity of Christ, b. and 
d. Alexandria. As secretary to Bp. Alexander of 
Alexandria, he attended the Council of Nicsea, 325, 
and upon Alexander's death, 328, succeeded as 
bishop; he spent seventeen of the forty-six years of 
his episcopate in exile and fought for the accept- 
ance of the Nicene Creed. Refusing to readmit 
Arius to ecclesiastical communion, he was accused 
on false charges by Eusebius of Nicomedia, and 
brought to trial at Tyre, 335; but, as he could 
not hope for a fair trial, he withdrew from Tyre, 
appealing to the Emperor Constantine who ban- 
ished him to Trier. He returned to his see, 337, 
with the permission of Constantine II, but again 
met with opposition by the Eusebian faction, and 
fled to Rome, where his innocence was proclaimed 
by Pope Julius. After the death of Gregory, Bp. of 
Alexandria, in 345, Athanasius again returned to 
his see. Condemned at a council in Milan, 355, in 
which his enemies predominated, he was exiled to 
Egypt, where he lived among the monks for seven 
years. After another short occupancy of his see he 
was banished, 364, by Emperor Valens. He was 
recalled by his flock after four months, and spent 
the remainder of his life proclaiming the Divinity 
of Christ, thus well deserving the title "Father of 
Orthodoxy." Writings : "History of the Arians" 
and "On the Incarnation." Relics in S. Croce, 
Venice. Feast, R. Cal., 2 May.— C.E. ; U.K. ; Butler. 

Athanasius, Saint, confessor (d. 872), Bp. of 
Naples, b. Naples, Italy; d. Veroli. He restored the 
sacred edifices, including the church of St. Janu- 
arius, destroyed by the Saracens, founded a hospice, 
and instituted a service for the ransom of captive 
Christians. Because he resisted simoniacal practises, 
he was imprisoned by his nephew Sergius, Duke of 
Naples. The clergy and people of Naples forced his 
release. Feast, 15 July. 

Atheism (Or., a, without; theos, God), denial of 
God's existence; system opposed to deism or theism, 
maintaining the existence of God and of one God 
only; in its extremist form, the denial of the ex- 
istence of a First Cause; in less extreme, the sub- 
stitution of matter, external and self-subsistent, for 
a God spiritual and personal; often confused with 
agnosticism and pantheism. Moral atheism com- 
prises those ethical systems which teach that the 
morality of human acts has no reference to a Di- 
vine law-giver, i.e., godlessness in conduct regard- 
less of a system of morals or of religious faith. — 
C.E.; Pohle-Preuss, God: His Knowability, Essence 
and Attributes, St. L., 1921. (ed. ) 

Athelne3', Abbey of, Somersetshire, England, 
founded, 888, by King Alfred for the Benedictines, 
because the island had afforded him a refuge from 



the Danes. It was dissolved by Henry VIII, 1540. — 
C.E. 

Athenagoras, second-century Athenian philos- 
opher, and Christian convert, who wrote a plea for 
justice towards persecuted Christians. — C.E. 

Athenry, Galway, Ireland, first town established 
by Anglo-Norman invaders. It became a wealthy 
city. The Dominican monastery, erected 1261, was 
revived 400 years later. The Cromwell period ruined 
the buildings, but the tower and east window re- 
main in good condition. 

Athleta Christi nobilis, or Noble Champion 
of the Lord!, hymn for Matins on 18 May, feast 
of St. Venantius; written in the 17th century; 
author unknown. There are three translations. The 
English title given is by E. Caswall. — Britt. 

Athlete (Gr., athletes, one trained in physical 
exercises), Christian, term used in the spiritual 
combat against sin; suggested by the spiritual ex- 
ercises of St. Ignatius, St. Paul (1 Cor., 9) com- 
pares the competitions of the athlete with the 
struggles of the soul. He also employs the title 
"soldier of Christ" (2 Tim., 2). 

Athos, Mount, a small peninsula of Greece in 
the JEgean Sea, famous for its monasteries. It is 
thought that this was a favorite abode of hermits 
as early as the 4th or 5th century. Organized so- 
cieties of monks were there in the 9th century, and 
in the 10th the 58 communities were loosely united 
under an abbot general, the Anatolian monk, 
Athanasius. Since that time successive governments 
have granted exemptions and other privileges, and 
the group of monasteries has gradually formed a 
republic with an almost independent representative 
government. In 1928 the population was 4858, all 
men, chiefly monks of the Greek Orthodox Church, 
following the Rule of St. Basil, in 20 principal 
monasteries and their dependencies. Seventeen of 
these are Greek, one Russian, one Bulgarian, and 
one Serbian. The buildings are mostly Byzantine 
in style, with many art treasures, and the libraries 
contain about 8000 valuable manuscripts. — C.E. 

Atonement, reconciliation of sinners with God 
through the Incarnation, sufferings, and death of 
Christ. In early days Western writers held that 
Christ by His sufferings made a payment to Satan 
to have him relinquish his right to man. Following 
Anselm, it is now usually held that Satan had no 
rights over man, but that Christ suffered because 
man by sin had incurred a debt to Divine justice 
and that this required a satisfaction that could be 
paid only by a God-Man Redeemer. It is also held, 
in accordance with Abelard, that a full equivalent 
satisfaction such as was made by Christ's death 
was not absolutely necessary; therefore the Incar- 
nation was an act of love, though not exclusively 
so.— C.E. ; Lattey, The Atonement, Camb., 1928. 

Atonement, Day of, the 19th day of the 7th 
Jewish month, Tishri ( Sept. -Oct. ) , a day of solemn 
fast, when, in ancient times, two buck goats were 
brought to the high priest, who sacrificed one of 
them for sin, while the other, the scapegoat, was 
thereafter led forth into the wilderness to carry 
away all the iniquities of the people. — C.E. 

Atrium, in Roman architecture the principal 
entrance hall or reception room of a residence; in 



ATRIUM 



78 



AUCKLAND 



church architecture an open court, consisting of a 
large quadrangle, with colonnaded walks on four 
sides, forming a cloister between the porch and the 
body of the church, and containing a fountain for 
washing the hands. Here the first class of penitents 
congregated to solicit prayers, and here, too, Chris- 
tians were buried. The covered portion near the 
church was the narthex, which exists only occasion- 
ally now and has been reduced to a narrow inner 
entrance. — C.E. 

Attala, Saint, abbot (d. 627), b. Burgundy; d. 
Bobbio, Italy. He became a monk and joined Colum- 
banus, whom he followed into exile, and with him 
founded the Abbey of Bobbio near Genoa, of which 
he became abbot. Relics at Bobbio. Feast, 10 March. 
—C.E. 

Attention (Lat., ad, to; tendere, to stretch), 
earnest direction of the senses and mind to some 
occupation or duty, as prayer and administration 
of the sacraments. In vocal prayer it implies mind- 
fulness of the words or purpose of the prayer; in 
mental, attention to the matter of meditation and 
to the spiritual affec- 
tions aroused. In admin- 
istering the sacraments 
sufficient attention is 
required to avoid any 
distraction that might 
occasion a mistake, and 
at the time of the Con- 
secration at Mass avoid- 
ance of wilful distrac- 
tion. The obligation to 
recite the Divine Office 
is satisfied by avoiding 
any action that is in- 
consistent, but to recite ATR 
it properly some internal attention to the words is 
required. So also external attention suffices for ful- 
filling the obligation of assisting at Mass, but inter- 
nal attention is required to assist at it with due 
devotion. (ed. ) 

At the Cross her station keeping. See Stabat 
Matek. 

Attila (d. 453), King of the Huns, called "the 
Scourge of God." He welded the disorganized Scy- 
thian warriors into a compact body that became the 
terror of Europe and Asia. Emboldened by the suc- 
cess of an invasion of the Roman Empire, he swept 
through Austria, Germany, and Gaul with unheard- 
of ferocity. Allied Romans and Visigoths defeated 
him at Chalons, 451, and averted the peril which 
menaced Western civilization. Attila went to Italy 
and laid Lombardy waste, 452. Approaching Rome, 
he was met by Pope Leo I near Mantua, and was 
dissuaded from sacking the city. He died shortly 
after.— C.E. 

Attilanus or Atilanus, Saint, confessor (c. 
9,39-1009), Bp. of Zamora, b. Tarazona, Spain; d. 
Zamora. He founded, together with St. Froilan II 
of Leon, the monastery of Moreruela, on the banks 
of the Esla. Canonized by Urban II, 1095. Relics 
in St. Peter's church, Zamora. Feast, 5 Oct. 

Attiret, Jean Denis (1702-68), painter; b. 
Dole, France; d. Peking. After studying art at 
Rome, he entered the Society of Jesus as a lay 




brother, and was sent to China. His skill as a por- 
trait-painter led to his appointment as painter 
to the emperor, who made him a mandarin. To meet 
the wishes of his patron, most of his work was ex- 
ecuted according to Chinese taste and methods. — 
C.E.; U.K. 

Attracta (Araght), Saint, virgin, contem- 
porary of St. Patrick, b. Sligo, Ireland. She was 
the foundress of several religious houses in Galway 
and Sligo. Pius IX authorized her office and Mass 
to be revived in the Irish Church. Patroness of 
Achonry, and of the "Men of Lugna." Feast, 11 Aug. 
—C.E. 

Attributes, Divine, characteristics which we 
conceive as belonging to God. Though God is abso- 
lutely one and simple, yet to enable us to form a 
better idea of Him and to unfold as far as possible 
what is implied in saying that He is All-perfect, we 
apply or attribute to Him certain perfections 
which we find in creatures. In doing so, however, 
we do not use the words in the sense in which we 
apply them to creatures but with a far different 
meaning: what is lim- 
ited and often imperfect 
in creatures is infinite 
and perfect in God. 
These perfections imply- 
ing neither limitation 
nor defect are called 
pure, e.g., justice, good- 
ness, truth, power, free- 
dom. When an attribute 
suggesting limitation is 
used in speaking of God, 
e.g., "at the right hand 
of God," it is a figure of 
speech. Among the Di- 
vine attributes most modern authorities select 
aseity, or self-existence, as the most distinctive 
characteristic, the one from which the others may 
be best and most rigorously deduced, and there- 
fore they call it the metaphysical essence of God. 
The attributes of God most commonly mentioned 
are: almighty, eternal, holy, immense, immortal, 
immutable, incomprehensible, ineffable, infinite, in- 
telligent, invisible, just, loving, merciful, most high, 
most wise, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, pa- 
tient, perfect, provident, self-dependent, supreme, 
true. — Lessius, tr. Campbell, Names of God, N. Y., 
1912. (ED.) 

Attrition (Lat., atterere, to rub), contrition 
for sin without perfect motive; a sorrow of soul 
and a hatred of sin committed, with a firm pur- 
pose of never sinning again, the sorrow being based 
not on the pure love of God, whom sin has griev- 
ously offended, which would be perfect contrition, 
but on some inferior though supernatural motive 
such as the loss of heaven, or the punishment of 
hell, or the heinousness of sin itself. — C.E.; P.C. 
Augustine. 

Auckland, Diocese of, New Zealand, comprises 
the territory of the provincial district of Auck- 
land, surrounding islands, and the Kermadec group; 
area, 21,665 sq. m.; erected, 1848; suffragan of 
Wellington. Bishops: Jean Baptiste Pompallier, 
Vicar Apostolic of the Western Pacific (1836-48), 



AUCKLAND 



79 



AUGUSTINE 



and bishop (1848-68); Thomas Croke (1870-75); 
Walter Steins (1879-81); John Luck (1882-96); 
George Lenihan (1896-1910) ; Henry Cleary (1910). 
Churches, 131; priests, secular, 59; priests, regular, 
24; religious women, 394; high schools, 8; primary 
schools, 47; institutions, 6; Catholics, 55,000. 

Auctor beate sseculi, or O Christ, the world's 
Creator bright, hymn for Vespers on the feast of 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus. It was written in the 
18th century by an unknown author. There are 
eight translations. The English title given is by F. 
Husenbeth. — Britt. 

Audi benigne Conditor, or O Kind Creator, 
bow Thine ear, hymn for Vespers on Sundays 
and week-days in Lent. Pope St. Gregory the Great 
(540-604) was its author. There are 22 transla- 
tions. The one given in Britt is by T. Lacey; the 
fourth verse reads: 

Give us the self-control that springs 
From discipline of outward things, 
That fasting inward secretly 
The soul may purely dwell with Thee. 

Audiences, Papal, receptions given by the pope 
to clerical or lay persons having business with or 
interest in the Holy See. Requests for audiences are 
made to the master of the chamber (Maestro di 
Camera), even those which ambassadors present 
through the cardinal secretary of state. The pope 
receives every day the cardinal prefect of one of 
the sacred congregations. At these audiences de- 
crees are signed and counsel given by the pope. 
Bishops come from every nation to consult the 
pope. Prelates connected with various institutions 
either in Rome or abroad, generals and procurators 
of religious orders, are also received on stated 
days. Formal audiences to sovereigns and princes 
are invested with special ceremonies. For ordinary 
audiences to priests and lay persons the general 
practise is to present a letter of recommendation 
from the bishop of their diocese to the rector of 
the national college in Rome of the country from 
which they come. The rector procures from the 
master of the chamber the necessary card of ad- 
mission. — C.E. (j. c. t.) 

Auditor, in ecclesiastical procedure, one who 
prepares the acts of a trial. He is appointed by 
the Ordinary permanently or for a specific case, 
otherwise by the presiding judge (can. 1580), and 
is chosen from the synodal judges, or from the 
respective religious institute involved (can. 1581). 
The office consists in summoning and presenting 
witnesses, preparing required judicial documents, 
and summarizing the acts. The auditor is never al- 
lowed to pronounce final sentence (can. 1582). — 
C.E.; P.C. Augustine; Hilling, Procedure at the 
Roman Curia, N. Y., 1907. 

Audit tyrannus anxius, or With terror doth 
the tyrant hear, hymn for Matins on 28 Dec, 
feast of the Holy Innocents. It was written by Pru- 
dentius (348-413). There are 11 translations. The 
English title given is by Mgr. Henry. — Britt. 

Audley, Edmund (d. 1524), bishop, patron of 
letters. He received the degree of B.A. at Lincoln 
College, Oxford, 1463, was successively Bp. of 
Rochester (1480), of Hereford (1492), and of Salis- 



bury (1502), and was made chancellor of the Order 
of the Garter. Because he bestowed a benefice on 
Edward Powell for his book against Luther, he was 
complimented by Oxford University. 

Aufklarung (Ger., enlightenment), 18th-cen- 
tury philosophical movement, characterized by free 
thought, emancipation from dogma, and material- 
istic tendencies. 

Augouard, Philippe Prosper (1852-1921), mis- 
sionary, Vicar Apostolic of Upper French Congo, 
b. Poitiers, France; d. Paris. During the Franco- 
Prussian War he served with the Papal Zouaves. 
He entered the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, 
opened the first mission station of St. Augustin, 
East Africa, 1881, and assisted French exploration 
by erecting hospitals and schools. In 1896 he was 
created Chevalier and in 1913 an officer of the 
Legion of Honor. Belgium awarded him the Order 
of Leopold. He was appointed titular Abp. of Cas- 
siopeia, 1915. 

Augsburg, Religious Peace of, compact arrived 
at in 1555 by the Diet of Augsburg, in a vain 
effort to secure religious harmony, by recognizing 
the pretensions of the German princes to dictate 
a religion to their subjects and by securing to the 
adherents of the Augsburg Confession all Catholic 
property which they had held from the beginning 
of the religious upheaval. By this compact the re- 
ligious schism in the empire was definitely estab- 
lished, and the Catholic and Protestant estates were 
made opposing camps. 

Augurs, members of a college in ancient Rome, 
observers and interpreters of signs sent by gods. 
They were originally three in number, but finally 
sixteen. The office was held for life. The signs ob- 
served were : flight and feeding of birds ; appearance 
of entrails of sacrificial victims, etc.; observations 
made on occasion of founding colonies, levying 
armies, or before a battle. 

Augustine Novellus (Matteo de' Termini), 
Blessed (d. 1309), general of the Hermits of St. 
Augustine, b. Termini, Sicily; d. San Leonardo, 
near Siena, Italy. He filled various civil offices, and 
was appointed chancellor by King Manfred of 
Sicily, whom he accompanied in his war against 
Charles of Anjou. He then became an Augustinian 
monk, and later general of the order, which post 
he resigned for a life of retirement and prayer. 
The title Novellus (Lat., new) was a tribute to his 
virtue and learning. Feast, 19 May. 

Augustine of Canterbury, Saint, confessor (d. 
604), apostle of the English, 1st Abp. of Canter- 
bury, b. Rome; d. Canterbury, England. From the 
monastery of St. Andrew, in Rome, Pope Gregory 
I, learning that the pagans in Britain were dis- 
posed to embrace the Faith, sent Augustine and 
his Benedictine brethren to instruct them. Augus- 
tine landed on the Isle of Thanet and was hos- 
pitably welcomed by iEthelberht, King of Kent, 
who, though pagan, was married to a Christian, 
Bertha. iEthelberht soon embraced the Faith, and 
on Christmas Day 10,000 of his people were bap- 
tized. Augustine went to Gaul to receive episcopal 
consecration from the Abp. of Aries, and on his 
return, at a spot still called "Augustine's Oak" in 
Malmesbury, he convoked a synod of the Celtic 



AUGUSTINE 



80 



AUREOLE 



bishops of southern Britain, in an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to introduce ecclesiastical uniformity in 
Britain. His remains were interred outside the 
church of Sts. Peter and Paul, Canterbury, which 
he had begun. Feast, R. CaL, 28 May.— C.E.; U.K.; 
Butler. 

Augustine of Hippo, Saint, confessor, Doctor 
of the Church (354-430), Bp. of Hippo, b. Tagaste, 
Africa; d. Hippo. He was the son of Patricius, a 
pagan, and of St. Monica, and received a Christian 
education but, on proceeding to Carthage to study 
law, he became a slave to immorality and eventually 
embraced Manichseism. He went to Italy, 383, and 
taught rhetoric at Milan, where he was baptized 
by Ambrose, 387. Returning to Tagaste, 388, he 
distributed his goods to the poor, and was ordained, 
391. Consecrated assistant Bp. of Hippo, 396, he 
introduced religious poverty and community life 
into his residence, which became a nursery of 
African monasteries and bishops. For 34 years he 
wrote and preached against the heresies of the 
times; becoming renowned as a philosopher, a 
theologian, and especially as the Doctor of Grace. 
His writings cover the whole field of theology; his 
"Confessions" and the "City of God" are the best 
known. His conversion is the classic instance of 
the efficacy of a mother's prayer. His description of 
his last days with St. Monica, at Ostia, is the 
most sublime passage in his "Confessions." Patron 
of theologians, brewers, and printers, invoked 
against sore eyes. Emblems : dove, child, shell, and 
pen. Relics at Pavia and Hippo. Feast, R. CaL, 
28 Aug. — Moriarty, Life of St. Augustine, Phila., 
1879; Woods, Augustine and Evolution, N. Y., 
1925; C.E.; U.K. 

Augustine Schoeffler, Blessed, martyr (1822- 
51), b. Mittelbronn, Germany; d. Son-tai, Indo- 
China. After studies in the seminary at Pont a 
Mousson and the Grand Seminary of Nancy, he en- 
tered the Society of Foreign Missions at Paris, 
1846, and was sent to the mission of Tonkin in 
Indo-China, 1847. His Apostolic labors began on his 
voyage to the East, and during his sojourn at 
Hong Kong, early in 1848, he preached to the 
native heathens. Arriving at Tonkin in the midst 
of a terrible persecution, he occupied himself with 
the study of the language and fulfilling the duties 
of the ministry throughout the province of Sudoa. 
In 1851 he penetrated farther into the country and 
labored at Bono, a large Christian parish. Here he 
was betrayed to the soldiers who were executing 
the general edict against Christians, was beheaded, 
and his head was thrown into the Song-Ka River. 
His body was buried in a neighboring village. 
Beatified, 1900. — Wegener, Heroes of the Mission 
Field, Techny, 1924. 

Augustine Webster, Blessed, martyr, Carthu- 
sian, prior of Axholme, Lincolnshire, England, ex- 
ecuted at Tyburn, 1535, for refusing to take the 
Oath of Supremacy under Henry VIII. — C.E., VIII, 
465. 

Augustinian Canons. See Canons Regular of 
St. Augustine. 

Augustinians. See Hermits of St. Augustine. 

Augustinians of the Assumption or Assump- 
TIONISTS, a congregation which had its origin in 



the College of the Assumption, established in 
Nimes, France, in 1843, by Rev. Emmanuel d'Alzon, 
to combat irreligion in Europe and schism in the 
East. It was formally approved by a brief, 26 Nov., 
1864, and suppressed in French territory in 1900. 
At the time of its suppression this congregation 
had 20 Apostolic schools, with hospitals, orphanages, 
and branches in 80 dioceses ; and "La Bonne Presse" 
which issued periodicals, pamphlets, and books in 
great numbers, the chief publication being "La 
Croix." These institutions were all closed but the 
Assumptionists have opened similar ones in Bel- 
gium, England, Italy, the United States, and Chile. 
In the Orient, especially Turkey, 300 Fathers and 
Brothers and nearly 400 Sisters, Oblates of the As- 
sumption, conduct missionary stations, hospitals, 
and schools. The mother-house and the procurator- 
general, formerly at Paris, are now in Rome. 
Statistics: 4 provinces, 3 vicariates, 93 residences, 
864 religious of whom 19 were of the Byzantine 
rite, 105 lay-brothers, and 98 novices. — C.E. 

Augustinism, term used sometimes to designate 
the entire group of philosophical doctrines of St. 
Augustine, but often used exclusively to designate 
his explanation reconciling the theories of the 
Fall, grace, and free will in the solution of the 
problem of freedom and grace, i.e., of the part 
taken by God arid man in the affair of salvation. — 
Pohle-Preuss, Grace, St. L., 1921. 

Augustus, Caius Julius C^sar Octavianus 
(62 B.C.-A.D. 14), Roman emperor at the time of 
the birth of Christ, b. Rome. He was the heir of 
Julius Csesar and formed a triumvirate with An- 
tony and Lepidus to control the affairs of Rome. 
After punishing Csesar's murderers, he eliminated 
Lepidus, and with Antony governed the Roman 
world. Antony's repudiation of his wife Octavia, 
sister of Augustus, led to civil war, and with the 
defeat of the former at Actium, Augustus soon 
welded the Roman state into a compact whole. The 
emperor patronized art and science, and legislated 
to reform public morals. He confirmed Herod as 
King of the Jews, and on Herod's death divided his 
territory among his sons. The census taken by 
Augustus's legate is important in fixing the date 
of the Nativity of Christ (Luke, 2).— C/E. 

Aulneau, Jean Pierre (1705-36), missionary 
and martyr, b. Moutiers-sur-Hay, France; d. Mas- 
sacre Island, Minn. He entered the Society of Jesus, 
1720, arrived in Quebec, 1734, and was sent on a 
mission to the West to study the languages of the 
Cree and Assiniboin nations and to penetrate to 
the Mandan Indians. Arriving at Lake of the 
Woods, in the fall of 1735, he wintered in Fort 
Charles, Minn., and in June, 1736, set out with a 
party to procure provisions and ammunition. They 
were overtaken by Sioux Indians and murdered. 
Relics in the chapel at Fort Charles. 

Aumbry. See Ambry. 

Aureole (Lat., aurum, gold), oval or elliptical 
rays of light such as are at times visible about sun 
or moon, adopted early in the Middle Ages as sym- 
bol of the heavenly honor of the saints, and vary- 
ing in significance under the forms of halo, glory, 
nimbus. Strictly, it should surround the entire fig- 
ure in oval form, or the bust in circular. In early 




*, 




r-el-Ghazal 
Bamakq 

Baugwcolo 
Basutotand 
Benin. Bigltt of 

Brazzaville 

Bukoba 

Buta 

Cameroon 

Cape of Cood Hope, 

District 
Cape of Good Hope, Western 

District 
Congo,. Upper 
Cyrenaica 
Dahomey 
Dar-cs-Salaam 
Delta of the Nile 
Diego Suarcz 
Egypt 
Eritrea 
Eshowe 
Fernando Po . 
Fianarantsoa 
Fort Dauphin, 
Gabon 
Call* 

Gold Coast . 
Gu.nea, French 
Ivory Coast 
Kassai, Upper 
Khartum 
Kilima njaro/- 
Kimbcrley 
Eeopoldville 
Loatlgq 
Majunga 
Mariannhitl 

Morocco, Spanish Distr.ct 
Mwanza 
Natal 

New Antwerp 
Niangara 
Nigeria, Southern 
Nigeria, Western 
■Nile, Delta 
Nile, Upper 
Nynsa ■ 

gfyeri 

Orange River 

Ba*bat 

JLuauda 



AF 










CA 




AUS' 



& ig© H (to I ifeo 



<>Honolulu 



■tr 



ISO tl (4-Q N 



HAWAII 



r / 



F I C 



*'" 5 Gilbert Is. 



Marquesas 25. 






jrid«*s 



Is:"- 



^Tahiti or 
Society Is. 



(CCNT.) 



^Cook Is. > 



raop.c of cAPfl/co.w 



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vM 




180 H 



AUSTRALIA 
Adelaide Cf 

Palmerstoii (Victoria' Cd 
Port Augusta Cf 

Brisbane Ee 

Rockhanrpton 

Hobart Dg 

Melbourne Df 

Ballarat 

Sale 

Sandhurst 

Perth Af 

Geraldton 

A. N. New Norcia 

V. "A. Kimberley 

Mission 

(P. A.) Prysdale River 

Sydney Ef 

Armidale 

Bathurst 

Goulburn 

Lismore 

Mai tl and 

Wagga Wagga 

Wilcannia 



Gg 



Wellington 

Auckland 

Christchurch 

Dunedin 

V. A. Cooktown 

Dutch New Guinea 

Eastern New Guinea 

Fiji Islands 

"Gilbert Islands 

Guam 

Hawaiian Islands 

Mariana, Caroline, and 

Marshall Islands EFb 
.Marquesas Islands MNc 
Navigators' or Samoan 



Dd 
Cc 
Dc 
Gd 
Gbc 
Da 
La 



Islands 
New Caledonia 
New Hebrides 
Oceania, Central 
•Queensland 
Rabau 
Solomon Islands, 

Southern 
Tahiti or Society 

Islands 
P. A. Central New 

Guinea 
Cook Islands 
Solomon Islands-, 

Northern 



Hd 
Fe 
Fd 
Hde 
De 
Ec 

EFc 



Dc 
Le 



Ec 



f- 



40 



150 M 



\ho 



THALIA 



AUREOLE 



81 



AUSTRALIA 



times it was made use of only in representations 
of God. (ed.) 

Aureole of the Saints. According to Thomas 
Aquinas, the three aureoles are particular rewards 
added to the essential happiness of eternity, three 
special points of resemblance to Christ: victory 
over the flesh in virginity, victory over the world 
in martyrdom, victory over the devil in preaching 
truth. — Devine, A Manual of Ascetical Theology, 
Lond., 1902. 

Auricular Confession (Lat., auris, ear), the 
manifestation of one's sins to the priest alone, to 
obtain their sacramental pardon; in contradistinc- 
tion to public confession. The testimony of the first 
three centuries regarding confession, while not 
abundant, affords unquestionable evidence that, al- 
though public confession was very common, auric- 
ular confession, especially of secret sins, was in 
use. Frequently, how- 
ever, auricular confes- 
sion was followed by 
public penance. From 
the 4th century auricu- 
lar confession has been 
the prevailing method 
of the Church.— C.E. ; 
Pohle-Preuss. The Sac- 
raments, III, St. L., 
1924. (f. J. c.) 

Auriesville, site of 
Mohawk village of Os- 
sernenon, Montgomery 
Co., N. Y., where Isaac 
Jogues and his com- 
panions, Goupil and La- 
lande, were martyred by 
Indians, Goupil in 1642, 
Jogues and Lalande, 
1646. In 1884 Fr. Joseph 
Loyzance, S. J., erected a 
small shrine on the hill, 
with the title of Our 
Lady of Martyrs. The 
first pilgrimage was in 
August of that year. — 
C.E. 

Aurora caelum pur= 
purat, or The Morn 

had spread her crimson rays, hymn for Lauds 
from Low Sunday to the Ascension; Ambrosian 
school, 4th or 5th century. It has 27 trans- 
lations. The English title given is by R. Campbell. 
— Britt. 

Aurora jam spargit polum, or The dawn is 
sprinkling in the east, hymn for Lauds on Sat- 
urday; Ambrosian school, 4th or 5th century. It has 
12 translations. The English title given is by E. 
Caswall. — Britt. 

Aurora soli praevia, or O rosy dawn! that 
dost proclaim, hymn for Lauds on 11 Feb., feast 
of the Apparition of the Blessed Virgin. It is not 
known when and by whom it was written. There 
are two translations. The English title given is 
by the Benedictines of Stanbrook.— Britt. 

Austerities (Gr., austeros, harsh, rough), rig- 
orous forms of corporal penance self-imposed by 



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1 llSil^^ 

1 11 W 


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fill 
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ill WlmJi 


IWui 






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holy men and consisting in painful exercises or 
privations, such as long fasts, curtailment of sleep, 
abstention from lawful pleasures, flagellation, to 
repress and to control the animal passions. These 
austerities were sometimes abused; but where they 
were done in private and joined with a sincere at- 
tempt to acquire interior perfection, they were good. 
St. Jerome wrote of them to Celantia: "Be on your 
guard when you begin to mortify your body by 
abstinence and fasting, lest you imagine yourself 
to be perfect and a saint; for perfection does not 
consist in this virtue. It is only a help, a disposi- 
tion, a means for the attainment of true perfec- 
tion." (w. o. B. ) 
Austin Canons. See Canons and Canonesses 
Regular. 

Austin Friars, monastery of Hermits of St. 
Augustine (q.v.) in the heart of the City of Lon- 
don; founded, 1253, by 
Bohun, Earl of Here- 
ford. The ground was 
considered specially 
holy, and many famous 
men were buried there. 
It is now a Dutch Re- 
formed church and the 
name of a street. 

Australasia 
( Southern Asia ) , usu- 
ally signifies Australia, 
Tasmania, and New Zea- 
land; also synonym of 
Oceania, including Mi- 
cronesia, Melanesia, Ma- 
laysia, and Polynesia, 
as well as Australasia 
proper. It is used in this 
wider sense by the Apos- 
tolic Delegation of Aus- 
tralasia, the seat of 
which is at Sydney, 
Australia. See Austra- 
lia. 

Australia, island 
continent of the south- 
ern hemisphere and self- 
governing federal state 
of the British Empire. 
Originally a penal settlement during the Orange 
reign of terror in Ireland towards the end of the 
18th century, many Catholic Irish and subse- 
quently many prominent political offenders were 
deported to the convict establishment at Botany 
Bay. Among the first convicts were three Catho- 
lic priests, but they were not allowed to exer- 
cise their ministry. In 1803 Fr. Dixon was condi- 
tionally emancipated and celebrated the first offi- 
cial Mass in Sydney; his privileges were rescinded 
in the following year. Catholics received no further 
ministrations but were forced to attend Protestant 
services. In 1817 Fr. Jeremiah O'Flynn, appointed 
Prefect Apostolic of New Holland, was arrested soon 
after landing in Australia and deported. This action 
brought matters to the notice of the British au- 
thorities and in 1821 Frs. John J. Therry and 
Philip Conolly were appointed chaplains; but they 



AUSTRALIA 



82 



AUTHORITY 



were hampered by numerous restrictions. In 1833 
the Benedictine Fr. William Ullathorne (after- 
wards Bp. of Birmingham, England) was appointed 
vicar-general of Australia, and in 1834 the main- 
land, Tasmania, and adjacent islands were formed 
into the Vicariate Apostolic of New Holland, with 
John B. Polding, a Benedictine, as first bishop. 
The Church Act, passed in 1836, was Australia's 
first charter of religious liberty, and thenceforth 
the Catholic population increased rapidly, necessi- 
tating the erection of numerous dioceses. In 1882 
education was secularized and state aid withdrawn 
from denominational schools; Catholic primary 
schools, however, proved self-supporting. Patrick 
F. Moran was created Australia's first cardinal 
in 1885, and in 1914 an Apostolic delegate was ap- 
pointed. In Sept., 1928, the International Eucharis- 
tic Congress was held in Sydney. Australia, with the 
state of Tasmania and the territory of Papua, in- 
cluded in 1929 the following ecclesiastical divisions: 
archdioceses of Sydney, Melbourne, Hobart, Ade- 
laide, Perth, Brisbane; dioceses of Maitland, Goul- 
burn, Bathurst, Armidale, Ballarat, Sandhurst, 
Rockhampton, Lismore, Port Augusta, Sale, Wil- 
cannia-Forbes, Geraldton, Wagga- Wagga ; Vicariate 
Apostolic of Cooktown; prefectures Apostolic of 
Kimberley, Papua, Northern Territory; and the 
Abbey Nullius of New Norcia. Each of these is 
treated under its title. In the 780 districts, there 
are 1960 churches, 1116 secular priests, 412 regular 
priests, 776 religious brothers, 8246 nuns, 9 ec- 
clesiastical seminaries, 57 colleges for boys, 201 
boarding-schools for girls, 202 superior day-schools, 
1046 primary schools, 118 charitable institutions, 
185,111 children in Catholic schools, and a Catholic 
population of 1,151,098. — O'Brien, Life of Arch- 
priest Therry, Sydney, 1922; O'Brien, Dawn of 
Catholicism in Australia, Lond., 1928; Australian 
Encyclopedia, s.v. Roman Catholic Church; M. 
Daly, Catholicism in Australasia, in Irish Eccl. 
Record, Dec, 1928; C.E.; U.K. 

Austremonius, Saint, apostle of Auvergne, c. 314. 
He is said to have been first Bp. of Clermont, but 
more probably was a contemporary of the three bishops 
of Aquitaine who attended the Council of Aries, 314. 
Relics at Issoire and Riom. Feast, 1 Nov. — C.E. 

Austria, independent republic of central Eu- 
rope, bounded N. by Germany and Czechoslovakia, 
E. by Czechoslovakia and Hungary, s. by Italy and 
Yugoslavia, w. by Switzerland; area, 369 sq. m. ; 
est. pop., 6,535,759, of whom about 94% are 
Catholic, 2Y2% Protestant, and 3% Jewish. Since 
1919 Austria comprises only the German-speaking 
provinces of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy. 
Austria was included in the Roman provinces of 
Rhaetia, Noricum, and Pannonia, and received 
Christianity with Roman civilization, but after the 
fall of the Empire was overrun by wild Slavonic 
tribes. Reestablished in the 10th century as the 
East Realm or Osterreich of the Holy Roman Em- 
pire, it was closely associated with Bavaria and con- 
verted to Christianity by St. Rupert of Worms. 
Catholicism is the official religion, endowed by the 
state, but freedom of worship for all is secured by 
the Treaty of St. Germain, 1919. Austria comprises 
the following ecclesiastical divisions: 



Year Chs. Pp. Srs. Caths. 

Vienna, A 1469 1,089 1,682 ... 2,596,212 

Linz, D 1785 ... 968 1,151 813,541 

Sankt Polten, 

D 1784 503 969 1,140 643,280 

Salzburg, A. . . 536 335 650 1,074 283,604 

Gurk, D 1072 ... 508 ... 376,051 

Seckau (Graz), 

D 1219 474 975 2,080 960,537 

Wettingen-Mehre- 

rau, A.N. . .. 1227 3 93 

Feldkirch (Yor- 

arlberg), A.A. 1921 

—U.K. 

Authentic, Authenticity (Gr., authentes, real 
author ) , terms applied to : ( 1 ) the Scriptures, be- 
cause its books have been written by the persons 
whose names they bear, because they are genuine 
and trustworthy, officially acknowledged, and ex- 
press faithfully all those things which belong to 
the substance of the Divine writings; (2) the 
document authenticating a relic; (3) four modes 
in Gregorian music. — Grannan, I; Brunsmann- 
Preuss, Fundamental Theology, II, St. L., 1928. 

Author and Finisher of Faith, title of Our 
Lord (Heb., 12, 2). 

Authority (Lat., auctoritas) , the moral right 
to direct the conduct of others and the duty on 
their part of obedience. Authority is a spiritual 
force resting on the freedom of the will and en- 
dowed with a dignity which enables it to yield, 
not to superior might but to superior right. Civil 
authority is the moral power of command (sup- 
ported when need be by physical coercion) which 
the state exercises over its members. It is natural 
to man to live in civil society, and for families to 
unite with others, so that when there is civil so- 
ciety there must be authority. Civil authority origi- 
nates from God since God is the author of nature 
which in turn requires civil authority to be set up 
and obeyed. The state is established by God and did 
not happen by chance or compact, but is a Divine 
and necessary institution. God forbids anarchy and 
is at the back of every state, binding men in 
conscience to observe the laws of the state within 
its competence "that every soul be subject to 
Higher Power for there is no power but from God 
and those that are ordained of God." This princi- 
ple, however, does not justify the theory of the 
"divine right of kings," i.e., from God come the 
kings, and from the kings the laws, and therefore 
subjects have no rights. The theologian Suarez, as 
defender of the rights of the people, argues that 
spiritual authority is not vested in the crown, and 
that it is not immediately the gift of God to the 
king, but given by God to the people collectively and 
by them transmitted or confided to the ruler. 
Civil authority is both natural and universal, 
but the distribution of authority or form of govern- 
ment is a human convention and is subject to change. 
These forms are classified as monarchies, aristocra- 
cies, and democracies. God fixes the principle that 
there must be authority everywhere, and that this 
authority must be obeyed under some form; but it 
is untrue to hold that men are bound to live under 
any particular form of authority, and that it can- 
not be subverted. Authority rules by Divine right 
under whatsoever form it is established, but no 
one form of government is more sacred or more 



AUTHORITY 



83 



AUXILIARY BISHOP 



inviolable than another; hence when a change of 
government is complete the new government rules 
by right of accomplished fact. There are limits, 
however, to civil obedience and to compliance with 
civil authority. The authority of the State is abso- 
lute, i.e., full and complete in its own sphere and 
subordinate to no other authority within that 
sphere. The state, however, is not to be obeyed as 
against God, neither can a state command anything 
and everything; thus to dictate to conscience, to 
interfere with man's eternal destiny, or his rela- 
tion with his Maker, to formulate civil laws in con- 
flict with the moral law, to deny the parents' right 
in the education of the child, and to prevent re- 
ligious instruction are beyond the power of the 
state. The arbitrary use of authority is called 
tyranny and the liberty of the subject is based on 
the doctrine that the state is not omnipotent. 
Neither is it true to hold that man is "all citizen," 
for besides his political interests, he has his 
eternal, domestic, intellectual, and artistic interests. 
According to the theories of Hobbes and Eousseau, 
authority resides in and originates from the com- 
munity, the state is omnipotent, though in its 
origin it is an artificial thing constituted by the 
citizens; while Hobbes holds that authority is 
vested permanently in the individual, Rousseau 
states that this authority is revocable at the will 
of the citizens. Hegel further developed the notion 
of state absolutism in which the citizen is wholly 
subordinated to the civil power. The fallacies that 
"The State is the source of all right and its rights 
are unlimited," and "Authority is nothing else 
than numbers and its rights are unlimited," were 
condemned by Pius IX. The theories would also 
embrace the fallacies that right is necessarily at- 
tached to majorities, that one man is as good as 
another, and that the rule of numerical majority 
is of universal application. Pope Leo XIII in his 
Encyclical, "Immortale Dei," thus sums up the 
true doctrine : "Man's natural instinct moves him 
to live in civil society. Authority no less than 
society itself is natural and therefore has God for 
its author. Hence it follows that public power it- 
self cannot be otherwise than of God." — C.E. ; U.K. ; 
Ryan and Miller, The State and the Church, N. Y., 
1922; Rickaby, Moral Philosophy, N. Y., 1901; 
G'Connell, The Reasonable Limits of State Activi- 
ties, Columbus, 1919. (a. s.) 
Authorized Version. At the beginning of the 
17th century the principal English translation of 
the Scriptures was the one known as the Bishops' 
Bible. This version was so faulty and inaccurate 
that in 1C07, by order of King James I, a thorough 
revision of it was undertaken. Forty-seven scholars 
were appointed to the work, and in less than three 
years they completed their labor, which has since 
been known as the Authorized Version, or the King 
James Bible. By its superior literary qualities and 
the royal favor, it soon became the official Bible 
of the Church of England and the one most com- 
monly used by Protestants throughout the English- 
speaking world. To some extent it is now being dis- 
placed by the Revised Version. The Catholic Church 
cannot sanction, for the use of her children, a 
translation made by men who not only were not 



in sympathy with her teaching, but were imbued 
with a hostile spirit towards her. This spirit is 
evidenced in their "Address to the King," wherein 
they speak of "Popish persons" who "desire still 
to keep the people in ignorance and darkness." — 
C.E. (N. T.) 

Author of Life, The, title of Our Lord (Acts, 
3, 15). 

Auto=da=fe (Port., act of faith), term applied 
to the public ceremony comprehending the official 
and ultimate announcement of a sentence of the 
Inquisition (q.v. ). Features of the ceremony in- 
cluded: a procession to a place specially designated 
in which those to be condemned as guilty of heresy, 
and those to be publicly reprimanded, participated; 
a religious discourse or exhortation followed by the 
swearing in of secular authorities who vowed 
obedience to the inquisitor in matters pertaining to 
putting down heresy; the "decrees of mercy" which 
comprised the remission, alleviation, etc., of sen- 
tences previously imposed, for those who had be- 
come reconciled with the Church; and finally, pro- 
nouncement of sentence on the guilty. These latter 
were then surrendered to the civil power. The 
ceremony attained its height in the 16th century in 
Spain. 

Autocephali (Gr., autokephaloi, independent), 
certain bishops in early Christian times, not sub- 
ject to any patriarch or metropolitan, but dependent 
directly on a triennial provincial synod or on the 
Holy See.— C.E. 

Autos Sacramentales, religious plays per- 
formed in the streets of Spanish cities at Corpus 
Christi. They were supposed to teach Eucharistic 
doctrine, but the religious character was not always 
maintained. The best were written by Lope de 
Vega and Calderon. Abuses connected with them 
were attacked by Moratini, 1762, and they were 
officially suppressed, 1765. — C.E. 

Autun, Inscription of, discovered, 1839, in 
which Pectorius (3rd century) celebrates in Greek 
verse the Ichthus (fish), symbol of the Eucharist: 
"Take the food, honey-sweet, of the redeemer of the 
saints, eat and drink holding the Fish in thy 
hands." 

Auxentius, Saint (d. after 460), archimandrite 
in Bithynia, b. Constantinople. He gave up his 
military career and retired to Mt. Oxia (Koiich- 
dagh), near Chalcedon. Celebrated for austerity and 
miracles he was called to the Council of Chalcedon 
to influence the bishops to acknowledge its decrees. 
After the council he became a recluse on Mt. Sinope 
(Skopas), near Chalcedon. At the foot of the moun- 
tain he founded the nunnery of Trichinarion. Relics, 
near Chalcedon. Feast, 14 Feb. — Butler. 

Auxerre, former diocese, Yonne, France, 
founded by Peregrinus, 258; united to the Arch- 
diocese of Sens, 1821. Of its 105 bishops, 27 were 
saints, including St. Germain. The Council of 
Auxerre, 585 or 578, formulated 45 canons, impor- 
tant as illustrating life among newly-converted 
Christians. Many decrees were directed against 
pagan customs. — C.E., XIII, 718. 

Auxiliary Bishop, one deputed by the Holy See 
to assist the diocesan in the performance of pon- 
tifical functions. As such the auxiliary lacks or- 



AUXILIARY BISHOP 



84 



AVILA 



dinary jurisdiction in the diocese and lias not the 
right of succession to the diocesan see. — C.E.; P.C. 
Augustine. (R. b. m. ) 

Auxilium Christianorum, title in the Litany 
of the Blessed Virgin; also a feast. See Help of 
Christians. 

Avalon, in Welsh mythology, kingdom of the 
dead; afterwards an earthly paradise in the 
western seas; finally in Arthurian romance, the 
last resting-place of heroes, such as King Arthur. 
It has been identified with Glastonbury, England, 
owing to the intimate connection of that place with 
Arthurian legend. 

Avarice (Lat., avere, to crave) or Covetous - 
ness, the inordinate love of temporal goods usually 
estimable in terms of money. This love of money 
becomes inordinate when it makes a man hard- 
hearted, causes him to be niggardly in spending it, 
too eager and absorbed in acquiring and preserving 
it, or prepared to do what is wrong in order to 
obtain it. — Koch-Preuss. (w. J. B. ) 

Avellana, 6th-century collection of canons, 
many of them unique, so called because its oldest 
known MS. was bought for the Abbey of Santa 
Croce Avellana by Peter Damian. 

Ave Maria, first words of the Latin version of 
the Hail Mary. 

Ave Maria, a literary and religious monthly 
Catholic magazine, published by the press of the 
University of Notre Dame du Lac, Indiana. 
Founded 1875 with the financial aid of Empress 
Eugenie of France, it was edited from 1875 to 1929 
by Daniel E. Hudson, C.S.C. ; present editor, 
Eugene Burke, C.S.C. It has had the singular dis- 
tinction of being the fireside Catholic magazine, 
always devotional and scholarly and so judicious 
and eirenic in its criticisms that its genial ex-editor 
will be always regarded as mentor of Catholic 
editors as well as their dean for so long a period. 
No other Catholic periodical in the United States 
has done more to bring out Catholic writers, (ed.) 

Ave Maria (Slovenian), magazine published 
twice monthly in the Slovenian (Yugoslav) lan- 
guage at Lemont, 111., by the Slovenian Franciscan 
Fathers; established, 1910; circulation, 4300. 

Ave Maria Stella, or Hail, thou Star of 
Ocean, hymn for Vespers on feasts of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. It dates at least from the 9th cen- 
tury; the author is unknown. There are 19 transla- 
tions. The English title given is by E. Caswall. — 
Britt. 

Ave Regina Caelorum, or Hail, O Queen of 
heaven, enthroned, antiphon recited from the 
end of Compline on 2 Feb. until Maundy Thursday, 
exclusive. It is uncertain when and by whom it 
was written, but it has been used since the 12th 
century. There are at least five translations. The 
English title given is by E. Caswall. — Britt. 

Averroes (Ibn Roshd; 1126-98), Arabian phi- 
losopher, b. Cordova, Spain; d. Morocco. He is the 
author of an important medical work, and is also 
known for his "Commentaries" on Aristotle and 
original philosophic treatises. Thomas Aquinas, al- 
though refuting him, spoke of his views with re- 
spect. — C.E.; Turner, History of Philosophy, Bost., 
1903. 



Aversion (Lat., a, from; vertere, to turn), one 
of the eleven passions, opposite of desire; a move- 
ment of the appetite, concupiscible, as it is called, 
towards or away from what is good, useful, or 
pleasurable. (ed.) 

Avesta, sacred books of the Parsees. It is the 
main source of our knowledge about the religion 
of the ancient Persians. The term Zend-Avesta is 
often erroneously used to denote the sacred text; 
it is a mistaken inversion of Avistak u Zand, a 
Pahlavi expression signifying text (or law) and 
commentary. — C.E. 

Ave verum Corpus natum, or Hail, true 
Body, truly born, hymn formerly sung at the Eleva- 
tion in the Mass, not found in the Breviary or Missal. 
It was probably written by Pope Innocent VI in the 
14th century. There are 10 translations. The English 
title given is by E. Garesche. — Britt. , 

Aviators. By a decree of 1920, Our Lady of 
Loreto was proclaimed patroness of aviators by 
the Holy See, in reference to the ancient tradition 
that the Holy House of Nazareth was miraculously 
carried through the air by angels. The French avia- 
tor Georges Guynemer, who engaged in 215 aerial 
battles, brought down 54 enemy airplanes, was twice 
wounded, and finally killed in action, was a devout 
Catholic. 

Avignon, residence of the popes 1309-17, city 
in southeastern France, founded by the Romans as 
Avenio, 48 B.C., and given by the Count of Toulouse 
to Pope Gregory IX, 1228. It became independent, 
]239, and thereafter fell to the Kingdom of Naples. 
Pope Clement V established the papacy here in 
1309 and was succeeded by Popes John XXII, Bene- 
dict XII, and Clement VI, but it was not until 
1348 that the latter pope became the temporal 
ruler of Avignon and the surrounding district, 
called the Comtat (county) Venaissin, which he 
bought from the House of Naples for 80,000 gold 
florins. He was succeeded by Innocent VI, Bl. Urban 
V, and Gregory XI, who returned to Pome in 1377. 
The antipopes Pobert of Geneva and Pedro de Luna 
resided at Avignon from 1379 to 1411. Thereafter, 
Avignon was governed by a papal legate, later by 
the "Congregation of Avignon," domiciled in Pome. 
Whenever differences arose between the popes and 
France, the latter occupied Avignon; it was finally 
annexed by the Revolutionists, 1791. There were 
Church councils here in 1080, 1209, and 1457. The 
university was founded by Pope Boniface VIII, 
1303, and suppressed by the French, 1792. The first 
known Bp. of Avignon is Nectarius, 5th century; it 
became an archbishopric, 1475. The 11th-century 
Romanesque cathedral of Notre Dame des Doms 
(Our Lady of the Bishops' Rock) contains the 
papal throne and fine Gothic tombs of John XXII 
and Benedict XII. The Palace of the Popes is a 
14th-century Gothic stronghold with lofty square 
towers; after having been used as military bar- 
racks, it is now the repository of the municipal 
archives.— C.E. ; U.K. 

Avila, University of. The Dominican College of 
St. Thomas at Avila, Spain, was made a university, 
1550. Its work was mainly theological. It declined 
during the 18th century, and was suppressed, 1807. 
—C.E. 



AVITUS 



85 



AZYMITES 



A vitus (Alcimus Ecdicius), Saint (c. 451- 
525), poet, Bp. of Vienne, b. Vienne (now France). 
He opposed Arianism and advocated papal authority 
as the main bulwark of religious unity. He is the 
author of a poem dealing with the scriptural nar- 
rative of original sin, expulsion from paradise, the 
Deluge, and crossing of the Red Sea; Milton made 
use of this in preparing "Paradise Lost." Relics at 
Vienne. Feast, 5 Feb.— C.E. 

Aviz, Order of, military body of Portuguese 
knights, founded, c. 1146; the castle of Aviz was 
their headquarters. They adopted the Cistercian 
rule and became affiliated with the Spanish Knights 
of Calatrava. Under Infante Fernando they achieved 
deeds of valor in Africa. After 1551 the grand 
mastership of the order was vested in the king, 
who used their wealth for his own purposes. The 
knights were dispensed from the vow of celibacy 
in 1492. They were suppressed in 1834. — C.F. 

Avranches ( Abrincal^e ) , former diocese, Man- 
che, France, founded, c. 500, added to Coutances, 
1802. It was an important city of the Gallo-Roman 
period. The Council of Avranches, 1172, imposed 
penance on Henry II of England for the murder 
of Thomas Becket, forbade the conferring of bene- 
fices on children, and recommended observance of 
the Advent fast.— C.E. 

Awl, tool for making holes in leather, in art 
associated as an emblem with St. Benignus. 

Ax, tool or weapon generally with wooden handle 
and edged metal head, in art associated with St. 
Bartholomew, Apostle, probably by analogy for 
knife with which he was slaH ; St. Matthew, 
Apostle, by analogy for sword with which possibly 
he was killed; St. Matthew of Beauvais, beheaded; 
St. Olaf of Norway, who carried an ax in bat- 
tle. 

Axinomancy, divination by ax-heads. 

Ayllon, Lucas Vasquez de (d. 1526), Spanish 
discoverer of Chesapeake Bay. He founded the set- 



tlement of San Miguel de Guandape, near the site 
of Jamestown, Va., 1526.— C.E. 

Ayr, capital of Ayrshire, Scotland. Bruce called 
together the Scottish parliament in the old church 
of St. John, 1315; Dominicans and Franciscan Ob- 
servants had houses here before the Reformation. 
The town is associated with Robert Burns, who was 
born nearby. 

Azarias, Brother (Patrick Francis Mullany; 
1847-93), educator, b. Killenaule, County Tippe- 
rary, Ireland; d. Plattsburg, N. Y. He entered the 
Brothers of the Christian Schools, N. Y., taught 
in Albany, New York, Philadelphia, and Rockhill 
College, Md., of which he became president. Later 
he was professor of literature at the De La Salle 
Institute, New York, and lecturer at the Catholic 
Summer School, Plattsburg. He wrote essays on 
literary subjects. — C.E. 

Azevedo, Luiz de (1573-1634), apostle of the 
Agaus (Nubian tribe), b. at Carrazedo Montenegro, 
Portugal; d. Ethiopia. In 1588 he entered the So- 
ciety of Jesus and in 1605 went to Ethiopia, where 
he spent 29 years on the mission. He compiled an 
Ethiopian grammar and translated the New Testa- 
ment and other works into that tongue. — C.E. 

Azure Vestments. See Blue. 

Azymes (Or., a, without; zyme, leaves), unleav- 
ened or unfermented cakes used by the Jews in 
their sacrifices and religious rites. — C.E.; Fortescue, 
The Mass, N. Y., 1914. 

Azymes, Feast of, Jewish feast, commemorat- 
ing Israel's deliverance from Egypt. It began the 
15th day of Abib (Nisan) and continued for seven 
days. Later it was identified with the feast of the 
Passover. — C.E. 

Azymites, term of reproach used by schismatic 
Eastern Churches, from the 11th century in speak- 
ing of Catholics, Armenians, and Maronites, because 
they celebrate the Holy Eucharist with unleavened 
bread.— C.E. 



B 



B. = beatus (blessed). 

Baal, ba/al (Heb., lord, owner; pi., Baale or Baa- 
lim) , the chief divinity, the sun god, of the 
Chanaanites and the Arameans; also the name of 
the principal deity worshiped by certain nations or 
communities. The Israelites worshiped Baal in the 
days of King Achab or Ahab (4 Kings, 3 and 10). 
In some places he had a female consort named 
Baaloth (Gr., Beltis).— C.E. (a.h.) 

Babine Indians ("big lips," from custom of 
wearing labrets), a Dene tribe of British Columbia, 
included under general term Takulli. They lived by 
hunting and fishing, had a matriarchal system and 
totems, and were ruled by petty chiefs who owned 
the land. Polygamy was practised. They believed in 
immortality and buried their dead. Their first con- 
tact with whites was in 1812. In 1846 they were 
evangelized by Fr. Nobili. In 1873 a mission was 
established at Stuart Lake by Fr. Herbomez. 
Present number about 610, all Catholic. 

Babinet, ba-be-na/, Jacques (1794-1872), physi- 
cist, inventor of the Babinet compensator, b. 
Lusignan, France; d. Paris. He is best known for 
his work in optics. His compensator is used in the 
study of elliptically polarized light. He also in- 
vented an air-pump, a hygrometer, and a goniom- 
eter.— C.E. 

Babism (Ar., bab, gate, i.e., through none other 
than which may man find salvation), the name of a 
religious, political, and social sect or system 
founded at Shiraz, Persia, c. 1843, by Mirza AH 
Mohammed, who assumed the name Bab-ed-Din 
(gate of faith). It is a pantheistic Mohammedanism 
which is a development of certain tenets of Islam, 
colored with Gnosticism, Buddhism, and Judaism. 
It encourages monogamy and abstention from al- 
cohol, and forbids asceticism, mendicancy, and 
concubinage. 

Babylon (As., bab-ili, gate of the god), ancient 
city on the Euphrates River, about 60 m. s. of 
Baghdad. As early as 2872 B.C. it was the capital 
of Sargon of Agade. From 2250 it was the capital 
of Babylonia and the holy city of western Asia. 
After being destroyed by Sennacherib, 689 B.C., it 
was rebuilt by his successor. After the downfall of 
Assyria, Babylon again, under Nabopolassar, became 
the seat of empire. Nabuchodonosor made it one of 
the wonders of the world. It was captured by 
Cyrus, 538 B.C. In 275 B.C. it was destroyed and 
the inhabitants transferred to Seleucia. Among its 
buildings were the temples of E-Zida and E-Saggila. 
It is mentioned in Apocalypse, 17, as the city of 
abominations. The Patriarchate of Babylon was 
founded, 1681, for the Chaldean Rite. Present pa- 
triarch, appointed, 1900, Emmanuel Thomas, resid- 
ing at Mosul, Iraq. Churches, 27; priests, secular, 
46; priests, regular, 39; schools, 17; Catholics, 31, 
900.— U.K. 



86 



Babylonia, ancient empire in Asia in the region 
of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Semitic in 
language and civilization, and founded c. 2800 B.C. 
by Sargon I, its greatest ruler was Hammurabi (c. 
2100 B.C.) who united Babylonia and became fa- 
mous for the exhaustive code of civil and criminal 
law compiled during his reign. In 710 B.C. Baby- 
lonia was subjugated by Sargon II of Assyria, but 
regained independence c. 626 B.C. under Nabopolas- 
sar whose son Nabuchodonosor conquered Syria, 
destroyed Jerusalem (586 B.C.), and subjugated 
Tyre. After him the empire declined, becoming 
a province of Persia upon the victory of Cyrus 
the Great in 538 B.C. Babylon, ancient capital of 
Babylonia, is regarded as the site of the Tower of 
Babel (q.v.) .— C.E.; U.K. 

Babylonian Captivity, the 70 years of exile 
(606-536 B.C.) of the inhabitants of Judea in Baby- 
lonia. Three invasions of Judea by Nabuchodonosor 
are recorded (4 Kings, 24 and 25; 2 Par., 36). 
After each of these a large portion of the popula- 
tion of Jerusalem and of other Judean cities was 
carried away to the banks of the Euphrates. There 
the exiles seem to have enjoyed a considerable 
amount of liberty. They preserved their old clan 
relations (1 Esd., 2); had their own judges and 
magistrates (Jer., 29; Dan., 13) ; and some rose 
to positions of honor and responsibility (Dan., 1; 
Jer., 52; Esth., 2). Cyrus gave permission for the 
exiles to return to Palestine to rebuild Jerusalem 
and the Temple, and a large number (42,360 Jews 
and 7357 servants) availed themselves of it (1 
Esd., 2). Other expeditions followed under Esdras 
and Nehemias (1 Esd., 7-10; 2 Esd., 1-13). (h. w.) 

Bachelor (M.L., baccalarius, cowherd, or hus- 
bandman). (1) A young knight following the ban- 
ner of another. (2) An apprentice of a guild, also 
a religious novice. (3) A holder of the lowest de- 
gree granted by a university (Bachelor of Arts); 
first applied in 1231 to students who, while study- 
ing for the Master's degree, were granted the privi- 
lege of teaching younger students after passing an 
examination called "determination" which proved 
their fitness to enter upon the second stage of the 
mastership. At Paris and on the Continent, in the 
13th century, students "determined" after one or 
two years, but at Oxford and Cambridge the course 
was four years. The arts curriculum consisting in 
medieval times of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, 
has undergone many changes resulting from the 
humanistic movement, the development of scientific 
knowledge, and the institution of the elective sys- 
tem. (4) An unmarried man. — C.E., I, 756; U.K. 

Bacon (Southwell), Nathaniel (1598-1676), 
bibliographer, b. Norfolk, England; d. Rome. Or- 
dained, 1622, he entered the Society of Jesus two 
years later, and became procurator and minister of 
the English College at Rome. Upon his retirement 



BACON 



87 



BAHAMAS 




BOGER BACON 



from the office of secretary to the general of the 
society, which he filled, 1647-68, he commenced his 
important "Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu," 
published, 1676. Based on the earlier works of Frs. 
Ribadeneira and Alegambe, it is a work of accurate 
research, marked by tolerant judgment and careful 
style.— C.E. 

Bacon, Roger (c. 1214-c. 1294), philosopher and 
scientist, b. near llchester, Dorsetshire, England; d. 
Oxford. He studied in Oxford and later in Paris, 
1244-52. Returning to Oxford, he taught there until 
1257 when his superiors obliged him to discontinue. 

He had become a 
Franciscan, but just 
when is not known. 
Jerome de Ascoli, 
the General of the 
Franciscans, con- 
demned the writings 
of Roger Bacon in 
1278, and ordered 
him confined in a 
monastery. How long 
he was detained is 
unknown, but he was 
free in 1292 when 
his "Compendium of 
Theology" appeared. 
His most noted 
works are the "Opus Majus," "Opus Minus," and 
"Opus Tertium," comprising recommendations for 
reform in ecclesiastical studies and in the system 
of education. He was more interested in mathe- 
matics, the natural sciences, and languages than 
many of his great contemporaries, and placed great 
emphasis on the experimental sciences. In his writ- 
ings he even mentions automobiles and flying ma- 
chines.— C.E. ; U.K.; DeWulf, History of Mediaeval 
Philosophy, Lond., 1926. (j. J. r.) 

Badin, ba-dan, Stephen Theodore (1768-1853), 
pioneer missionary in Kentucky, b. Orleans, France; 
d. Cincinnati, 0. He entered the Sulpician Seminary 
at Orleans, completing his studies in America, 
where he was ordained, the first in the United 
States, 25 May, 1793. Appointed to the Kentucky 
mission, he labored for many years, forming con- 
gregations and building churches. After a sojourn 
in France, 1819-28, he returned to America and 
undertook missionary work among the Pottowat- 
tomies, being named Vicar-General of Kentucky, 
1837. In 1846 he became rector of a French mission 
in Illinois. His published works include a history 
of the Kentucky missions, two Latin poems, and 
"Letters to an Episcopalian Friend." — C.E.; Shea. 
Baegert, ba'gert, Johann Jakob (1717-77), Jes- 
uit missionary and ethnographer, b. Schlettstadt, 
Alsace; d. Neuburg, Bavaria. He spent 19 years on 
the Californian mission, till the expulsion of the 
Jesuits, 1767. In 1773 he published a work on 
Lower California, which gives an account of the 
topography, the Indian customs and language, and 
the history of the mission. A revised edition was 
issued by the Smithsonian Institution, 1863-64. — 
C.E. 

Baeumer, Suitbert (1845-94), liturgist, b. 
Leuchtenberg, Germany; d. Freiburg. After studying 



at Bonn and Tubingen, he entered the Benedictine 
Abbey of Beuron, 1865, and was ordained, 1869. 
Besides acting as critical adviser of the printing 
house of Desclee, Lefebvre, and associates at Tour- 
nai for their editions of the Missal, Breviary, 
Ritual, and Pontifical, Dom Baeumer wrote several 
valuable essays on liturgical subjects, a treatise on 
the history and content of the Apostles Creed 
(1893), and a classical history of the Breviary in 
which he condensed the labors of former students of 
the Breviary and the best critical results of the 
modern school of historical liturgists. — C.E. 

Bagamoyo, ba-ga-mo'yo, Vicariate Apostolic 
of, East Africa, established, 1906; entrusted to the 
Fathers of the Holy Ghost. Vicars Apostolic: Fran- 
cis Vogt (1906-23) and Bartholomew Wilson 
(1925). Churches and chapels, 26; priests, 19; 
schools, 367; institutions, 15; Catholics, 20,000. 

Baghdad, Archdiocese of, Mesopotamia (Iraq), 
see of the Latin and Syrian Rites. ( 1 ) In the Latin 
Rite the see is directly dependent on the Holy See. 
Founded at Ispahan, 1629, transferred to Baghdad, 
1742, and raised to an archbishopric, 1848, it com- 
prises the missions of Baghdad, founded, 1721, and 
entrusted to the Discalced Carmelites, and that of 
Mosul, dating from 1750 and placed in care of the 
Dominicans. The archiepiscopal residence is at 
Mosul. Francis Berre was appointed to the see, 
1921, succeeding John Drure, archbishop from 1902. 
Catholics, 54,000. (2) The see of the Syrian Rite 
was established in 1862, and comprises Baghdad 
and Bassorah. Churches, 2 ; priests, 5 ; Catholics, 
1300. 

Bahamas, colony of the British Empire, in the 
British West Indies, administered by a governor 
and commander-in-chief, assisted by an executive 
council, a legislative council, and a representative 
assembly; area, 4404 sq. m.; est. pop., 58,101. The 
first time a Catholic priest visited the Bahamas 
was in 1845 when Fr. Duquesney sojourned six 
weeks at Nassau and conducted services in a pri- 
vate residence for a few Catholic Cubans and Hai- 
tians. In 1863 Rev. J. W. Cummings of New York, • 
and in 1865 Rev. T. Byrne, each spent several weeks 
in Nassau and ministered to the settlers. Begin- 
ning in the year 1866, Rev. Dr. Nelligan of Charles- 
ton paid regular visits to the islands and they were 
considered part of the Diocese of Charleston, S. C. 
In 1883 Bp. H. P. Northrop stopped here, and at 
his suggestion the Bahamas were placed under the 
jurisdiction of the Abp. of New York. In Feb., 1885, 
Rev. C. G. O'Keeffe of New York, then in Nassau, 
assembled the Catholics, and on 25 Aug., 1885, the 
cornerstone of the first Catholic church in the 
Bahamas was laid. Fr. O'Keeffe was in charge until 
1889, and in Oct. of that year Rev. D. P. O'Flynn 
arrived in Nassau with four Sisters of Charity 
from Mount St. Vincent, N. Y.. and immediately 
erected a free school for colored pupils, and a pri- 
vate school. A new mission was organized at Sal- 
vador Point, Andros Island, in 1893, and in 1897 
the Sacred Heart mission was founded in the eastern 
part of Nassau. During the first quarter of the 
20th century the Catholic Church here has pro- 
gressed owing to the zealous labors of the Bene- 
dictine Fathers who have opened new churches, 



BAHAMAS 



BALBINA 



missions, and schools throughout the islands. The 
Bahamas belong ecclesiastically to the Archdiocese 
of New York (q.v. ). In 1929 there were 5 churches, 
10 mission stations, 5 regular clergy and the 
vicar forane, 1 academy, 16 primary schools, 1 
nursery and dispensary, and about 360 Catholics. 
—U.K. 

Bahia, ba-e'a (Port., bay), or Sao Salvador pa 
Bahia de Todos os Santos, city, capital of the 
state of the same name, Brazil. Thome de Sousa, 
first governor of Brazil, arrived at Bahia in 1549 
with six Jesuits, the first to come to the New 
World, and two days later the first Mass was said 
there. In 1553 Ven. Jose Anchieta, S.J., the apostle 
of Brazil, founded a native mission near the city. 
The seminary at Bahia was founded by Damasus 
de Abreu Vieira, O.F.M., and in 1583 the Benedic- 
tines established the Abbey of Sao Sebastiao. In 
1581 there were 62 churches in Bahia, and the 
neighboring region. In the beginning of the 19th 
century Bahia contained houses of the Benedictines, 
Franciscans, Carmelites, Augustinians, Italian Ca- 
puchins, and the Mendicants of the Holy Land, also 
the Carmelite, Trinitarian, Franciscan, and Domin- 
ican tertiaries, a Mercy hospital, a leper hospital, 
two orphanages, and many schools. It is the seat of 
an archbishop. Pop, 355,871. 

Bahr=el=dazal, Vicariate Apostolic of, Suda- 
nese Africa, established as a prefecture Apostolic, 
1913, and raised to a vicariate, 1917; comprises the 
territory bounded n. by 10° lat., E. by the Anglo- 
Ethiopian frontier, w. by the Anglo-Belgian fron- 
tier, s. by the White Nile and Lake Albert; en- 
trusted to the Sons of the Sacred Heart of Verona. 
Vicar Apostolic, Mgr. Antonio Stoppani (1917) ; 
residence at Wau. Churches, 13; priests, 40; 
schools, 125; Catholics, 3500. 

Bahr=el=Gebel, Prefecture Apostolic of, Cen- 
tral Africa (British possession); established, 1927; 
entrusted to the Sons of the Sacred Heart of 
Verona. Prefect Apostolic, Joseph Zambonardi 
(1928). 

Baithen (Baithen Mor), Saint, abbot (536- 
599). Of noble Irish family, he became a disciple 
of St. Columba, by whom he was appointed abbot 
of the monastery founded by St. Comgall on Tiree 
island, Scotland. He succeeded Columba as Abbot 
of Iona in 596 by the wish of the latter. Feast, 
6 Oct.— C.E. 

Baius (de Bay), Michel (1513-89), theologian, 
author of a system known as Baianism, b. Melin, 
Belgium; d. Louvain. Ordained in 1541, he taught 
philosophy at Louvain, where he became president 
of the College Adrien and professor of Scripture. 
His system, which ignored the supernatural, was a 
mixture of Pelagianism and Calvinism. About 1559 
propositions from his lectures were condemned by 
the Sorbonne, and later by Pope Pius V. Baius 
finally submitted to Gregory XIII, 1579, but his 
teachings had prepared the way for Jansenism. — 
C.E. 

Baker, David Augustine (1575-1641), mystic 
and ascetical writer, b. Abergavenny, England; d. 
London. He became a Catholic, and later a Bene- 
dictine (1605), first, of the Cassinese Congregation 
in England, but afterward of the English Congre- 




DAVID AUGUSTINE 
BAKER 



gation. In collaboration with Frs. Jones and Clem- 
ent Reyner, he published "Apostolatus Benedictin- 
orum in Anglia" (Benedictine Apostolate in Eng- 
land). While spiritual director of a Benedictine 
convent of nuns at Cambrai (1624-33), he wrote 
many ascetical treatises, an abstract of which is 
contained in his a Sancta So- 
phia." In 1633 he removed to 
Douai, whence he proceeded 
to London, where he was sub- 
jected to persecution, and 
died of the plague. — C.E. 

Baker, Francis As- 
bury (1820-65), co-founder 
of the Paulist Institute, b. 
Baltimore, Md. He became 
an Episcopalian minister, 
1839; was converted as a 
result of the Oxford Move- 
ment, 1853; entered the 
Redemptorists ; and was 
ordained priest, 1856. 

Later he severed his connection with the Redemp- 
torists to assist in establishing the well-known 
Paulist Institute, which is largely indebted to him 
for its impressive rubrical observance and its 
tradition of short practical sermons; his own are 
models of lucidity and 
neatness. — C.E. 
Baker City, 



Diocese 
oe, comprises central and 
eastern Oregon; area, 68,- 
000 sq. m.; established, 
1903; suffragan of Oregon. 
Bishops : Charles O'Reilly 
(1903-18) ; Joseph Mc- 
Grath (1919). Churches, 
54; priests, secular, 18; 
priests, regular, 9; relig- 
ious women, 117; acade- 
mies, 5; industrial school, 
1 ; students attending Cath- 
institutions, 3 ; Catholic, 




FRANCIS ASBURY BAKER 



101£ 



olic schools, 
7851. 

Balaam, ba'lam, a prophet in Old Testament his- 
tory. As he was a sorcerer of wide repute, the help 
of his curses was invoked by King Balac of Moab 
against the hosts of Israel who were massing on 
the Dead Sea and the Jordan. On the road to Balac, 
Balaam beat the ass he rode for starting in fear 
from the roadway. The ass startled him by rebuk- 
ing him for his cruelty. He then suddenly became 
aware of the presence of an angel who warned him 
not to disobey God. All his efforts at enchantment 
against Israel only ended in multiplied benedictions 
on the Hebrews. His seer's vision showed him a 
glorious star and a mighty scepter to rise out of 
Jacob. By his advice, however, women were used 
to seduce the Hebrews into idolatry, not without 
success. In the resulting war many of the chosen 
people as well as many of the Madianites, with 
Balac and Balaam, lost their lives (Num., 22-24 
and 31). — C.E. (j. m. mcd.) 

Balbina, Saint, virgin, martyr (130). She is be- 
lieved to have been the daughter of the tribune 
and martyr, St. Quirinus. Her relics are claimed 



BALBINA 



89 



BALMES 



to be in the cathedral at Cologne. Feast, 31 March. 
—C.E. 

Baldachinum, a dome-like canopy in wood, 
stone, or metal erected over a high altar, either 
supported by columns or suspended by a chain; 
also known as a ciborium. It originated in the 
altar-canopy, a square covering suspended over the 
altar to protect it from dust or material falling 
from the ceiling. The most 
notable example is that of 
St. Peter's in Rome, de- 
signed by Bernini for Ur- 
ban VIII. The name is de- 
rived from Baldocco, Italian 
form for Baghdad, whence 
came precious materials used 
for these canopies. The term 
is also applied to movable 
canopies which are used in 
processions or to those 
placed over an episcopal 
throne. — C.E. 

Balde, bal'da, Jakob 
(1604-68), Latinist and 
poet, b. Ensisheim, Alsace ; d. 
Neuberg, Germany. He en- 
tered the Society of Jesus, 
1624. A notable lyric poet, 
he is the author of several 
odes to the Blessed Virgin. 
His works, which include 
epics, satires, and dramas, 
remarkable for his mastery 
of classical Latin, won him 
the title of "the German 
Horace/*' "Carmen saeculare," in imitation of Hor- 
ace, is a panegyric on the missionary achievements 
of the Society of Jesus. The only complete edition 
of his writings was published at Munich, 1729. — 
C.E. 

Baldred, Saint, Bp. of Glasgow, d. Aldhame, 
Haddingtonshire, Scotland, c. 608. He was of Irish 
ancestry, and succeeded St. Kentigern in the See 
of Glasgow. The disturbed conditions of the time 
forced him to retire from his see, and he is said 
to have ended his life as a hermit. He has often 
been confounded with the hermit Baldred, or Bal- 
therus (d. c. 756), who was associated with the 
See of Lindisfarne. Relics in various churches 
throughout Scotland. Feast, 6 March. — C.E. 

Baldwin of Canterbury (d. 1190), archbishop, 
b. probably near Exeter, England; d. Acre, Pales- 
tine. He was Abbot of the Cistercian Abbey of Ford, 
in Devonshire. Consecrated Bp. of Worcester, he 
was elected Abp. of Canterbury, 1180. He preached 
the Third Crusade, and set out for the Holy Land, 
1190. While there he acted as vicegerent of the 
patriarch. He died during the siege of Acre. — C.E. 

Ball and the Cross, The, the title of a fantas- 
tic and symbolical novel by G. K. Chesterton 
(Lond., 1910), in which Catholicism and atheism* 
are opposed, first in the persons of an antiquated 
monk and a "Professor Lucifer," and, second, in 
those of a Highland Catholic and a London atheist. 
The title, suggested by the ball on St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral and the cross on the Westminster dome, is 




ALTAR WITH BALDACHINUM 



also the title of a caption for an editorial section of 
the Catholic World.— Catholic World, Sept., 1910. 
Ballarat, Diocese of, Australia, comprises the 
western part of the state of Victoria; established, 
1874; suffragan of Melbourne. Fr. Patrick Dunne 
was the first priest appointed to the region. Bish- 
ops: Michael O'Connor (1874-83); James Moore 
(1884-1904); Joseph Higgins (1905-15), and Dan- 
iel Foley (1916). Churches, 
173; priests, secular, 77; 
priests, regular, 8; religious 
women, 344; colleges, 2; 
high schools, 12; primary 
schools, 59 ; boarding 
schools, 10; institutions, 3; 
Catholics, 59,696. 

Ballerini, Antonio 
(1805-81), Jesuit canonist, 
b. Medicina, Italy; d. Rome. 
Professor of moral theology 
at the Roman College, he 
took a prominent part in the 
controversy on Rosmini and 
St. Alphonsus Liguori, and 
contributed valuable trea- 
tises on the Immaculate 
Conception. 

Ballerini, Pietro (1698- 
1769), theologian and canon- 
ist, b. Verona, Italy. He 
wrote a condemnation of 
usury, defended the Proba- 
biliorist theory in morals, 
and edited the summce of 
Sts. Antoninus and Ray- 
mond. His masterpiece, executed at the desire of 
Benedict XIV to refute the defective version of 
Quesnel, is a complete edition of the works of St. 
Leo the Great. — C.E. 

— Girolamo (1702-81), theologian and canonist, 
brother of preceding. He edited the works of Card. 
Noris of Verona, of Matteo Giberti, Bp. of Verona, 
and the sermons of 
St. Zeno.— C.E. 

Balm or Balsam, 
an aromatic resin 
from the terebinth 
tree and other 
plants; it is mixed 
with the olive oil 
which is blessed as 
the Holy Chrism. It 
symbolizes the sweet 
odor of virtue. — C.E., 
II, 226. (J. F. s.) 

Balmes, bal'mes, 
Jaime Luciano (1810-48), priest and philoso- 
pher, b. Vich, Spain; d. there. He was edu- 
cated at Vich and at Cervera. His "Funda- 
mental Philosophy," an exposition of St. Thomas's 
system in the light of 19th-century intellectual con- 
ditions, won for him a place among the philosophers 
of modern times. "Protestantism Compared with 
Catholicism in Their Relations with European 
Civilization" (1844), a reply to Guizot's "History 
of Civilization in Europe," is a philosophy of Chris- 




JAIME balmes 



BALMES 



90 



BALTIMORE 



tianity, with a critical analysis of the basic prin- 
ciples and influence of the two systems of religion. 
— C.E. (ed.) 

Baltasar (Greek and Latin name for the Hebrew 
Aramaic, Belsiiazzar; Babylonian, Belshartjsur, 
"Bel protect the king"), according to the Bible the 
son of Nabuchodonosor, and the last king of Baby- 
lon. While he was giving a banquet a mysterious 
hand wrote on the wall the words, Mane, Thecel, 
Phares, interpreted by Daniel as : "God hath num- 
bered thy kingdom and hath finished it; thou art 
weighed in the balance and art found wanting; thy 
kingdom is divided and is given to the Medes and 
Persians" (Dan., 5). That night Darius and the 
Medes invaded the city and Baltasar was slain. 
Berosus, Herodotus, and the cuneiform inscription 
seem to agree on Nabonidus as the name of the last 
king of Babylon. Josephus calls Baltasar his son 
and a grandson 
of Nabuchodo- 
nosor. Several 
cuneiform in- 
scriptions tell 
of Baltasar, so- 
called son of 
Nabonidus, leas- 
ing a house, pur- 
chasing wool, 
loaning money, 
residing in 
Tema, or with 
his army in Ac- 
ciad, fleeing from 
S i p p a r , and 
finally being im- 
prisoned in Bab- 
ylon.— C.E. 

Baltimore, 
city, Maryland, 
named for the Catholic founder of Maryland, Cecil 
Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, and see of the oldest 
diocese of the Catholic Church in the United States. 
The first white man settled on the site in 1682, and 
the town was planned and named in 1730. Complete 
religious liberty was enjoyed until seizure of the gov- 
ernment by the Puritans (1652-58), after which it 
was restored until 1692. The first German Catholic 
congregation was established in 1702, and in 1755 
nine hundred Catholic Acadians went to Maryland, 
and though Catholics were forbidden to harbor them 
they obtained an unfinished house in Baltimore to 
serve as a chapel. A Catholic school established 
in the city in 1757 was forced to close by the vio- 
lent persecution of Protestant clergymen. The mis- 
sion at Baltimore was first attended by priests 
from the Hickory Mission (founded 1720), and in 
1766 the Jesuits arrived. The church was subject to 
English religious superiors until in 1784 Rev. John 
Carroll, brother of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
was appointed prefect Apostolic for the United 
States. He established residence in Baltimore c. 
1785, and was consecrated bishop in 1790. He 
established a house of Sulpicians (St. Mary's Sem- 
inary) in 1791, and in 1793 the first priest was or- 
dained in the city. In 1791 the first diocesan synod 
in the United States was held in the bishop's house 



BALTIMORE S FIRST CHURCH 



in Baltimore. Carroll officiated in St. Peter's church, 
built c. 1770, until the erection of the new cathe- 
dral of the Assumption in Grecian Ionic style, de- 
signed by Benjamin Latrobe, a Protestant friend of 
Bishop Carroll, who performed his services gratui- 
tously. Baltimore was made an archdiocese in 1808. 
Begun in 1806, the cathedral was completed in 
1821, consecrated in 1873, and within its walls have 
convened three plenary councils, ten provincial 
councils, the first seven of which were practically 
plenary for the United States, and nine diocesan 
synods. The First Plenary Council (1852) pro- 
claimed allegiance to the pope and belief in the 
entire Catholic Faith, declared enactments of the 
seven provincial councils obligatory for all dio- 
ceses in the country, prescribed the Roman Ritual 
and Baltimore Ceremonial, and adopted various 
measures for parochial and diocesan government. 

The Second Ple- 
nary Council 
(1866) declared 
the Catholic doc- 
trine on Divine 
Revelation, the 
one Church of 
Christ, nature 
and necessity of 
faith, the Holy 
Scripture, the 
Holy Trinity, 
the future life, 
and veneration 
of the Blessed 
Virgin and the 
saints; adopted 
regulations on 
the hierarchy 
and government 
of the Church, 
ecclesiastical persons, ecclesiastical property, the 
sacraments, Divine worship, uniformity of discipline, 
and education of youth. The Third Plenary Council 
(1884) made further regulations for parochial and 
diocesan government, the sacraments, education of 
the clergy and Catholic youth, church property, and 
ecclesiastical trials; decreed six holy days of obliga- 
tion for the country, appointed a commission to pre- 
pare a catechism for general use, to be obligatory 
when published, and signed the postulation for the 
introduction of the cause of the beatification of the 
Jesuit martyrs Isaac Jogues and Rene Goupil and 
the Iroquois virgin Catherine Tekakwitha. Baltimore 
has been the seat of a line of illustrious arch- 
bishops, including Kenrick, Spalding, and Gibbons, 
whose personal popularity and love of American 
institutions disarmed much prejudice and put the 
Church in a new light before many who had mis- 
understood its teaching and position. Parishioners 
of the cathedral have included the most distin- 
guished Catholics of their times, and some of the 
•most prominent figures in American history, notably 
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and Chief Justice Roger 
Brooke Taney. An undenominational college was 
conducted under the auspices of St. Mary's Sem- 
inary of St. Sulpice from 1803 until 1852 when 




BALTIMORE 



91 



BANEZ 



Loyola College was founded by the Jesuits. St. Pat- 
rick's school, begun by Rev. John Moranville 
(d. 1824) preceded all public schools in the city. 
In 1828 the Colored Oblate Sisters of Providence 
were founded by Rev. Jacques Joubert, and in 1831 
the Carmelites arrived in Baltimore. The Jesuits 
were formally established there in 1833, and in the 
same year Abp. Whitfield erected from his private 
fortune St. James's church for English-speaking 
Catholics, which passed later to the Redemptorists 
who built there the first convent of their order in 
the United States. The Visitation Nuns were estab- 
lished in 1837 under Mother Juliana Matthews, Sis- 
ters of Notre Dame, 1847, of Mercy, 1855, of the 
Good Shepherd, 1864, in a home donated by Mrs. 
Emily Mactavish, Little Sisters of the Poor, 1869. 
St. Francis Xavier's church for colored Catholics 
was dedicated in 1864 and placed in charge of the 
Josephites brought from Mill Hill, England (1871). 
On the occasion of the diocesan centenary (1889) 
leading Catholic laymen participated in a Catholic 
congress, the first in the United States. There are 
60 Catholic churches in the city and 56 parochial 
schools.— C.E.; U.K. 

Baltimore, Archdiocese of, Maryland; em- 
braces all the counties of Maryland west of Chesa- 
peake Bay, and the District of Columbia; area, 
12,862 sq. m. ; diocese, 1789; archdiocese, 1808; suf- 
fragans: Charleston, Raleigh, Richmond, Savannah, 
St. Augustine, Wheeling, Wilmington, and the 
Abbey Nullius of Belmont. Bishops: John Carroll 
(1790-1815), Leonard Neale (1800-17), Ambrose 
Marechal (1817-28), James Whitfield (1828-34), 
Samuel Eccleston (1834-51), Francis P. Kenrick 
(1851-63), Martin J. Spalding (1864-72), James R. 
Bayley (1872-77), James Cardinal Gibbons (1877- 
1921), Michael J. Curley (1921). Churches, 242; 
priests, secular, 260 ; priests, regular, 540 ; religious 
women, 2177; universities, 2; seminaries, 2; col- 
leges, 8; academies, 27; elementary schools, 180; 
pupils at elementary schools, 47,006; institutions, 
40; Catholics, 304,526. 

Baltimore, Lords. See Calvert. 

Baluze, ba-luz, Etienne (1630-1718), historian, 
b. Tulle, France; d. Paris. A critical student of 
the origins, customs, and institutions of the 
French nation, his writings were based solely on 
genuine documents and original sources, and stim- 
ulated a scientific spirit in historical research. 
While librarian to Colbert he amassed a quan- 
tity of material of the greatest use to 19th- 
century historians. His chief writings are: "The 
Capitularies of the Frankish Kings"; "The Works 
of Marius Mercator"; and "Lives of the Avignon 
Popes."— C.E. 

Bamberg, city, Bavaria, and former principality 
of the Holy Roman Empire. It grew up in the early 
10th century around the Castle of Babenburg and 
was the seat of a bishopric erected by Emperor 
Henry II (1008) who gave large temporal posses- 
sions to the diocese. Gifts from princes and em- 
perors increased the territory until it included many 
estates in the Duchies of Carinthia, Salzburg, the 
Upper Palatinate, in Thuringia, and on the Danube, 
and the granting of many privileges established the 
secular power of the bishops. From the 13th cen- 




tury, a succession of 63 bishops, among whom were 
Luidger (1040-65; later Pope Clement II) and 
St. Otto I (1102-39), ruled this principality as 
princes of the empire, exercising temporal juris- 
diction, disturbed at times by revolts in the city, 
over a territory of about 2000 sq. m. In 1802 Ba- 
varia seized the prince-bishopric, then measuring 
1276 sq. m. with a population of 207,000, from the 
last prince-bishop, Franz von Buseck, and seculari- 
zation was accomplished in 1803, the territory pass- 
ing to the Elector of Bavaria. By the terms of the 
Concordat between Rome and Bavaria, 1817, the 
present Archdiocese of Bamberg was erected. Be- 
sides the cathedral built by St. Otto and completed 
in its present Romanesque 
form in the 13th century, 
there are the 11th-century 
basilica of St. James, the 
12th-century abbey -church 
of St. Michael, and the [ 
palace of the prince- 
bishops built in 1695 by 
Lot hair Franz. — C.E.; 
U.K. 

Bambino (It., child), a 
figure of the Infant Jesus, 

usually of wax, represented as in the manger 
or crib at Bethlehem, and exposed in Catholic 
churches from Christmas to Epiphany. It owes its 
origin to the devotion of St. Francis of Assisi in 
the early 13th century. II Santo or Santissimo 
Bambino is the name given to a jeweled, wooden 
figure of the Infant Saviour in the Franciscan 
church of Ara Coeli, Rome. According to legend it 
was brought from the Holy Land about 1647. It is 
carried in procession on Christmas Day as well as 
on the Epiphany, and is reputed to possess miracu- 
lous powers. Of the various other celebrated 
bambini the most notable are in the Trappist mon- 
asteries at Kensington, London, Staplehill in Dorset, 
and Mount St. Bernard in Leicestershire, Eng- 
land. * 

Bancroft, George (1800-91), historian and 
statesman, b. Worcester, Mass.; d. Washington, 
D. C. As secretary of the navy, 1845, he built the 
Naval Academy at Annapolis, and as temporary sec- 
retary of war, 1846, he issued the order to Gen. 
Taylor that precipitated the Mexican War. He was 
U. S. Minister to Great Britain, 1846- 
49, and to Berlin, 1867-74. His most 
celebrated work is the monumental his- 
tory of the American colonies (1834- 
74). His revised edition (1883-85) is 
inferior in scholarship to the original. 
—U.K. (l. J. k.) 

Banderole (Fr., little banner), 
small flag or streamer; in heraldry, a 
streamer from the crook of a bishop's 
crosier; in architecture, band used in 
decorative sculpture. 

Banez, ba/nyeth, Domingo (1528-1604), theolo- 
gian, b. Medina del Campo, Spain; d. there. He 
joined the Dominicans, 1546, and became eminent 
as an exponent and defender of Thomistic doctrine. 
His life was devoted to teaching in the universities 
of Avila, Alcala, Salamanca, and the Dominican 




BANDEROLE 



BANEZ 



92 



BAPTISM 



college at Valladolid. For many years he was St. 
Teresa's spiritual director. He wrote commentaries 
on the "Summa" of St. Thomas, and on several of 
Aristotle's works, but his name is better known in 
connection with the controversy originating, 1558, 
in the publication of the Jesuit Molina's treatise 
on free will and grace. To appease the resulting 
dissension, appeal was made to the Inquisition and 
finally to the Holy See, which resulted in permis- 
sion for those on both sides to continue to teach 
their own views. — C.E. 

Bangor, ancient diocese, Carnarvonshire, North 
Wales, probably founded in the 6th century, either 
by St. Daniel (d. 584?) or by St. David. Its his- 
tory before the Conquest is obscure. The cathe- 
dral, the smallest in England or Wales, de- 
stroyed by the Normans in 1071, rebuilt by them, 
burned 1402, and again rebuilt in the 16th cen- 
tury, has served since the Reformation, as both 
an Anglican cathedral and parish church. The 
diocese consisted of Anglesea, Carnarvonshire, 
the greater part of Merionethshire, and some 
parishes in the counties of Denbigh and Montgom- 
ery. Included in the episcopal list are Anian 
(1267-1305), who baptized Edward II, and Thomas 
Skevington, or Pace (1509-33), who completed the 
cathedral. The last Catholic bishop was William 
Glynn (1553-58). 

Bangor, Use of, ancient rite according to the 
Church of Bangor, Wales; form of the Roman Lit- 
urgy, substantially agreeing with the ancient Sarum 
Missal, used in the diocese of Bangor and other 
parts of Wales prior to the Reformation. A Bangor 
Pontifical is preserved in the cathedral library of 
Bangor. 

Bangor Abbey, name of two monastic establish- 
ments. ( 1 ) Abbey, founded in County Down, Ire- 
land, by St. Comgall, 559, famous for its learning 
and austere rule. Destroyed by the Danes, 824, it 
was restored by St. Malachy in the 12th century, 
given to the Franciscans, 1469, to the Augustinians 
a century later, and finally dissolved under James I. 
(2) Abbey, Flintshire, Wales, the greatest monastic 
establishment in Wales, flourishing in the 6th and 
7th centuries. — C.E. 

Bangor Antiphonary, ancient Latin man- 
uscript codex supposed to have been originally 
written at Bangor, Ireland. 

Bangweolo, bang-we-6'16, Vicariate Apostolic 
of, Northern Rhodesia, founded 1913, formerly the 
northern part of the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyassa; 
entrusted to the White Fathers. Vicar Apostolic, 
Etienne Larue; residence is at Kasama, Chilu- 
bula. Churches and stations, 961; priests, 30; reli- 
gious women, 11; seminary, 1; schools, 478; Cath- 
olics, 25,000. 

Banim, Michael (1796-1874), novelist, b. Kil- 
kenny, Ireland; d. Booterstown. He was an active 
worker in educational and economic movements, 
and wrote "The Croppy," "Father Connell," and, in 
collaboration^ with his brother, John, "The Tales 
of the O'Hara Family." 

— John (1798-1842), novelist, brother of preceding, 
b. Kilkenny; d. there. His works include the well- 
known poems "Soggarth Aroon," "Damon and 
Pythias," a tragedy, several romances, and about 



half of the O'Hara tales. The Banims rank as the 
leading Irish national novelists. Their purpose was 
to do for Ireland what Walter Scott did for Scot- 
land.— C.E. 

Banner, a symbol of victory, belonging to mili- 
tary saints and to missionaries, and associated in 
Christian art with Our Saviour after His Resur- 
rection, St. Joan of Arc, St. George, St. Michael, 
St. Felix of Valois, St. Maurice, St. Julian, St. An- 
sano, St. Reparata, and St. Ursula. It is the em- 
blem and symbol of temporal victory, and of spir- 
itual victory over sin, death, and idolatry. During 
a sermon, when the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, 
a banner is placed before it. 

Banns (O. E., bannan, to summon), public proc- 
lamations of an intended marriage, as a help in 
discovering matrimonial impediments, if any exist. 
Three publications, on different Sundays or holy 
days, are required unless a dispensation be granted, 
and ordinarily the marriage should not be cele- 
brated until at least three days after the last an- 
nouncement. The publications are made in the 
church or churches of the parties; and if either 
of them, after arriving at a marriageable age, has 
lived in any other locality for six months or more, 
the publishing of banns may be required in that 
place. There are similar regulations regarding banns 
for those who are about to receive Holy Orders, as 
an aid to the revealing of possible impediments. — 
C.E. ; Ayrinhac, Marriage Legislation in the New 
Code, N. Y., 1919. (j. f. s.) 

Baphomet, form of name Mahomet used in Mid- 
dle Ages, cabalistically formed. In special sense it 
was the alleged name of the idol which the Templars 
were accused of worshiping. — U.K. 

Bapst, John (1815-75), Jesuit missionary, b. 
near Fribourg, Switzerland; d. Mt. Hope, Md. Sent 
to the Indian Mission in Maine, he was later pastor 
to the scattered Catholics in Eastport, Bangor, and 
Ellsworth. While at Ellsworth, during the Know- 
nothing movement, he was tarred, feathered, and 
expelled from the vicinity by order of the town 
council. He built the first church in Bangor, 1856, 
became rector of Boston College, 1859, and then 
superior of the Jesuit mission of New York and 
Canada. — C.E. 

Baptism (Gr., baptizo, wash or immerse), the 
act of immersing or washing. In Holy Scripture 
it also signifies, figuratively, great suffering, e.g., 
Christ's Passion (Luke, 12). It is the "first" sacra- 
ment, or sacrament of initiation and regeneration, 
the "door of the Church." Defined theologically, it 
is a sacrament, instituted by Christ, in which by 
the invocation of the Holy Trinity and external 
ablution with water one becomes spiritually regen- 
erated and a disciple of Christ. St. Thomas says it 
is the "external ablution of the body performed with 
the prescribed form of words" ( III, Q. lxvi, a. 1 ) . 
The Sacrament of Baptism is absolutely necessary 
for salvation, because all are subject to original 
sin : wherefore Christ's words to Nicodemus, "Unless 
a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, 
he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (John, 
3). The chief effects of this sacrament are: (a) the 
impression of a character or seal by which we are 
incorporated with Christ (Gal., 3; 1 Cor., 6); 



BAPTISM 



93 



BAPTISTINES 



(b) regeneration and remission of original sin 
(and actual if necessary), as well as punishment 
due to sin, and infusion of sanctifying grace (with 
its gifts). Baptism is administered by pouring 
water on the head of the candidate, saying at the 
same time, "I baptize thee, in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," 
with the intention of Christ or His Church. The 
water must flow over the skin. These essentials 
are apart from the beautiful requirements of the 
Church for solemn Baptism. Infusion (pouring), 
immersion, and aspersion (sprinkling) are equally 
valid. The present ritual of the Latin Church allows 
for the first two, favoring infusion by the law of 
custom. Baptism of desire (flaminis) and of blood 
(sanguinis) are called such analogically, in that 
they supply the remission of sin and the regener- 
ative grace, but not the character; the former pre- 
supposes perfect charity or love of God (therefore 
implicitly the desire for the sacrament), while the 
latter is simply martyrdom for the sake of Christ 
or His Church. Without the Sacrament of Bap- 
tism or martyrdom it is commonly taught that in- 
fants cannot attain to the enjoyment of the Beatific 
Vision.— C.E.; U.K.; Pourrat, Theology of the Sac- 
raments, St. L., 1914; Martindale, The Sacramental 
System, N. Y., 1928; Ayrinhac, Legislation on Sac- 
raments in the New Code, N. Y., 1919. (f. t. B. ) 
Baptism, Ceremonies of. They are ancient and 
symbolic. At the Baptism of an infant, it is pre- 
sented at the font by the sponsors. First come 
interrogations and answers, requesting "faith and 
life everlasting." The priest breathes on the face 
of the child, a symbol of the imparting of the 
Spirit of God. He makes the sign of the cross on 
forehead and breast, that God may be ever in the 
child's mind and heart. Salt, emblematic of wisdom, 
is put into the child's mouth. A solemn exorcism 
is pronounced, to free the soul from the dominion 
of Satan. The priest's stole is laid upon the child, 
signifying that he is being led into the Church of 
Christ. As a profession of faith, the Apostles' 
Creed is recited by the priest and the sponsors, and 
this is followed by the Our Father. The ceremony 
of the Ephpheta takes place, i.e., the applying of 
saliva to the ears and nostrils of the child, re- 
minding us of the curing of the deaf-mute in the 
Gospel (Mark, 7) and symbolizing the opening of 
the senses to the truths of God. Then comes a 
renunciation of Satan with all his works and 
pomps, and an anointing is made with the Oil of 
Catechumens in the form of a cross on the child's 
breast and back, signifying the open profession of 
the faith of Christ and the patient bearing of 
life's burdens. After another profession of faith in 
questions and answers, the sacrament itself is ad- 
ministered, the sponsors holding the child at the 
font. An unction is then made on the top of the 
head with Holy Chrism, as a sign of consecration 
to God. A white cloth, placed on the head, sym- 
bolizes sanctifying grace; this is a survival of the 
white baptismal robe of ancient times. A lighted 
candle is presented, emblematic of faith and charity. 
The ceremonies of Baptism of adults differ some- 
what from the above. — C.E. ; Sullivan, Externals of 
the Catholic Church, N. Y., 1917. (J. f. s.)- 




BAPTISMAL 
FONT 



Baptismal Font, an ornamental receptacle 
(vase, basin), made of stone, metal, or wood, for 
holding baptismal water used in solemn adminis- 
tration of the sacrament. Since 
such administration is the chief 
right of a pastor, one of the ex- 
ternal signs of a parish church 
is the baptismal font. The Ro- 
man Ritual provides for its con- 
struction and control. The new 
Code of Canon Law reaffirms 
the traditional view that every 
parish church should have its 
own baptismal font. — P.C. Au- 
gustine, (f. t. b.) 

Baptismal Grace, sanctifying grace conferred 
in Baptism, inasmuch as it gives the recipient a 
right to special help from God to enable him to 
observe the commandments and so follow Christ 
worthily. Baptismal innocence is the state of the 
soul as the result of Baptism, a state which many 
saints are believed to have preserved until death. 

Baptismal Name (Christian Name). From the 
earliest times names were given at Baptism. "A 
name is given, which should be taken from some 
person, whose eminent sanctity has given him a 
place in the catalogue of Saints. This similarity of 
name will stimulate to the imitation of his virtues 
and the attainment of his holiness" (Catechism of 
Trent).— C.E., X, 673; Yonge, History of Christian 
Names, Lond., 1894. (f. t. b. ) 

Baptismal Vows are those renunciations re- 
quired of an adult candidate for Baptism just before 
the sacrament is conferred; in the case of an infant, 
they are made in his name by the sponsors. Accord- 
ing to the Roman Ritual, three questions are ad- 
dressed to the person to be baptized: "Dost thou 
renounce Satan? And all his works? And all his 
pomps?" To each of these the person or his sponsor 
replies "I do renounce." The practise of renewing 
the baptismal promises is more or less widespread, 
particularly at the closing of a mission, or after 
receiving First Communion or the Sacrament of 
Confirmation. 

Baptistery, a separate building or portion of the 
church set apart for the administration of Baptism, 
usually dedicated to St. John the Baptist and 
placed in the atrium or forecourt to signify that 
without Baptism man cannot enter the Church. 
Attached at first only to cathedrals they multiplied 
rapidly, and by the 11th century were erected in 
almost every parish. Buildings were mainly octag- 
onal or circular with a central chamber containing 
a pool, surrounded by an ambulatory for ministers 
and witnesses, and an ante-room; later chapels 
for Communion and Confirmation were introduced. 
They are found throughout the Orient and in Italy 
especially after the 11th-century revival in archi- 
tecture. The finest are those of Parma, Florence, 
and Pisa; there is one at Cranbrook, Kent, Eng- 
land.— C.E. 

Baptistines. (1) Congregation of the Hermits of 
St. John the Baptist, of France, founded, c. 1630, 
by Brother Michel de Saint-Sabine, to reform and 
unite hermits of various dioceses. (2) Congrega- 
tion of Missionary Priests of St. John the Baptist, 



BAPTISTINES 



94 



BARAGA 



founded in Genoa by Domenico Olivieri, c. 1755, to 
hold missions in Rome and Italy. Some members 
were sent to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and China. The 
society disappeared in the Italian troubles of the 
18th century. (3) Hermit Sisters of St. John the 
Baptist, founded in Genoa by Giovanna Solimani, 
1730, cloistered and very rigorous in discipline, now 
maintaining several convents in Italy. — C.E. 

Baptists (Gr., baptizo, dip in water), a Protes- 
tant religious denomination which originated, c. 1600, 
in England. It holds that immersion is necessary for 
valid baptism and that the Scriptures are the sole 
rule of faith and conduct. There were two main 
bodies among the English Baptists, those who ac- 
cepted the theology of Arminius, maintaining re- 
demption for all, and those who followed Calvin, 
admitting redemption for the elect alone. The Gen- 
eral or Arminian Baptists were founded, c. 1606, 
when a congregation of separatists established 
themselves in Holland under the leadership of 
John Smyth. Later there were many divisions of 
this group. The Calvinistic or Particular Baptists, 
a branch of the separatists, were founded in London 
in 1633, and also had many subdivisions. The 
Baptists became prominent under Cromwell, flour- 
ishing especially in Wales. The Baptist Home Mis- 
sionary Society was founded, 1779, and work among 
the heathen was begun by the Baptist Missionary 
Society under William Carey (1761-1854). The first 
Baptist church in the United States was indepen- 
dently established in Providence by Roger Williams, 
c. 1635. Organized mission work began c. 1755, 
and in 1814 the General Missionary Convention was 
formed. In 1845 it split into the American Baptist 
Missionary Union for the North, and the Southern 
Baptist Convention. In that year the slavery ques- 
tion divided Baptists into Northern, Southern, and 
Colored. In 1911 the Baptists joined the Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ in America, and 
in 1925 were organized into fourteen national 
groups. In Canada the first church was founded, 
1763, at Horton, Nova Scotia, by Rev. Ebenezer 
Moulton of New England, and membership increased 
with immigration. In 1889 was formed the Baptist 
Convention of Ontario and Quebec, a consolidation 
of previously-existing societies for home and for- 
eign missions, publications, and the like. On the 
continent of Europe, aside from the above-mentioned 
foundation in Holland, Baptists were established in 
Germany by Johann Gerhard Oncken, and from 
there spread to Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Austria, and Russia. India, China, and Japan are 
the favorite missionary fields in Asia. Among 
the first churches in Africa was that in Liberia, 
founded by the Negro Baptists of the United States, 
1821. 

In general the doctrines and polity of the Eng- 
lish Baptists are in accord with those of the Men- 
nonites and the more moderate and evangelical 
groups of Anabaptists. They hold : " ( 1 ) That the 
churche-s are independent in their local affairs; (2) 
that there should be an entire separation of church 
and state; (3) that religious liberty or freedom in 
matters of religion is an inherent right of the 
human soul;" (4) that a church is a body of re- 
generated people who have been baptized on pro- | 



fession of personal faith in Christ, and have asso- 
ciated themselves in the fellowship of the gospel; 
(5) that infant baptism is not only not taught in 
the Scriptures, but is fatal to the spirituality of the 
church; (6) that from the meaning of the word 
used in the Creek text of the Scriptures, the sym- 
bolism of the ordinance, and the practise of the 
early Church, immersion in water is the only 
proper mode of baptism; (7) that the scriptural 
officers of a church are pastors and deacons; and 
(8) that the Lord's Supper is an ordinance of the 
Church observed in commemoration of the sufferings 
and death of Christ." All Baptist churches hold 
these tenets, whatever their differences of opinion 
on other points. The beliefs of the Baptists have 
been incorporated in confessions of faith, of which 
the most important in the LTnited States are: the 
Philadelphia Confession issued by the Baptist 
churches in London in 1689, and adopted with addi- 
tions by the Philadelphia Association in 1742; and 
the New Hampshire Confession adopted by the New 
Hampshire State Convention, 1832. The former is 
intensely Calvinistic, and the latter moderately so. 
However, these confessions are not binding, as the 
Word of God is considered the final court of appeal. 
The polity of the Baptist Church is congregational, 
each church being independent of control regarding 
discipline and worship, appointment of pastor, and 
election of deacons and other officers. In 1926 the 
Baptists numbered 10,276,179: America, 8,254,778; 
Europe, 1,626,188; Asia, 312,260; Africa, 50,888; 
Australasia, 32,065. In 1928 the Baptists were the 
third largest denomination in the United States 
with 9,008,449 members. The following are the more 
important Baptist sects: Baptist Union (q.v. )., 
Colored Free Will Baptists, Duck River and Kin- 
dred Associations of Baptists, Free Will Baptists 
(q.v.), Free Will Baptists ( Bullockites ) , General 
or Arminian Baptists, National Baptist Convention 
(q.v.), Northern Baptist Convention (q.v.), Primi- 
tive Baptists (q.v.), Primitive Colored Baptists, 
Regular Baptists (q.v.), Separate Baptists, Seventh- 
day Baptists, Seventh-day Baptists (German), Six- 
Principle Baptists, Southern Baptist Convention 
(q.v.), Strict and Particular Baptists, Two-Seed- 
in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists, and United 
Baptists.— C.E. 

Baptist Union, associations of Baptist churches 
in the British Isles organized in 1813. In 1927 
there were: 2102 ministers; 4203 churches; and 
415,083 members. 

Barabbas (Aramaic, Bar-abba, son of the father) , 
a notable robber and murderer who was released 
instead of Jesus by Pilate at the desire of the 
people (John, 18). (e. f. d. ) 

Baraga, bar'a-ga, Frederic (1797-1868), Indian 
missionary, first Bp. of Marquette, b. Malavas, 
Carniola, Austria; d. Marquette, Mich. He was or- 
dained, 1823; came to America, 1830; and labored 
for many years among the Indians of Michigan and 
Wisconsin. In 1853 the district was erected into a 
vicariate, and in 1856, into a diocese, under his 
charge, with the see first at Sault Ste. Marie and 
later at Marquette. He ranks among the foremost 
writers in American Indian literature, and is the 
author of the first Chippewa grammar and die- 



BARAGA 



95 



BARLAAM 




ST. BARBARA 



tionary, an Ottawa prayer-book and Life of Christ, 
and other devotional works in Chippewa. — C.E. 

Barbara, Saint, virgin, martyr (235 or 238). 
According to her legendary acts she was the daugh- 
ter of the rich- heathen, Dioscorus. When she pro- 
fessed Christianity, she 
was cruelly tortured, con- 
demned to death, and was 
beheaded by her father. 
Juliana was her compan- 
ion in martyrdom. The 
place of her death is un- 
certain. Hieropolis i n 
Egypt, Nicomedia, Anti- 
och, Rome, and Hierapo- 
lis in Syria having been 
named. She has been 
popular in the East and 
West since the 7th cen- 
tury. G. K. Chesterton 
celebrates her in the 
poem, "The Ballad of St. 
Barbara." Patroness of 
artillerymen, architects, 
prisoners, founders, stone- 
in a s o n s, grave-diggers, 
fortifications ; invoked 
against thunderstorms, 
fire, lightning, impeni- 
tence, and sudden death; 
venerated as one of the 
Fourteen Holy Helpers 
(q.v. ). Emblems: a tower, palm, chalice, and canon. 
Relics at Burano, Italy, and Kief, Russia. Feast, 
R. Cal., 4 Dec— C.E.; U.K. 

Barbelin, Felix Joseph (1808-69), Jesuit, called 
the "Apostle of Philadelphia," b. Luneville, France; 
d. Philadelphia, Pa. He labored in Philadelphia 
nearly 30 years, founding St. Joseph's Hospital and 
establishing sodalities for men, women, and chil- 
dren.— C.E. 

Barber Family, remarkable early converts in 
the United States. Virgil Barber (1782-1847), an 
Episcopalian minister, son of Daniel Barber (1756- 
1834), likewise a minister, became a Catholic in 
1817, together with his wife and five children. They 
were followed into the Church by Mrs. Daniel 
Barber (Chloe Case Sims), her husband, and seven 
children. Virgil Barber and his wife entered reli- 
gion, he becoming a Jesuit and she a Visitation 
nun, their profession taking place on the same day 
in Georgetown convent. All their children became 
religious. — C.E. 

Barbour, John (c. 1320-95), Scottish ecclesias- 
tic and author of the historical poem, "The Bruce." 
He was Archdeacon of Aberdeen (1357), an auditor 
of the exchequer (1373), and one of the commis- 
sioners for the ransom of David II in 1357. "The 
Bruce," which is written in early Scottish dialect 
and for which he received several pensions, con- 
tains 6000 octosyllabic couplets, and is dedicated to 
freedom and to the exploits of Bruce and Douglas. 
It is a history, some of which was made use of by 
Scott. Among the principal editions is that of Pro- 
fessor Skeat for the "Early English Text Society." 
—C.E. 



Barcena, bar-tha/na (Barzana), Alonzo de 
(1528-98), Jesuit missionary in Peru, b. Baeza, 
Andalusia, Spain; d. Cuzco, Peru. He spoke 11 
Indian languages, and composed grammars and 
catechisms in most of them. — C.E. 

Barclay, William (1546-1608), Scottish jurist, 
d. Angers, France. He was a professor of civil law 
in the University of Pont-a-Mousson, when his work 
on the royal power, in which, contrary to the usual 
Catholic view, he advocated the divine right- of 
kings, brought him from James I of England the 
offer of a lucrative post, conditional on his apos- 
tasy. This he refused. He was also the author of a 
work on the Pandects, and a treatise on the papal 
power, which caused considerable controversy when 
published by his son John in 1609. — C.E. 

Bardic Schools in Ireland (Gael., bard, min- 
strel or poet), schools for poets. There were seven 
grades of poets, distinguished from bards, who were 
relatively only rhymesters, and of which there were 
eight grades. These schools, which were attached 
rather to individual teachers than to localities, were 
the direct offshoots of the ancient pagan Druidic 
foundations, and taught by a comprehensive and 
specialized system or curriculum which included 
metrical text-books, fragments of which may be 
found in the Book of Leinster (c. 1150). These 
books prescribe a knowledge of magic, including 
numerous and varied incantations. The bardic 
poetry was remarkably metrical, although un- 
rhymed; it was written in as many as 400 different 
meters, none of which, however, by the end of the 
18th century, is found in use. 

Bardsey, island in Cardigan Bay, Carnarvon- 
shire, North Wales; area, about 370 acres. The sur- 
face is hilly. The inhabitants are fishermen and 
farmers. In ancient times it was famous as the 
burial place of St. Dubricius. There are the graves 
of about 20,000 monks whose bodies were brought 
to the holy island for burial. 

Bar^Hebraeus (Son of the Hebrew) or Abul- 
faraj (1226-86), philosopher, theologian, and his- 
torian, b. Malatia, Armenia; d. Maragha, Persia. 
He was ,the son of a Jewish convert to the Jacobite 
Rite. In 1246 he was consecrated bishop and in 
1264 he became Maphrian or Primate of the East. 
The variety, extent, and erudition of his writings 
are almost beyond comprehension. His principal 
works are: "The Storehouse of Secrets," a doc- 
trinal and critical commentary on the entire Bible; 
"The Cream of Science," an encyclopedia of human 
learning; "Chronicon," a universal history; com- 
pendiums of logic, dialectics, physics, and meta- 
physics; treatises on theology, canon law, ethics, 
rhetoric, mathematics, medicine, and other sciences ; 
and an autobiography. — C.E. 

Barjesus (Son of Jesus) or Elymas (wise, 
magician), a false prophet, struck temporarily 
blind for opposing Paul at Paphos in the conver- 
sion of Proconsul Sergius Paulus (Acts. 13). 

Barlaam and Josaphat, principal characters 
of a Christianized version of a legend of Buddha. 
Josaphat, son of a 4th-century king in India, who 
persecuted the Christians, was kept in seclusion to 
prevent his conversion, which had been foretold. 
Barlaam, a hermit, succeeded in converting him. 



BARLAAM 



96 



BARRON 



His father later became a Christian and surren- 
dered his throne. After ruling for a while, Josaphat 
resigned the crown and joined Barlaam, in the 
desert. The legend is widely diffused. Barlaam and 
Josaphat are mentioned in the Roman Martyrology, 
27 Nov. ; in the Greek calendar, 26 Aug. — C.E. 

Barnabas, Saint, Apostle (c. 
1-60), b. Island of Cyprus; d. 
probably there. Of Jewish par- 
ents he was converted to Chris- 
tianity shortly after Pentecost, 
29. Although not of the chosen 
Twelve Apostles, Barnabas is 
mentioned frequently in the Acts, 
and is included among the 
prophets and doctors at Antioch, 
where he received the name Bar- 
nabas, signifying "son of consola- 
tion" (Acts, 4; 13). He became 
associated with St. Paul, with 
whom he worked for the conver- 
sion of the Gentiles, and whom 
he accompanied to Cyprus and 
the cities of Asia. He later made 
another visit to Cyprus with 
John Mark. Tradition states that he was martyred. 
Emblems: stones, ax, lance. Feast, R. CaL, 11 June. 
— C.E.; Butler. 

Barnabites. See Regular Clerks of the Con- 
gregation of St. Paul. 

Barnabo da Terni (d. c. 1474), Franciscan 
missionary, founder of the first of the celebrated 
monti di pieta, at Perugia, 1462 (see Montes 
Pietatis).— C.E. 

Barocco Style, a picturesque, exalted, architec- 
tural style which prevailed in ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture for nearly two centuries, and which is asso- 
ciated mainly with Michelangelo, its creator, and 
with the architects Bernini and Borromini. It is 
an interpretation of joy, the characteristic of which 
is imagination, picturesqueness, immensity, and 
harmony between building and environment, with 
a suggestion of movement, symbolism, and color. 
It employs curves, towers, and characteristic cu- 
polas, often accompanied by two subordinate tow- 
ers. Copper caps, sometimes turnip-shaped, are also 
used, together with stairways symbolic of peniten- 
tial progress, just as the interiors are flooded, sym- 
bolically, with light. Barocco has been often mis- 
represented by fanciers of other architectural 
styles. For illustration see Architecture. — U.K.; 
Squirrel, Baroque Art, in Dublin Review, Jan., 
1927. 

Barocyclonometer, an instrument which unites 
features of a cyclonometer and an aneroid barom- 
eter, and which is used to detect the approach of 
typhoons. Jose Algue, S.J., director of the Philip- 
pine Island Weather Bureau, invented it. It is em- 
ployed on vessels navigating the East Indian and 
Pacific Oceans, and the U. S. government has fitted 
out U. S. battleships with such instruments, spe- 
cially adapted for sailing on the Atlantic Ocean. 
—U.K. 

Barometer (Gr., baros, pressure; metron, meas- 
ure), an instrument to measure atmospheric pres- 
sure, invented by Evangelista Torricelli, consisting 




CESARE BARONIUS 



essentially of a hollow vertical glass tube, contain- 
ing mercury; the upper end is sealed and the lower 
end is immersed in an open container of mercury. 
The varying weight of the atmosphere due to 
weather conditions acts upon the mercury in the 
container and is indicated by the variation of the 
height of the mercury in the tube. 
A special barometer known as the 
Faura barometer designed to fore- 
tell the approach of typhoons was 
invented by Fr. Frederic Faura, 
S.J., founder of the Manila Ob- 
servatory. — U.K. 

Baron, Bonaventura (1610- 
96), Franciscan theologian and 
historiographer; b. Clonmel, Ire- 
land; d. Rome. He wrote theologi- 
cal works to defend the Scotist 
system, then generally attacked. 
In 1676 he was appointed histori- 
ographer by Cosimo de' Medici. 
His last work was a history of the 
Trinitarian Order from 1198 to 
1297.— C.E. 

Baronius, Cesare (1538- 
1607), cardinal, father of modern church history, b. 
Sora, Naples ; d. Rome. He studied in Rome, became a 
follower of Philip Neri, and was ordained, 1564. Upon 
the foundation of the Oratory, 1575, he moved to 
Santa Maria in Vallicella, and in 1584 was entrusted 
with the revision of the Roman Martyrology. His 
great work, "Annales Ecclesiastici," conceived by 
Philip as a reply to the attempt to Protestantize his- 
tory in the "Centuries of Magdeburg," was published 
in 12 volumes, 1588-1607. After the appearance of the 
11th volume, containing a treatise on the Sicilian 
monarchy proving the papacy's claim to the suzer- 
ainty of Naples and Sicily as prior to that of Spain, 
the whole work was condemned by the Spanish In- 
quisition. Baronius became superior of the Oratory, 
1593, cardinal, 1596, and was named librarian of 
the Vatican and charged with the Vatican Press, 
1597. He received strong support as a candidate for 
the papacy in the conclaves of 1605. The "Annals/' 
largely a chronological table from the birth of 
Christ to 1198, is marked by diligent research and 
accuracy, but Baronius's limited knowledge of Latin 
and Greek, and his use of documents since proved 
apocryphal, led him occasionally into error. The 
work, however, is a rich source from which his- 
torians have constantly drawn. It was a complete 
reply to the Centuriators. The history of later 
periods has been added by other historians. G. 
Mansi edited the most convenient complete edition, 
Lucca, 1738-59; the latest edition (Bar-le-Duc, 
1864-75; continued, Paris, 1876-83) is incomplete. 
— C.E.; U.K.; Kerr, Life of Cesare Card. Baronius, 
Lond., 1898. 

Barron, Edward (1801-54), missionary, b. 
Waterford, Ireland; d. Savannah, Ga. He was 
appointed titular Bp. of Constantia and Vicar 
Apostolic of the Two Guineas; became pastor 
of St. Mary's, Philadelphia, and president of 
St. Charles Borromeo's Theological Seminary; and 
spent five years caring for the Negro Catholics of 
Liberia. 



BARRY 



97 



BASEL 



Barry, John (1745-1803), captain, when that 
was the highest grade in the United States Navy, 
b. Tacumshane, Wexford, Ireland; d. Philadelphia. 
After being given command of the first warship, the 
Lexington, 1775, he was successful in capturing 
many British vessels during the American Revolu- 
tion. When by Act of Congress, 27 March, 1794, the 
United States Navy was permanently organized, 
Washington, with the consent of the Senate, ap- 
pointed six captains, of whom Barry ranked first. 
— C.E.; Griffin, Commodore John Barry, Phila., 
1903. 

Bartholomseus Anglicus, a 13th-century Eng- 
lish Franciscan, author of the first great medieval 
encyclopedia of the sciences of the day. — C.E. 

Bartholomew, Saint, Apostle, listed among the 
twelve Apostles (Matt., 10; Mark, 
3 ; Luke, 6 ) . Mention of him oc- 
curs infrequently in the Gospels, 
probably because Bartholomew was 
his patronymic rather than his 
proper name, and meant "son of 
Talmai or Tholmai"; some com- 
mentators identify him with Na- 
thanael (John, 1), although this 
theory is nowhere conclusively 
proved. Bartholomew was intro- 
duced to Christ by his friend, St. 
Philip; his missionary labors 
brought him to India, Mesopo- 
tamia, Parthia, and Lycaonia. He 
is said to have died in Albanopolis, 
Armenia, but the stories of his 
death differ; according to one he 
was beheaded ; others state that he 
was flayed alive and crucified. For 
this reason he is usually repre- 
sented in art as flayed and holding 
his skin in his own hand. Em- 
blems: knife, cross. Feast, E. Cal., 
24 Aug. — C.E. ; Butler. 

Bartholomew or Baktholom^eus Parvus (d. 
1333), apostle of Armenia, b. Bologna, Italy. Hav- 
ing entered the Dominican Order, he became noted 
as a capable theologian and zealous preacher. At 
the head of a band of Dominican missionaries, he 
was sent by John XXII to Armenia to keep the 

Catholic Armenians 
united at Rome, and 
to convert schisma- 
tics, and met with 
great success, par- 
ticularly in the con- 
version of the superior 
and monks of the 
monastery at Kherna. 
He translated the 
Psalter, and some 
works of St. Augus- 
tine and St. Thomas 
Aquinas, into Ar- 
menian. — C-E. 

Bartolommeo, 
bar-to-16m-ma'6, Fra (Bartolommeo di Pagholo del 
Fattorino; 1475-1517), painter, b. Soffignano, Italy; 
d. Florence. A pupil of Cosimo Roselli, he was a suc- 





JOHN BARRY, 



cessful artist when, through the influence of Savo- 
narola, he abandoned art and entered the Dominican 
convent of San Marco, in 1500. He resumed his paint- 
ing by order of his superiors. Among his masterpieces 
are a "Pieta," "The Marriage of St. Catherine," and 
"The Virgin Enthroned with Saints." His portrait of 
Savonarola is well known. — C.E. 

Barton, Elizabeth (c. 1506-34), the Benedictine 
"Nun of Kent," a visionary whose prophecies led 
to her execution without trial at Tyburn, London, 
1534. Whether she was an impostor or was gifted 
with supernatural knowledge has been the subject 
of controversy. The only evidence against her 
comes through her enemies. — C.E. 

Baruch (Heb., blessed), prophet of the Old Tes- 
tament, disciple of Jeremias, and author of the 
Book of Baruch. He lived during 
the days of the decline and fall of 
the Kingdom of Juda, and, like 
Jeremias, was desolated at the 
prospect of the subjugation of Juda 
by Babylon. He was forced into the 
office of prophesying failure upon 
the dismal statesmanship of the 
kings of Juda. He warned them 
against provoking a foe whom they 
could not withstand; and, when 
they had fallen into captivity with 
the best of their people, he warned 
the remnant to cease arousing 
Babylon and place their trust in 
God. He continued consistently to 
bear witness against the melan- 
choly unfaithfulness of the Jews 
and to point to the day when Jeru- 
salem, purged by penitence, should 
rise from her desolation and reclaim 
her scattered children. — C.E. ; 
Gigot, Outlines of Jewish History, 
N. Y., 1897. (J. M. mcd.) 

Baruch, Book of, in the Catholic Bible, an in- 
spired writing containing, in five chapters, the 
prophecy with which Baruch consoled the Jewish 
exiles on the River Sedi and which they sent, with 
some rescued silver vessels, back to Jerusalem. A 
sixth chapter is made of the Epistle of Jeremias, 
which seems rather to be of the authorship of Jere- 
mias than of Baruch. — C.E. ; Seisenberger, tr. Buch- 
anan, Practical Handbook for the Study of the 
Bible, N. Y., 1911. (J. M. mcd.) 

Basel, Confession of. See Creeds, Protestant: 
Helvetic Confession. 

Basel, Council of, convoked by Pope Martin V 
in 1431, closed at Lausanne in 1449. Its principal 
aims were the reformation of the Church in its 
"head and members," the settlement of the Hussite 
wars, the establishment of peace in Europe, and 
the end of the Great Schism. Card. Cesarini was 
named president of the assembly by Martin V. The 
objections to the council were numerous but the 
real breach occurred when it proposed to reform 
the Roman chancery without consulting the pope, 
who therefore transferred the council to Ferrara, 
despite the continuous sittings of the recalcitrants 
under Card. Louis Aleman at Basel. Exasperated, 
they subjected the authority of the pope to gen- 



BARTHOLOMEW 



BASEL 



98 



BASILICA 



eral councils, pretended to depose the ruling Pope 
Eugenius IV, and elected as antipope, Felix V. 
After lingering some years in obscurity, the Coun- 
cil of Basel closed at Lausanne. Except for the paci- 
fication of the Hussites, the council spent its time 
wrangling with the popes; it shook men's faith in 
the spiritual power of the pope, and led through the 
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges to the establish- 
ment of Gallicanism. — C.E. 

Basilian Rule (Rule of St. Basil) comprises 
instructions dealing with the guiding principles of 
monastic life, rather than specific regulations con- 
cerning its organization and administration; such 
details it leaves to individual superiors, treating 
rather of the spirit which should inform monastic 
foundations. A great 
variety of observances 
in the East tradition- 
ally followed this Rule 
which, enriched by the 
decisions of councils, 
formed a bond of unity 
between the numerous 
monasteries (see Basil- 
Ians). The Rule, drawn 
up in the catechetical 
manner, the questions 
presenting virtues to be 
practised or vices to be 
avoided, the replies gen- 
erally containing a 
Scriptural reference, is 
divided into two parts: 
the "Greater" and the 
"Lesser." Translated 
into Latin by Rufinus 
as a single Rule, it was 
followed as such by 
some Western monas- 
teries.— C.E. 

Basilians, popular 
name for the priests of 
the Community of St. 
Basil, founded in Cap- 
padocia in the 4th cen- 
tury by St. Basil, under 
his Rule. This Rule 
spread gradually to all the monasteries of the East 
and at an early date acquired supremacy in the re- 
ligious communities of the Greek world. In Italy 
and Sicily the monasteries of Basilians were always 
in communion with the Holy See. The monastery of 
Rossano founded by St. Nilus the Younger, and those 
of San Salvatore of Otranto, San Salvatore of Mes- 
sina, and Grottaferrata deserve mention. Recently 
the monasteries established by Greek monks in these 
countries have been united into congregations: the 
Melchite Congregation of St. Saviour, dating from 
1715, has 10 monasteries, 170 priests, 15 brothers, 
and 30 sisters; the Ruthenian Congregation of St. 
Saviour, united to the Church in 1595 and reor- 
ganized by St. Josaphat, has 21 monasteries, 360 
religious of whom 113 are priests, and 117 lay 
brothers; the Congregation of Aleppo, separated in 
1829 from the Congregation of Chueir, has 7 
monasteries, 47 priests, 18 brothers, and 26 sis- 




ters; the Baladite Congregation has 4 monasteries 
and 3 hospices. In Lithuania reformed Basilians 
work in the Apostolate in connection with the Uniat 
clergy. A reform of Italian Basilians, dating from 
1573, showed an inclination towards the use of the 
Latin Liturgy, which some monasteries adopted al- 
together. The Spanish Basilian monasteries, dating 
from the 16th century, also followed the Latin Lit- 
urgy; they were suppressed together with other or- 
ders in 1833. There is a teaching order of Basilians, 
founded by Mgr. d'Aviau, Abp. of Vienne, France, 
during the French Revolution; established at An- 
nonay, 1802; approved, 1863; banished from France, 
1905; and now established in England and America, 
with four colleges and parishes in Canada (at Mon- 
treal, Toronto, London, 
Winnipeg, and Edmon- 
ton) and in the United 
States (particularly in 
Detroit, Houston, Oma- 
ha, Rochester, and Au- 
rora).— C.E. ; U.K. 

Basilica (Gr. basili- 
kos, royal), an oblong 
building with an apse 
at one end and lighted 
from above. It was usu- 
ally rectangular with a 
width not greater than 
one-half nor less than 
one-third its length, di- 
vided by rows of col- 
umns into a central 
nave and a surrounding 
lower, narrower aisle or 
ambulatory. The upper 
part of the nave (cle- 
restory) was lighted by 
a row of arched win- 
dows over the roofs of 
the adjoining aisles, 
and similar windows 
lighted the aisles. Ba- 
silicas were the first 
pagan edifices to be con- 
verted into Christian 
churches, being best 
adapted for Christian worship. The altar was placed 
within or before the apse, and arches from nave, 
aisles, and apse opened into the transept, a cross 
hall of the same height as the nave interposed be- 
tween nave and apse for practical purposes and for 
the symbolism of the cross. At the entrance end 
opposite the apse was the narthex, a portico beyond 
which neophytes were not at first admitted. As the 
priest was supposed always to face the east, basilicas 
were built with the entrance fagade toward the east 
when he faced the congregation and toward the west 
when it became customary for him to turn his back 
to them. The title of basilica is now given by the 
pope to privileged churches remarkable for antiquity 
or historical associations. They are either major 
(patriarchal) or minor, privileged with the right of 
precedence as churches, special insignia, and a col- 
lege of clergy entitled to the rochet and cappa. 
Among the most notable are those of St. Peter, St. 



BASILICA OF S. CLEMENTE, ROME 



BASILICA 



99 



BATHURST 



John Lateran, and St. Mary Major, Rome, and St. 
Francis, Assisi. — C.E. ; MacMahon, Liturgical Cate- 
chism, Dub., 1926. 

Basilides, Saint. Martyrs of this name are men- 
tioned in the old martyrologies on 10, 12, and 28 
June; the list for 10 and 12 June, concerning 
a Basilides martyred at Rome, on the Via Aurelia, 
is very involved; apparently the same martyr is 
referred to on both days, although the names of his 
companions differ on each day. The best-known 
saint by this name, however, was an officer of the 
court at Alexandria, who was commissioned to lead 
St. Potamiana to her death. Feeling compassion for 
her, he restrained the heathen rabble, and for this 
office received the gift of Faith. He professed to 
be a Christian, was baptized, and decapitated. 
Feast, 30 June.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Basilisk (Gr., basiliskos, little king), a fabu- 
lous monster formerly believed to exist in Africa 
and sometimes identified with the cockatrice. Its 
breath and even its look were reputed fatal, it being 
successfully combated only by the weasel or by 
means of a mirror. It is described as about a foot 
long, black and red in color, with a white, crown- 
like spot on the head, whence its name. It is re- 
ferred to in the Bible, under the names of adder, 
asp, cobra, flying serpent, and viper (Is., 59). 

Basil the Great (Gr., basileios, kingly), Saint, 
confessor, Doctor of the Church (329-379), Bp. of 
Csesarea, b. Csesarea, Cappadocia; d. there. His fa- 
ther was St. Basil the Elder, his grandmother St. 
Macrina. He studied at Csesarea, Constantinople, 
and Athens, where he became acquainted with Ju- 
lian the Apostate, 335, and St. Gregory of Nazianzus 
(q.v. ). He taught at Csesarea. Influenced by his sis- 
ter Macrina, he founded a monastery in Pontus near 
Annesi. He introduced the cenobitic form of re- 
ligious life into the East, and for this reason is 
known as the "Father of Oriental monasticism." In 
364 he was ordained priest, and in 370 he succeeded 
to the See of Csesarea. His episcopacy was distin- 
guished by the many reforms he effected among 
clergy and laity, and for his fearlessness in defend- 
ing the Church. He is represented carrying a church 
in his hand, and giving food to the poor. Feast, R. 
Cal., 14 June.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Basin, Ecclesiastical Use of. Basins, often of 
ornamental metal, are prescribed for ablutions, 
especially at the Lavabo of the Mass, and in pre- 
paratory ablutions of bishops. 

Bas=relief. See Relief. 

Bassein, town, India, 29 m. N. of Bombay, on 
the island of the same name. It was founded in 1536 
and became the most important Portuguese settle- 
ment in northern India and a center of missionary 
activity. St. Francis Xavier visited it in 1544 and 
again in 1548 when he founded the College of the 
Holy Name of God. It was the birthplace in 1564 of 
St. Gonsalo Garcia, the Indian martyr. The Francis- 
can Fr. Antonio do Porto, known as the apostle of 
Bassein, founded an orphanage in the northern 
Bassein district in 1535 and it was there that 
the first Indian martyrs suffered in 1540. The 
town was taken from the Portuguese by the Mah- 
rattas in 1739 and from the latter by the Eng- 
lish in 1802. It is still an important center of 



Catholicism and a place of pilgrimage. Catholics, 
1520.— C.E. 

Bassett, Joshua {c. 1641-1720), convert and 
controversialist, b. Lynn Regis, England; d. Lon- 
don. Elected Master of Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge, England, under James II, he declared 
himself a Catholic, had Mass celebrated in his 
rooms at the college, and altered the college stat- 
utes unfavorable to Catholics. — C.E. 

Basutoland, Vicariate Apostolic of, com- 
prises Basutoland, South Africa, founded as a pre- 
fecture Apostolic, 1894, raised to a vicariate, 1909. 
The Basutos, a branch of the Bechuana family of 
Bantu Negroes, are an agricultural people, moral, 
intelligent, and industrious; many have been con- 
verted to Christianity. Catholic missions are under 
the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, to whom the 
vicariate is entrusted. Mgr. Cenez was appointed 
vicar Apostolic, 1909; residence at. Roma. Churches 
and chapels, 116; missions, 19; priests, 28; re- 
ligious women, 115; seminary, 1; schools, 116; 
Catholics, 50,114. 

Bath Abbey, Bath, England, founded, 676, by 
King Osric for a community of nuns. It subse- 
quently passed to the Benedictines, and was re- 
formed by St. Dunstan. King Edgar was crowned 
in the abbey-church, 973. St. Elphege was abbot for 
a time. In 1088 William Rufus granted the abbey 
and lands to John of Villula, Bp. of Wells, who 
later restored the lands to the abbey. Destroyed by 
fire, 1137, it was later rebuilt. In the 13th century 
a dispute arose between the monks and the canons 
of Wells as to their respective rights in electing 
the bishop. By a decree of Innocent IV the election 
was held alternately in either city, the bishop had a 
throne in both churches, and was thenceforth styled 
Bp. of Bath and Wells. The monastery was sup- 
pressed, 1539, and the present church occupies only 
the nave of the Norman structure begun, 1500, 
to replace John of Villula's church. It was re- 
stored, 1874.— C.E. 

Bath and Wells, ancient see, coextensive with 
Somersetshire, England, instituted 909, with ^Ethel- 
helm (909-914) as first bishop. From that time 
until 1244 the diocese was known under various 
titles, such as Somerset, Wells, Bath, and Bath and 
Glastonbury. The cathedral at Wells was rebuilt 
by Robert of Lewes (1136-66) and restored by 
Jocelin Troteman (1206-42). After the dissolution 
of Bath Abbey, 1539, the bishop had his seat at 
Wells alone. William Barlow (1549), a usurper, 
was succeeded by Gilbert Bourne (1554-59), the 
last Catholic bishop (d. 1569). 

Bathilde, Saint, queen (630-680), b. England; 
d. Chelles, France. A slave in the household of 
Erchinoald, mayor of the palace of Neustria, Clovis 
II, attracted by her beauty and prudence, married 
her in 649. As regent for her son, Clothaire III, 
she abolished trade in Christian slaves, suppressed 
simony, and established hospitals and numerous 
monasteries. Her last 15 years were spent in the 
Abbey of Chelles which she had founded near Paris. 
Relics at Chelles. Feast, 26 Jan.; Paris, 30 Jan. 
— C.E.; Butler, 30 Jan. 

Bathurst, Diocese of, Australia, comprises cer- 
tain territory in New South Wales immediately 



BATHURST 



100 



BAYER 



west of the Dividing Range; established, 1865; 
suffragan of Sydney. Bishops: Matthew Quinn 
(1865-85), Joseph Byrne (1885-1901), John Dunne 
(1901-19), Michael O'Farrell (1920-28), and John 
Norton (1928). Churches, 98; priests, secular, 46; 
priests, regular, 8; religious women, 317; colleges, 
4; high schools, 23; primary schools, 38; institu- 
tions, 4; Catholics, 34,067. 

Batiffol, ba-ti-fol, Piekke (1861-1929), prelate 
and historian, b. Paris; d. there. He was first 
chaplain at the College Ste. Barbe, 1889-98, dur- 
ing which period he published his "History of the 
Roman Breviary." In 1898 he became rector of the 
Catholic University of Toulouse, which position he 
resigned after nine years. During his rectorship he 
published "Etudes d'histoire et de theologie posi- 
tive," "L'Enseignement de Jesus," and "L'Eucharis- 
tie," which was placed on the Index and then duly 
approved after corrections. He spent the remainder 
of his life in Paris, where he wrote a series of 
scholarly essays on early church history: "L'Eg- 
lise naissante et le Catholicisme," translated under 
the title "Primitive Catholicism," "La Paix Con- 
stantinienne," "Le Catholicisme de St. Augustin," 
"Le Siege Apostolique," and a biography of St. 
Gregory the Great. Their apologetical value cannot 
be exaggerated. He also took an important part in 
the Mechlin Conversations (q.v. ), publishing after- 
wards a book of essays, called "Catholicisme et 
Papaute" (Catholicism and Papacy). (f. p. D. ) 

Battandier, Albert (1850-1921), scholar, b. St. 
Felicien, Ardeche, France; d. there. Educated at 
the Jesuit college of Mongre, near Lyons, and at the 
seminary of Viviers, he was ordained, 1875, and 
won his degree in theology and canon law at the 
French seminary in Rome, 1879. Appointed con- 
suitor of the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, 
1881, he soon became recognized as an authority 
on church legislation and on laws of religious 
communities. After publishing several ecclesiastical 
works, he began to edit, in 1898, with the coopera- 
tion of Fr. Vincent de Paul Bailly, the "Annuaire 
pontifical catholique" (q.v.). — C.E. Suppl. 

Battle Abbey, founded by William the Con- 
queror on the site of the battle of Hastings, 1067. 
The first monks came from the Benedictine Abbey 
of Marmoutier, and though the buildings were de- 
signed for 140, the community never exceeded 60. 
Consecrated, 1094, the abbey was richly endowed 
and granted many privileges. The mitered abbot had 
a seat in Parliament and the right to pardon any 
criminal he might meet being led to execution. In 
the abbey was kept the "Roll of Battle Abbey," a 
list of all those who accompanied William from 
Normandy. Suppressed, 1538, the buildings were 
given to Sir Anthony Browne, who tore them down 
and built a mansion on the site, leaving only the 
entrance and some ruins which still remain. — C.E. 

Baumgartner, Gallus Jacob (1797-1869), 
statesman, b. Altstatten, Switzerland; d. St. Gall. 
As chief magistrate of St. Gall he labored to re- 
organize the Swiss confederation somewhat on the 
lines of the United States. Influenced by Josephin- 
ism, he first advocated state control of the Church, 
but the plundering of the monasteries in 1841 by 
his political associates changed his views and he 



came over to the policy of his former opponents. 
Through his efforts was erected the See of St. 
Gall. Retiring from politics in 1864 he devoted 
himself to local history and wrote a work on St. 
Gall.— C.E. 

■ — Alexander (1841-1910), writer, son of preceding, 
b. St. Gall, Switzerland; d. Luxemburg. He entered 
the Society of Jesus in 1860 and for 36 years was 
on the editorial staff of the periodical "Stimmen 
aus Maria-Laach." His most valuable works are a 
history of the literature of the world in eight vol- 
umes, poems for special occasions, and accounts of 
his travels. 

Bavaria, now a free state of the German Repub- 
lic; area, 29,334 sq. m. ; pop., 7,379,594, including 
5,163,117 Catholics, 2,111,993 Protestants, and 49,- 
145 Jews. Christianity was probably introduced 
into Bavaria in Roman times but it was not until 
after the barbarian invasions in the 5th century 
that the evangelization of the country progressed. 
For an account of the missionary efforts in this 
region see Germany. Bavaria was settled by the 
Boiarii (whence the name) and from 555 to 788 
was ruled by dukes of the Agilolfing family. The 
last of these, Tassilo III, who contributed much 
to the spread of Christianity and civilization in 
Europe, was deposed by Charlemagne. In 1180 
Bavaria was given to Otto of Wittelsbach whose 
descendants ruled until 1918. William IV repressed 
the Protestant Reformation and introduced the 
Jesuits into the University of Ingolstadt (1541), 
and under two of his successors William V (1579- 
98) and Maximilian I (1598-1651), who be- 
came an elector of the Holy Roman Empire, 
Bavaria was a prominent ally of the counter- 
Reformation and the Catholic League. It remained 
a wholly Catholic country until 1799 when, with 
the accession of Maximilian IV, Catholics were 
oppressed and Lutheranism tolerated. Under Louis 
I (1825-48) the Church prospered again. In 1871 
Bavaria became a part of the German Empire and 
in 1918 was proclaimed a republican state. The 
Concordat of 1925 grants the pope greater free- 
dom in appointing bishops and is favorable to the 
development of religious orders. The public school 
system provides religious instruction for all schools. 
The universities at Munich and Wiirzburg have 
Catholic theological faculties. The Passion Play at 
Oberammergau, which takes place every ten years, 
dates from 1633. It attracts an audience from all 
nations. — C.E. 

Bayard, ba-yar', Chevalier de (Pierre dtj Ter- 
rail; 1475-1524), French knight and national hero, 
renowned for his bravery. He has become the out- 
standing type of chivalry and is known as the 
knight "sans peur et sans reproche" (without fear 
and without reproach ) . 

Bayer, Adele (1814-92), philanthropist, b. Bel- 
gium; d. Brooklyn, N. Y. She was the daughter of 
Andrew Parmentier, horticulturist and landscape 
gardener, and wife of Edward Bayer, a German 
Catholic merchant. Assisted by her mother, she de- 
voted her fortune and life to aiding the Indian mis- 
sions, the Little Sisters of the Poor, and especially 
seamen and the United States Marines at Brooklyn 
Navy Yard.— C.E. 



BAYMA 



101 



BEATON 



Bayma, ba-e'ma, Joseph (181G-92), mathemati- 
cian and scientist, b. Piedmont, Italy; d. Santa 
Clara, Cal. He entered the Society of Jesus, 1832. 
Exiled from Italy in 1860, he took refuge at Stony - 
liurst, England, where he wrote his "Realis Philo- 
sophia." He is best known for his "Molecular 
Mechanics," a metaphysical mathematical work, 
dealing with the constitution of matter. In 1868 
Bayma left England for California, where he taught 
mathematics for many years at Santa Clara and 
published several scientific text-books. — C.E. 

BB. = beati (blessed). 

B.C. = before Christ. 

B.C.L. = Baccalaureus Civilis Legis (Bachelor of 
Civil Law) ; or Baccalaureus Canonicce Legis 
(Bachelor of Canon Law). 

Beadle, Bedel, or Bedell (A.-S., by del, a mes- 
senger), an inferior officer of the Anglican Church 
whose prototype, in the Catholic Church, was the 
mansionarius (of or belonging to a dwelling or 
lodging), and possibly an officer known as the 
paramonarius (watcher or guard), by some, how- 
ever, interpreted as bailiff. Under Gregory the 
Great the beadle was called also custos ecclesiw 
(guardian of the church), whose duty it was to 
light the lamps or candles therein, a survival of 
which is seen in the French suisse or church offi- 
cer or usher who has the privilege of remaining 
covered during the elevation. — U.K. 

Beads (M.E., bede, prayer), Use of, at Prayer. 
Beads strung together according to the kind, order, 
and number of prayers in certain forms of devo- 
tion are in common use among Catholics as an ex- 
pedient to ensure an accurate count of prayers 
occurring in more or less frequent repetition. The 
Rosary is the most common. Use of beads among 
Hindus, Buddhists, Mohammedans, etc., is frequent. 
— C.E.; Sullivan, Externals of the Catholic Church, 
N. Y., 1917. 

Bear, emblem in art associated with Sts. Aven- 
tinus and Columbanus because of incidents con- 
nected with bears. 

Beard, the hair that grows on a man's chin and 
cheek. Among the Jews and other Orientals the 
beard was cherished as a symbol of virility. It has 
been customary from early days for the clergy of 
the Latin Church to cut off or shave their beards. 
In the 16th and 17th centuries the contrary prac- 
tise prevailed, and beards are now worn by the 
priests of the Eastern churches, both Uniat and 
Schismatic, by foreign missionaries, by certain re- 
ligious like the Capuchins, and by individual priests 
for reasons of health. — C.E.; U.K. 

Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent (1872-98), illus- 
trator, b. Brighton, England; d. Mentone, France. 
Self-taught except for a brief course at West- 
minster Art School, he achieved fame by his illus- 
trations for the "Morte d'Arthur," "The Yellow 
Book," and "The Savoy." Many critics rank him 
with Diirer as a draughtsman. His last work was 
the illustration of an edition of Ben Jonson's "Vol- 
pone." He became a Catholic in 1895. — C.E. 

Beata Nobis Gaudia, or Round roll the 
weeks our hearts to greet, hymn for Lauds on 
Pentecost and throughout the octave. This hymn 
has been attributed to St. Hilary, who died in 368. 



It has about 20 translations. The English title 
given is by W. Blew. — Britt. 

Beate Pastor Petre, clemens accipe, or O 

Peter, Shepherd good, our voices sing of thee, 
hymn for Lauds on 18 Jan., feast of St. Peter's 
Chair at Home; on 22 Feb., feast of St. Peter's 
Chair at Antioch; and on 29 June, feast of Sts. 
Peter and Paul, when the hymns "Beate Pastor 
Petre, clemens accipe" and "Egregie Doctor Paule, 
mores instrue" are combined into one hymn. It is 
attributed to Elpis, Boethius's wife, who died about 
493. The English title given is from the transla- 
tion by T. Ball.— Britt. 

Beatification (Lat., beatus, blessed; facere, to 
make), the declaration by the pope as head of the 
Church that one of its members deserves for saintly 
life as confessor or heroic death as martyr, to be 
entitled blessed, that is, regarded as dwelling in 
the happiness of heaven. The declaration is pre- 
ceded by a double process, the first consisting of 
an examination into the life, virtues, writings, and 
reputation for holiness, or martyrdom, of the Ser- 
vant of God in question, conducted ordinarily by 
the bishop of the place in which he or she died or 
lived a long time. In the case of a martyr no 
miracles are required in this first process, but they 
are required for others. The second process, known 
as the Apostolic process, is instituted by the Holy 
See in case the first inquiry shows that there is 
a likelihood of proving that the Servant of God 
practised virtue to an heroic degree, or died by the 
heroic death of martyrdom. To go further and 
obtain canonization, miracles are required for both 
martyrs and confessors. See Canonization. — C.E.; 
P.C. Augustine. (ed.) 

Beatific Vision, the immediate knowledge the 
blessed in heaven have of God. Their earthly knowl- 
edge of Him, caught in the reflection of created 
things, has been changed to direct vision. Con- 
stituting man's perfect happiness, it is called bea- 
tific. — C.E.; Nicholas of Cusa, tr. Salter, Vision of 
God, Lond., 1928. (a. j. m.) 

Beatitude (Lat., beatitudo, blessing, happiness), 
title sometimes applied to the pope and frequently 
to patriarchs, signifying that their office is a source 
of blessing and happiness to men. (ed.) 

Beatitude of Heaven is of two kinds, essential 
and accidental. Essentially it consists in the Beatific 
Vision. The accidental beatitude of heaven arises 
from the possession of those created goods which 
God gives the blessed, e.g., glorified body after the 
general resurrection, society of the blessed. The 
degree of beatitude will not be the same for all, but 
will be in proportion to merit. — Pohle-Preuss, 
Eschatology, St. L., 1924. (a. l. f.) 

Beatitudes, the blessings pronounced in the 
opening words of the Sermon on the Mount: eight 
in St. Matthew, on the poor in spirit, the meek, 
mourners, justice-seekers, the merciful, peacemakers, 
clean of heart, persecuted; and four in St. Luke, 
the poor in spirit, justice-seekers, mourners, victims 
of persecution. — C.E. (ed.) 

Beaton, David (c. 1494-1546), cardinal, Abp. of 
St. Andrews, and statesman; d. St. Andrews, Scot- 
land. He negotiated the renewal of the French 
alliance, and the marriage of James V, and for his 



BEATON 



102 



BEAUTY 




DAVID CARDINAL BEATON 



services received the Bishopric of Mirepoix, 1537, 
and the cardinal's hat. In 1539 he succeeded to the 
See of St. Andrews, As regent for James's daughter, 
Mary, he opposed the schemes of Henry VIII to de- 
tach Scotland from its allegiance to the Holy See 

and bring it into sub- 
jection to himself. He 
was therefore assassi- 
nated by Henry's 
agents. — C.E. 
— James (c. 1473- 
1539), brother of pre- 
ceding, Abp. of St. An- 
drews, Chancellor of 
Scotland, and one of 
the Council of Regents 
for the infant James 
V; d. St. Andrews, 
Scotland. He used his 
powerful influence 
against the intrigues of Henry VIII to dominate 
Scotland. On his translation from the See of Glas- 
gow (1509-22) to St. Andrews he established there 
a new college, St. Mary's, in connection with the 
university. Under orders of the pope and the king 
he displayed great severity towards the propaga- 
tion of heresy. — C.E. 

— James (1517-1603), Abp. of Glasgow, nephew of 
preceding; d. Paris. After opposing for eight years 
the plans of the Scottish nobles to enrich them- 
selves with the spoils of the Church, he went to 
Paris in 1560, where he acted as Scottish am- 
bassador. In 1574 he was declared an outlaw by 
the Privy Council of Scotland. He was a faithful 
friend and adviser to Mary, Queen of Scots, and 
though in exile enjoyed the favor of James VI. 
In 1598 a Scottish Act of Parliament restored 
to him his heritages, honors, and benefices. — C.E. 

Beatrice (c 1266-90), depicted in Dante's 
poetry as his guide through Paradise, was the 
daughter of a Florentine merchant, Portinari, and 
wife of Simone dei Bardi. Dante's love for her was 
purely spiritual and mystical, and after her death 
his idealized love for her was expressed in the "Vita 
Nuova," a collection of sonnets. She is the central 
figure of the "Divina Commedia," representing 
Heavenly Wisdom. — U.K. 

Beatrix, Saint, virgin, martyr (303), d. Rome. 
According to tradition she was the sister of Sts. 
Faustinus and Simplicius, martyrs. She was ar- 
rested after burying her brothers, imprisoned, and 
strangled. Feast, 29 July.— C.E. 

Beatus, Saint, confessor, apostle of Switzer- 
land, d. near Lake of Thun, Switzerland, c. 112. 
Legend relates that Beatus was baptized in Eng- 
land by the Apostle Barnabas, ordained in Rome 
by St. Peter, and sent to Switzerland. Another 
version states that he was an Irish monk who ac- 
companied St. Columban to Switzerland, and lived 
in solitude in a cave above the Lake of Thun. 
His story is interwoven with extracts from the 
life of St. Beatus of Vendome, but the two are 
distinct. For years his cave was a place of pil- 
grimage; after the Reformation his cult was trans- 
ferred to the chapel at Lungern in Obwalden. Feast, 
Berne, 9 May. 



Beaufort, bu'fgrt or bo-for, Henry Plantage- 
net (c. 1377-1447), cardinal, Bp. of Winchester, 
b. Beaufort Castle, Anjou, France; d. Winchester, 
England. He was thrice appointed chancellor of 
England; assisted the pope in the Hussite war; and 
crowned the King of France in Paris (1431). He 
completed Winchester Cathedral, where he is 
buried.— C.E., XII, 148. 

Beaufort, Lady Maegaeet (1441-1509), Coun- 
tess of Richmond and Derby daughter of John Beau- 
fort, first Duke of Somerset, and mother of Henry 
VII. She was noted for piety and charity. A 
patroness of learning, she provided for readerships 
in divinity at Oxford and Cambridge, and re- 
founded Christ's College and St. John's College, 
Cambridge. She translated the fourth book of the 
Imitation of Christ into English. — C.E. 

Beauly, bu'li (Beaulieu), or St. John's 
Peioey, of the Valliscaulian Order, founded, 1230, 
at Beauly, Scotland, by John Bisset of the Aird. 
It was transferred to the Cistercians, c. 1460, and 
rebuilt from the foundations by Robert Reid, Bp. of 
Orkney, when he became its commendatory prior in 
1530. His arms (stag's head with a crosier issuing 
from the antlers) and his initials are still to be 
seen above the west door. 

Beaumont College, an institution molded on 
the English public school, founded by the Jesuits, 
1861, on the property of Beaumont Lodge, Old 
Windsor; prepares students for the universities. 
Connected with it is St. John's Preparatory School, 
with buildings in Tudor style and a Perpendicular 
chapel designed by John Francis Bentley. Priests, 
23; students (1925), 262. 

Beaupre, Sainte Anne de. See Sainte Anne 
de Beaupee. 

Beautiful Gate, The, one of the gates of 
Herod's Temple. As it is mentioned only in Acts, 
3, its exact location is not perfectly clear. Scholars, 
however, are fairly agreed that it is the same as the 
Corinthian Gate of Josephus, so called because it 
was covered with Corinthian brass. This gate was 
situated on the east side of the inner enclosure 
at the top of a flight of 15 steps, and led from 
the outer court, or Court of the Gentiles, to the 
Women's Court, a most likely place for the scene 
narrated in Acts, 3, as beggars were not allowed 
within the sacred precincts, and as all men and 
women entering the Temple on that side had to go 
through that gate. (c. L. s.) 

Beauty, variously conceived and defined. One 
extreme regards beauty as an independent quality 
inherent in things; the other extreme, as entirely 
of the perceiving mind. The middle course includes 
both objective and subjective elements and a mutual 
correspondence. The beautiful is that which gives 
pleasure by its mere perception, involving an ac- 
tivity of sense, imagination, and intellect aroused 
by objective qualities variously assigned. "Order" 
is the conceded fundamental quality implying 
others proposed. Requisites of beauty are: integrity, 
harmony, and a clarity impressing without effort 
of the beholder. There is a spiritual beauty as 
well as that which is perceived in material objects. 
One form of it consists in the ideals which these 
latter suggest. Its principal form is found in the 



BEAUTY 



103 



BEDLAM 



lives of good people, whose characters shine forth in 
their features, manner, and carriage. The beauty of 
the ceremonies of the Catholic Church are attuned 
to the noblest aspirations of the soul, elevating it to 
the contemplation and love of God. — U.K.; Rother, 
Beauty, Phila., 1924; Dubray, 
Introductory Philosophy, N. Y., 
1923. 

Beccus, John (c. 1220-98), 
Patriarch of Constantinople, b. 
Constantinople. He was one of 
the few Greek prelates who la- 
bored for reunion with Rome, 
accepting the papal primacy and 
their doctrine concerning the 
Holy Ghost. After the death of 
Emperor Michael Palseologus, 
1282, the enemies of reunion 
forced his resignation as patri- 
arch and exiled him to Prusa, 
Bithynia.—C.E. 

Becquerel, Antoine Cesar 
(1788-1878), physicist, b. Cha- 
tillon-sur-Loing, France; d. 
Paris. He devoted himself to 
the study of electricity, invent- 
ing a constant cell, a differen- 
tial galvanometer, and an electric thermometer. He 
wrote several important works and contributed 
articles to scientific reviews. — C.E.; U.K. 
— Antoine Henri (1852-1908), physicist, son of 
preceding, b. Paris. He discovered "Becquerel 's 
Rays," i.e., the invisible radiations from uranium, 
and made important researches concerning optics. 

He is the founder 
of radio-activity, 
and in 1903 shared 
the Nobel prize for 
physics for his val- 
uable work on that 
subject. — U.K. 

Bede, Old Eng- 
lish word for pray- 
er; hence, the name 
bead given to little 
perforated globes 
of bone, amber, 
glass, etc., threaded 
on a string, by 
which prayers are 
counted. — C.E. 

Bede, The Ven- 
erable, Doctor of 
the Church (672- 
735), historian, b. 
Jar row, England; 
d. there. A disciple 
of St. Benedict Bis- 
cop, he was or- 
dained, 702, and re- 
mained at Jarrow for the rest of his life, studying 
and writing. He gained the reputation of being 
the most learned man of his day; his influence 
upon English and foreign scholarship was great. 
The title Venerable was given to him within two 
generations after his death. His works comprise 




ANTOINE CESAR BECQUEREli 




VENERABLE BEDE 



all branches of knowledge, history, rhetoric, mathe- 
matics, music, astronomy, poetry, grammar, phi- 
losophy, hagiography, homiletics, and commen- 
taries on Holy Writ. Feast, R. Cal., 27 May. — C.E.; 
Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, Camb., 
1903. 

Bede College, Rome, 
founded, 1852, by Pius IX for 
converted Anglican clergymen 
who wished to prepare for the 
priesthood. It was united to the 
English College, 1898, during 
the reign of Leo XIII, but sepa- 
rated in 1917.— C.E., XIII, 134. 
Bedesman or Beadsman 
(O.E., bede, prayer), one who 
had the duty of praying for 
others, a chaplain of a guild; 
hence, a recipient of any 
bounty, as a poor man in an 
almshouse. Bede House, at first 
a place of prayer, oratory, then 
almshouse. Bede-roll, a list of 
persons to be prayed for; a 
catalog; a rosary. (ed. ) 

Bedford, Gunning Samuel 
(1806-70), physician, b. Balti- 
more, Md. ; d. New York. Graduated in medicine 
from Rutgers College, New York, he taught at 
Charleston, Albany, and New York where he 
founded the University Medical College, and estab- 
lished the first free obstetrical clinic for the poor 
in the country. Two of his obstetrical works were 
adopted as text-books in America, and were trans- 
lated into German and French. — C.E. 

Bedingfield, Sir Henry (1509-83), supporter of 
Mary Tudor and instrumental in placing her on the 
English throne. As lieutenant of the Tower of Lon- 
don, he had charge of Princess Elizabeth, who was 
suspected of duplicity in Wyatt's rebellion. Later, 
under the Protestant regime, he suffered through the 
enforcement of the penal laws against Catholics. — C.E 
Bedini, Cajetan (1806-64), cardinal and diplo- 
mat, b. Sinigaglia, Italy; d. Viterbo. From 1849 to 
1852 he acted as papal commissary extraordinary 
at Bologna, and in 1853 was named Apostolic 
nuncio to Brazil, and instructed to first make a 
visit to the United States. His arrival in New York 
was the signal for an anti-Catholic outburst caused 
by the Knownothing element and the immigrant 
Italian revolutionaries, and a plot to assassinate 
him was defeated. After his return from America, 
1854, he was appointed to the See of Viterbo and 
Toscanella.— C.E. 

Bedlam (contraction of Bethlehem), famous 
asylum, London, originally on the site of the pres- 
ent Liverpool Street railway station; founded, 1247, 
by Simon FitzMary, sheriff of London, for the 
Order of St. Mary of Bethlehem, as a general hos- 
pital for the poor, with the special duty of enter- 
taining the bishops and canons of St. Mary of 
Bethlehem, as often as they might come to Eng- 
land. About 1405 it began to be used as an insane 
asylum; in 1674 it was moved to Finsbury Circus, 
to a site still called Old Bedlam; the present build- 
ing in St. George's Fields, Southwark, was erected 



BEDLAM 



104 



BEHEMOTH 



in 1815. Formerly managed by religious who made 
every effort to cure their patients, Bedlam later be- 
came a center of cruel abuses; in the 18th century, 
raving maniacs were exhibited to visitors at a 
charge of one penny for admission. Bedlam is now 
famous for successful treatment of the insane. — C.E. 

Beelphegor, name given to the god Baal of Mt. 
Phegor in Moab, worshiped with immoral rites at 
Settim. Many Israelites were punished by death 
for taking part in this worship (Num., 25). — C.E. 

Beelzebub, be-eTze-bub (Heb., baal, lord; ze- 
bub, a fly), a divinity worshiped by the Philistines 
at Accaron, as the god of flies, identified with the 
"demon" in the Gospels. In Luke, 11, he is called 
"chief of the demons." The Greek version of the 
N.T. has Beelzebul (prince of filth), perhaps an in- 
tentional change of the original word. — C.E. (a. h. ) 

Bees, emblems in art associated with representa- 
tions of Sts. Ambrose and Dominic. St. Ambrose is 
patron of bees. The reference to St. Dominic is 
obscure. 

Beethoven, ba'to-ven, Ludwig van (1770-1827), 
composer, b. Bonn, Germany; d. Vienna. His ear- 
liest published compositions, three piano sonatas, 
appeared in 1783. His teachers from 1779-81 were 
Pfeiffer, a tenor singer, and Van den Eeden and 
Neefe, organists to the Court Chapel. While deputy- 
organist under Neefe, then accompanist at operatic 
rehearsals, and second organist, 1784, he found time 
to compose, and in 1787 astonished Mozart at 
Vienna by his performance. As second viola player 
in the Elector Maximilian's orchestra, his talents 
were highly esteemed and in 1792 he was sent to 
Vienna for lessons with Haydn in counterpoint. 
From 1795, with the publication of "Three Trios," 
he composed continuously, producing from 1800-15 
six symphonies, the "Coriolanus" and "Egmont" 
overtures, and the opera "Fidelio." The "Ninth 
Symphony" and "Mass in D" belong to a third 
period. His deafness became acute in 1802. A law- 
suit, 1816-20, and the care of his unworthy nephew, 
contributed to his decline and final illness. He had 
contemplated a "Tenth Symphony." — C.E., XV, 
565; U.K.; Thayer, Life of Beethoven, N. Y., 1921. 

Befana, ba-fa'na, a great fair held in Rome dur- 
ing the season of Epiphany. A popular practise sur- 
vives of selling earthenware images, and whistles. 

Beghards (probably Flemish, beghen, to pray), 
communities of laymen founded in the Netherlands 
in the 12th century. Each community had a com- 
mon purse, there was no private property, and all 
members dwelt under one roof. The members were 
of humble origin, usually weavers, dyers, fullers, 
etc., connected with the craft -guilds, through which 
they influenced the religious opinions of the middle- 
class Netherlanders for over two centuries. With 
the spread of the organization, abuses crept in and 
the Beghards took up the heresies of the Fraticelli, 
Apostolici, and Brethren of the Free Spirit. Cen- 
sured by pope, bishops, and Inquisition, they re- 
mained obstinate. Many, however, were staunch 
and well-meaning and brought about a reform. Pope 
John XXII in 1321 allowed them to resume their 
former manner of living. With the diminution of 
the cloth trade they decreased and during the 
French Revolution they disappeared. — C.E. 



Begin, be-zhan, Louis Nazaire (1840-1925), 
Abp. of Quebec and cardinal, b. Sarosta, Canada; 
d. Quebec. Ordained in Rome, 1865, he continued his 
studies in Innsbruck and the Holy Land, and re- 
turned to Canada in 1867. Teaching for a time at 
Laval and at the Lower Seminary in Quebec, he 
was made principal of the Laval Normal School in 
1884. He was consecrated in 1888 and named Bp. of 
fhicoutimi, becoming coadjutor to Card. Taschereau, 
Abp. of Quebec, in 1891. Named archbishop in 1898, 
he was made a cardinal by Pius X in 1914. In addi- 
tion to the zealous administration of his arch- 
diocese he wrote on doctrinal subjects and took 
an active part as an arbitrator in labor disputes. 

Beguines, beg'ens, communities of women founded 
in the Netherlands in the 12th century. Establishing 
houses on the outskirts of towns, they lived semi- 
monastic lives, and devoted themselves to the care 
of the poor and the infirm. They took no vows, did 
not relinquish their property, and were free to 
return to the world and wed if they chose. When 
it was necessary, they supported themselves by 
manual labor or by teaching. Bound together only 
by kindred pursuits and community of worship, 
they had no mother-house, nor common rule, nor 
superior-general; each community was complete in 
itself and made its own regulation, although later 
some adopted the rule of the Third Order of St. 
Francis. They established foundations in Germany, 
France, and Italy and by the end of the 13th cen- 
tury practically every town had at least one be- 
guinage. Centers of mysticism, they greatly influ- 
enced the religious life of the people, but many 
communities participated in the heresies of the age 
and were condemned by the Council of Vienne. 
Restored by Pope John XXII, most of their houses 
were suppressed during the religious conflicts of the 
16th century and the French Revolution. There are 
several at the present time however, in Holland 
and Belgium, which care for the sick and the poor 
and make lace. — C.E. ; U.K. 

Behaim, ba-him, Martin (1459-1507), cartog- 
rapher and navigator, b. Nuremberg, Germany; d. 
Lisbon. He was appointed by the King of Portu- 
gal member of a commission for determining lati- 
tude. He later accompanied Cao on his expedition 
along the west coast of Africa, and in 1492 made 
his geographical globe, the oldest existing, with the 
aid of the Nuremberg humanist, Schedel. — C.E. 

Behaviorism, the doctrine which limits psy- 
chology to the study of human behavior. It discards 
consciousness and mental processes accessible only 
to personal experience; rejects introspection, and 
admits the method of observation and experimenta- 
tion only. Its aim is to forecast what will be the 
response of any human being to a given stimulus of 
action, and to improve human conduct and condi- 
tions. Its chief concern is the study of inherited 
instincts and acquired habits. Behaviorism incon- 
sistently rejects consciousness, yet employs con- 
scious observation, whereas consciousness is an 
essential part of true psychology; declaring that 
mental and organic processes are identical, it be- 
comes the philosophy of materialism. — U.K. 

Behemoth, Hebrew word for beasts, left un- 
translated in Job, 40, where it indicates a particu- 



BEHEMOTH 



105 



BELGIUM 




BEHEMOTH 



lar animal, probably mythical, in description similar 
to the hippopotamus and corresponding to the 
mythical Egyptian water-ox, p-ehe-mu, probably 
adapted into Hebrew as behemah, plural behemoth; 
hence, monstrous beast. — U.K. 

Being, that which is capable of existence; its 
synonyms are thing, something. There are two uses 
of the term: the participial use (see Existence), 

and the substantival, 
the definition of which 
is the one here given. 
The term being in the 
substantival sense is ap- 
plicable to anything 
that either actually ex- 
ists or can exist, for be- 
ing is either actual, i.e., existent, or merely possible. 
It is contrasted with absolute nothingness, such as 
the impossible, e.g., a square circle, rather than with 
the merely non-existent. This term stands for the 
simplest of all our concepts, viz., the mere capacity 
for existence, and is the widest in application since 
it represents substances, accidents, modes of exist- 
ence, God, and creature. Briefly whatever is not ab- 
solutely nothing is something or being. — Pother, 
Being, Phila., 1924; Glenn, History of Philosophy, 
St. L., 1929. (j. a. m.) 

Belasyse, John, Baron (c. 1614-89), Royalist 
leader. During the Commonwealth he was a royal- 
ist agent in England, and after the Restoration 
was appointed to important posts, from which he 
resigned on the enactment of 
the Test Act (1673). Im- 
peached in connection with 
the Titus Oates plot, he was 
imprisoned without trial in 
the Tower of London. On the 
accession of James II, he was 
restored to favor. — C.E. 

Belfry (L. L., berefredus, 
watch-tower), the upper sec- 
tion of a church steeple con- 
taining bells, or a bell-tower 
independent of other build- 
ings. The term is also applied 
to the frame supporting the 
bells and the room from which 
they are rung. They origi- 
nated in movable towers of 
wood used anciently in at- 
tacking fortified places. Later, 
stationary towers were used 
as lookouts and as watch- 
towers on public buildings, be- 
ing equipped with bells in the 
12th and 13th centuries, to 
warn of danger, assemble 
meetings, etc. Towns rivaled 
each other in the splendor of 
their belfries, which were con- 
sidered symbols of power. That of Bruges is con- 
sidered the finest in Europe, while those of Ghent 
and Pisa are notable. Tournai has probably the 
oldest belfry in existence. — C.E.; U.K. 

Belgian College, Rome, founded, 1844, through 
the efforts of Mgr. Aerts, Mgr. Pecci, and the Bel- 



gian bishops; the last named support the students 
and nominate the president. The distinguishing 
mark of students is the black sash with two red 
stripes at the ends. — C.E., XIII, 135. 

Belgian Congo, dependency of Belgium in Cen- 
tral Africa; est. area, 918,000 sq. m. ; est. Bantu 
pop., 8,500,000; Europeans, 18,169. Formerly the 
Congo Free State founded by Leopold II, King of 
the Belgians, the colony was annexed by Belgium in 
1908. The natives practise a low form of fetichism, 
but missionary work is widespread, being conducted 
by 1076 Catholic and 616 Protestant missionaries. 
Belgian Congo comprises the following ecclesiastical 
divisions : 





Year 


Ghs. 


Pp. 


JSrs. 


Caths. 


Buta, V.A 


1926 


10 


17 




12,000 


Upper Congo, V.A 


1880 


82 


22 




12,000 


Upper Kassai, V.A. . . . 


1917 


69 


48 


16 


111,277 


Leopoldville, V.A 


1919 


13 


47 


63 


62,955 


Niangara, V.A 


1926 




14 




9,011 


New Antwerp, V.A.... 


1919 


is 


54 




40,512 


Ruanda, V.A 


1922 




43 


37 


15,259 


Stanley Falls, V.A 


1908 


ii 


30 


13 


26,000 


Urundi, V.A 


1922 


18 


14 




10,834 


Basankusu. P.A 


1926 










Bondo, P.A 


1926 










Coquilhatville, P.A. . . . 


1926 








7,000 


Northern Katanga, P.A. 


1911 


8 


14 


12 


4,000 


Kwango, P.A 


1903 


30 


27 


17 


18,870 


Lake Albert, P.A 


1922 




16 




8,239 


Upper Luapula, P.A... 


1925 










Lulua and Central Ka- 












tanga, P.A 


1922 










Matadi, P.A 


1911 


35 






13,653 


Belgian Ubangi, P.A... 


1911 


7 


12 




4,573 




BELFRY, BRUGES 



Belgium, independent monarchy of western Eu- 
rope, between France and Holland; area 11,755 sq. 
m.; est. pop., 7,811,876, of 
whom the great majority are 
Catholic, with about 30,000 

1--t«» Protestants and 13,000 Jews. 

||(ji The eastern part was appar- 

Ij!« ently the first to be evangel- 

ized, and the first bishop was 
St. Servais (d. c. 384). Chris- 
tianity was introduced in the 
west by St. Piat as early as 
the second half of the 3rd cen- 
tury, but was lost through 
pagan invasion, and the work 
of conversion was not com- 
pleted until the 8th century. 
From the 6th to the 8th cen- 
tury it was led by bishops, as 
St. Eloi, St. Lambert, and St. 
Hubert, and numerous mis- 
sionaries, notably St. Amand 
(d. 675), Bp. of Maastricht 
and founder of many monas- 
teries to which the Belgians 
owe much of their attachment 
to the Catholic Faith. After 
'//?f passing through the hands of 
Lorraine, Burgundy, Austria, 
Spain, Austria again, France, 
and, after the fall of Napoleon, 
Holland, the Belgian provinces revolted in 1830, 
proclaimed their independence, and were recog- 
nized as a constitutional monarchy in 1831. The 
constitution proclaimed freedom of worship, of the 
press, and of education, and the civil marriage cere- 
mony became obligatory. The state contributes part 



BELGIUM 



106 



BELLS 



of the income of the clergy of all denominations and 
aids in the erection and repair of religious build- 
ings. The Catholic Church is thus administered: 

Tear Chs. Pp. Srs. Caths. 

Malines, A. .. 1561 .. 3,547 13,331 2,527,650 

Bruges, D... 1559 ISo'tl? 

Ghent, D. . . 1559 .. . • •• 1,142,347 

Liege, D 4th cent. 700 1,700 5,000 1,215,000 

Namur, D.. . 1559 911 1,873 3,113 583,722 

Tournai, D.. 4th cent. .. 1,220 6,500 1,230,000 

— C.E.; U.K. 

Belial, be'H-al (Heb., worthlessness ; perhaps 
from Belili, Babylonian goddess of the lower re- 
gions), used as a name for the demon or devil. In 
2 Corinthians, 6, it is a designation of Satan — 
C.E. ( A - H -) 

Belief, the accepting of something as true on the 
word of another ( God or man ) ; the religious doc- 
trines of a particular church or sect, e.g., Catholic 
belief or creed, Protestant belief or creed. — C.E.; 
U.K. (l. A. A.) 

Belize, Vicariate Apostolic of, comprises the 
Crown Colony of British Honduras, Central Amer- 
ica; established as a mission, 1851; Prefecture 
Apostolic of British Honduras, 1888; vicariate, 
1893; named Belize, 1925. Entrusted to the Jesuits 
of the Missouri Province. Vicars Apostolic: Salva- 
tore di Pietro, S.J. (1888-98), Frederick Charles 
Hopkins, S.J. (1899-1923), Joseph A. Murphy, S.J. 
(1924). Churches, 63; stations, 57; priests, secular, 
1; priests (Jesuits), 24; scholastics, 6; religious 
women, 45; college, 1; academy, 1; elementary 
schools, 45; pupils in elementary schools, 3914; 
Catholics (est.), 29,482. 

Bella dum late furerent, et urbes, or When 
WAR WAS raging, AND THE TOWN, hymn for Matins 
on 12 Feb., feast of the Seven Holy Founders. It 
was written by Vincent Tarozzi (1849-1918). There 
is no mention of translations of this hymn; the 
English title given is anonymous. — Britt. 

Bel lar mine. See Robert Bellarmine, Blessed. 
Bellarmine Jug, a round-bellied, narrow- 
necked vessel with a bearded mask, at first collec- 
tively called Bartmanner (bearded men) and made 
at Frechen, near Cologne, in the 15th century. It 
was changed in mockery into 
the likeness of Card. Bellar- 
mine, and became popular 
with Protestants under the 
name "bellarmine" or "grey- 
beard" as a coarse retort to 
the cardinal's unanswerable 
arguments against Protes- 
tantism in his "Controver- 
sies." It is now obsolete, but 
there are numerous speci- 
mens extant, above a hun- 
dred being in the London 
bellarmine jug Museum.— Broderick, The 
Life and Works of Blessed Robert Francis Bellar- 
mine, S.J., Lond., 1928. 

Bellary, bel-la/re, mission, India; established, 
1928; entrusted to the English Franciscans. Su- 
perior: A. J. Van der Burg (1928). 

Bellasis, Edward (1800-73), English lawyer, 
received into the Church, in 1850. From that time 
to his death he was one of the most devoted Cath- 




olic laymen in England, and was prominently asso- 
ciated with all Catholic activities. — C.E. 

Bell, Book, and Candle, symbols used in the 
greater excommunication in the Church in medieval 
times. After the sentence of excommunication was 
read the book was closed, a lighted candle was 
thrown to the ground, and the bell tolled, as for 
one dead. (c. J. D.) 

Bell=cot, a small framework and shelter for one 
or more bells, supported on brackets projecting from 
a wall or built on the roof of chapels or churches 
which have no towers. It often holds the Sanctus 
bell rung at the Consecration. 

Belleville, Diocese of, Illinois, embraces that 
portion of the state south of the northern limits of 
the counties of St. Clair, Clinton, Marion, Clay, 
Richland, and Lawrence; area, 11,678 sq. m. ; 
erected, 1887; suffragan of Chicago. Bishops: John 
Janssen (1888-1913), Henry Althoff (1914). 
Churches, 139; priests, secular. 135; priests, regu- 
lar, 13; religious women, 662; academies, 2; high 
schools, 9; primary schools, 80; pupils in parish 
schools, 11,999; institutions, 11; Catholics, 72,313. 

Bellini, Gentile (c. 1427-1507), painter, b. 
Padua, Italy; d. Venice. He and his younger brother 
were the founders of the Venetian school. Together 
they perfected the art of oil-painting, inaugurated 
by Flemish artists. Gentile completed the work of 
his father in a series on "The Miracle of the Cross." 
He was sent to Constantinople as one of the great- 
est Venetian masters, and his portrait of Moham- 
med II and his "Adoration of the Magi" are of this 
period.— C.E. ; U.K. 

—Giovanni (c. 1428-1516), painter, brother of pre- 
ceding, b. Padua; d. Venice. He surpassed his 
brother in poetic imagination and in the rich color- 
ing so characteristic of the Venetian school. Among 
his famous altar-pieces, consisting usually of Ma- 
donnas enthroned and accompanied by saints, are 
those done for the churches of Santa Maria dei 
Frari, S. Zaccaria, and S. Giobbe, in Venice. The 
Academy of Venice contains the last, and another 
fine group, "The Doge Barbarigo before the Infant 
Christ." Angels with musical instruments add a 
subtle harmony to his groups. His excellence as a 
portrait painter is evident in the well-known "Doge 
Loredano" of the National Gallery, in London. — 
C.E.; U.K. 

Belloc, Elizabeth Rayner Parkes (1829-1925), 
English writer and philanthropist. Great-grand- 
daughter of Joseph Priestly, the discoverer of oxy- 
gen, and mother of Hilaire Belloc and Mrs. Belloc 
Lowndes, she was a member of the brilliant literary 
circle which included Dante Gabriel Rossetti and 
his sister Christina, the Brownings, and Ruskin. 
She became a Catholic in 1864. Her works include 
"La Belle France," "Historic Nuns," and "The 
Flowing Tide." 

Bells, sacramentals of the Church, blessed with 
religious rites, and used to remind men of religion 
and of God, thereby increasing His grace in their 
souls. It is said that bells were introduced into 
Christian churches about the year 400 by Paulinus, 
Bp. of Nola, Italy. The ringing of bells or gongs 
in the sanctuary is tolerated by the Church, but 
these are usually not blessed. The ringing of the 



BELLS 



107 



BENEDICT VI 



tower-bell at the Elevation of the Host and the 
Chalice at the principal Mass on Sunday is a 
practise dating from the 13th century, a signal, to 
those not present at the Mass, to kneel and adore. 
Bells are not rung from the Gloria of the Mass 
on Holy Thursday to the Gloria of Holy Saturday, 
to denote the Church's sorrow because of the suf- 
ferings and death of Christ. An acolyte, ringing a 
bell, precedes a priest carrying the Blessed Sacra- 
ment from one altar to another in a church or to 
the sick in a convent or in a Catholic hospital. — 
C.E.; U.K.; Coleman, Bells, Their History, Legend, 
Making and Uses, N. Y., 1928. (j. F. s.) 

Bells, Blessing of, a solemn benediction of 
church bells, in which each bell receives a name, 
hence incorrectly termed the "baptism of bells." The 
long and solemn ceremony, which may be performed 
only by a bishop, or a priest especially designated, 
consists of washing the bell with holy water, 
anointing it with the oil of the infirm without, 
and chrism within, and offering prayers that these 
sacramentals of the Church may, at the sound 
of the bell, put the demon to flight, protect from 
storms, and call the faithful to prayer. The fuming 
censer is then placed under the bell, that the smoke 
may fill the cavity, and the ceremony is concluded 
with the reading of the Gospel concerning Martha 
and Mary. The identical ritual is found in use in 
Carlovingian times and probably dates from about 
750. Simplified blessings are used for other bells. 
— C.E.; Sullivan, Externals of the Catholic Church, 
N. Y., 1917. 

Belmont, Abbey Nullius of, North Carolina, 
comprises Catawba, Cleveland, Burke, Gaston, Lin- 
coln, McDowell, Polk, and Rutherford counties; 
area, 3626 sq. m. ; suffragan of Santa Fe. Belmont 
Abbey, also called Maryhelp Abbey, was founded as 
St. Mary's College by the Benedictines, 1878, raised 
to an abbey, 1884, and erected into an abbey 
nullius, 1910. The college received its charter for 
secular education, 1886; connected with it are an 
academy and a seminary, founded 1888 for students 
for the abbey nullius and Southern missions. Ab- 
bots-Ordinary: Leo Haid, O.S.B. (1887-1924), Vin- 
cent Taylor, O.S.B. (1925). Churches, 7; stations, 8; 
priests, regular, 17; religious women, 38; college, 1; 
seminary, 1 ; boys' school, 1 ; girls' school, 1 ; pupils 
in schools, 107; colored school, 1; Catholics, 352. 

Belmont, Francois Vachon de (1645-1732), 
fifth Superior of the Sulpicians at Montreal, b. 
Grenoble, France. He went to Canada in 1680, and 
labored among the Indians at La Montagne until 
1700 when he became superior. He erected Fort 
de La Montagne and the old seminary and began 
the construction of the Lachine Canal. Among his 
works are a history of Canada, and funeral orations 
of Ven. Marguerite Bourgeoys and others prominent 
in the religious life of that country. — C.E. 

Belmont Abbey (Abbey of St. Michael and 
All Angels), Hereford, England, founded, 1859, by 
the Benedictines as a central novitiate and house of 
studies for the English Congregation; erected into 
an abbey, 1920; priests, 14. 

Belomancy (Gr., oelos, dart; manteia, divina- 
tion), divination practised by means of arrows 
(Ezech., 21). 



Bema (Gr., step), originally any raised plat- 
form, then the platform in Roman basilicas con- 
taining the judges' seats; in the Greek Orthodox 
Church the space surrounding the Holy Table be- 
hind the iconostasis or image screen. 
1 Benedicamus Domino, ba-na-de-ca/mus do'me-no 
(Lat., Let us bless the Lord), invocation said at 
the end of Mass when the "Gloria in Excelsis Deo" 
is omitted, and usually answered with "Deo Gra- 
tias" (Thanks be to God) ; sometimes used as a 
salutation and as a signal for rising in religious 
communities and seminaries. (c. J. D. ) 

Benedicite, ba-na-de'ce-ta, The, or Canticle of 
the Thkee Children, canticle uttered by Sidrach, 
Misach, and Abdenago when they remained un- 
harmed upon being cast into the fiery furnace by 
Nabuchodonosor for refusing to adore a golden 
statue he had set up (Dan., 3). It begins Benedicite, 
omnia opera Domini, Domino (O all ye works of the 
Lord, bless ye the Lord), and is included in the 
Roman Breviary for Lauds on Sundays throughout 
the year. 

Benedict I (Lat., blessed) or Bonosus, Pope 
(575-579), b. Rome; d. there. He reigned during 
the famine which followed upon a Lombard invasion 
of Italy, and died during a siege of Rome. — C.E.; 
Grisar. 

Benedict II, Saint, Pope (684-685), b. Rome; 
d. there. To shorten the time of vacancy at the 
death of a pope he obtained from the Emperor 
Constantine IV a decree abolishing the imperial 
confirmation of the pope-elect before consecration. 
He reinstated St. Wilfrid in the See of York, of 
which he had been unjustly deprived. Feast, 7 May. 
— C.E.; Mann. 

Benedict III, Pope (855-858), d. Rome. A Ro- 
man citizen, he succeeded Leo IV. On the day 
of the papal coronation Emperor Lothair died, 
leaving the Frankish kingdom divided among 
five relatives. The Slavs, Normans, and Sara- 
cens redoubled their attacks upon the Franks, and 
to defray the expenses of the war the Frankish 
nobles seized Church property and sold it. The 
clergy were powerless, but Benedict was instru- 
mental in removing many of the abuses. He re- 
paired Rome after the Saracen raid, 846, and re- 
ceived a visit and gifts from the Saxon King 
iEthelwulf and his son, the future King Alfred 
the Great. — C.E.; Mann. 

Benedict IV, Pope (c. 900-c. 903), b. Rome; d. 
there. He was a Roman by birth and as pope 
crowned Emperor Louis III, the Blind, and recog- 
nized the legitimacy of Pope Formosus and upheld 
his ordinances. — C.E.; Mann. 

Benedict V ( Grammaticus ) , Pope (964*965), 
b. Rome; d. Hamburg, Germany. A cardinal-deacon, 
he was elected pope in opposition to Emperor Otto's 
candidate, the antipope, Leo. Otto immediately 
marched to Rome and carried Benedict off to Ger- 
many where he died. His remains were later trans- 
lated to Rome. — C.E. ; Mann. 

Benedict VI, Pope (972-974), b. Rome; d. there. 
Shortly after he was elected pope he was impris- 
oned and strangled by a faction of the Italian 
nobility under the antipope, Boniface Franco. — 
C.E.; Mann. 



BENEDICT VII 



108 



BENEDICT XV 




AEMS OF 

BENEDICT 

IX 



Benedict VII, Pope (974-983), b. Rome; d. 
there. He was Bp. of Sutri, and when elected pope 
his authority was disputed by the antipope, Boni- 
face Franco, and his followers. He was upheld, how- 
ever, by the emperor, Otto II. He attempted to 
check simony, promoted monasticism, and appointed 
the first Abp. of Carthage.— C.E. ; Mann. 

Benedict VIII, Pope (1012-24), b. Rome; d. 
there. Count of Tusculum, and brother of John XIX 
(XX), he was a layman before his election. As 
pope he subdued the Crescentii, defeated the Sara- 
cens, and crowned as emperor, Henry II of Germany 
from whom he received a charter confirming the do- 
nations of Charlemagne and Otto. He held a synod 
at Pavia in order to restrain simony. — C.E.; Mann. 
Benedict IX, Pope (1032-44; 1045; 1047-48), 
d. probably Grottaferrata, Italy. Count of Tuscu- 
lum and nephew of the two preceding 
popes, he was placed on the papal 
throne by his father, Alberic, when a 
youth of twenty. He was driven from 
office in 1044 by a Roman faction, as 
unfit to rule. Returning he expelled 
the antipope, John of Sabina, and re- 
instated himself, but resigned in favor 
of Gregory VI. Regretting this action 
he attempted to regain the chair but 
Emperor Henry III intervened, and at the Congress 
of Sutri the three claimants were deposed and Clem- 
ent II elected pope. Upon Clement's death Benedict 
seized the throne again but was forced out by Clem- 
ent's successor, Damasus II. — C.E.; Mann. 

Benedict X, antipope. See Mincius, John, Bp. 
of Velletri. 

Benedict XI (Niccolo Boccasini 
Pope (1303-04), b. Treviso, Italy, 
1240; d. Perugia. When Master Gen- 
eral of the Dominican Order he ar- 
ranged an armistice between Philip 
IV of France and Edward I of Eng- 
land. Later he was made Card-Bp. of 
Ostia, and defended Boniface VIII 
against William of Nogaret and the 
Colonna faction. As pope he removed 
the papal censure from Philip and 
France, and absolved the cardinals favoring the 
Colonna. His death is believed to have occurred 
from poisoning by the agents of William of Nogaret. 
Feast, 7 July, at Rome and in the Dominican 
Order.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Benedict XII (Jacques Foukniek), Pope 
(1334-42), b. Saverdun, France; d. 
Rome. A Cistercian, Bp. of Pamiers, 
and cardinal, he became the third of 
the Avignon popes. He sought to free 
the papacy from French influence and 
to restore the See to Rome, curbed 
nepotism, granted benefices with dis- 
crimination, condemned "pluralities," 
and strengthened the Faith in outly- 
ing districts. — C.E.; Pastor. 
Benedict XIII (Pietro Francesco Orsini), 
Pope (1724-30), b. Gravina, Naples, 1649; d. Rome. 
He became a Dominican, was made a cardinal, 1672, 
and was appointed successively Bp. of Manfredonia, 
Cesena, and Benevento. As pope he was a discipli- 



Blessed, 




ARMS OF 

BENEDICT 

XI 




AEMS OF 

BENEDICT 

XII 




AEMS OF 

BENEDICT 

XIII 




AEMS OF 

BENEDICT 

XIV 



narian, instituting numerous reforms and requiring 
absolute acceptance of the Bull "Unigenitus" against 
Jansenism. In diplomatic affairs he 
lacked firmness, settling the contro- 
versy between the Kings of Naples, 
Savoy, and Portugal in an indecisive 
manner. His reputation suffered 
through his misplaced trust in Card. 
Coscia. — C.E. 

Benedict XIII, antipope. See 
Luna, Pedro de. 

Benedict XIV (Prospero Lorenzo 
Lambertini ) , Pope ( 1740-58 ) ,b. Bologna, Italy, 1675 ; 
d. Rome. After filling many important offices he be- 
came a cardinal, and later Abp. of Bologna. As pope 
he adopted a liberal policy in dealing 
with foreign powers, abolished usury, 
encouraged commerce, improyed agri- 
cultural methods, reformed the nobility, 
and decreased taxation. He influenced 
spiritual matters by his Bulls and 
Encyclicals, regulated mixed marriages, 
settled the controversies regarding the 
Malabar and Chinese rites, and revised 
the Roman Martyrology. As a scholar 
he founded academies of history, law, liturgy, and 
established chairs of mathematics and science. He 
wrote a useful work on canon law. Macaulay calls 
him "The best and wisest of men." (Essay on Fred- 
erick the Great.) — C.E. 

Benedict XIV, antipope (c. 1425-c. 1430). Lit- 
tle historically certain is known about this anti- 
pope. When the antipope Pedro de Luna, died, three 
of his cardinals elected the antipope Mufioz; a 
fourth cardinal, Jean Carrer, on his own authority 
elected the antipope Benedict XIV who was recog- 
nized by the Count of Armagnac, and who disap- 
peared from history almost immediately. — Pas- 
tor. 

Benedict XV (Giacomo della Chiesa), Pope 
(1914-22), b. Pegli, Italy, 1854; d. Rome. Nuncio 
to Spain, privy chamberlain, Abp. of Bologna, and 
cardinal, he was elected directly after the outbreak 
of the World War, and maintained a position of 
neutrality throughout. He sent a rep- 
resentative to each country to work 
for peace, and in 1917 delivered the 
Plea for Peace, which demanded a 
cessation of hostilities, a reduction of 
armaments, a guaranteed freedom of 
the seas, and international arbitra- 
tion. President Wilson was the only 
ruler who answered him, declaring 
peace impossible, though he after- 
wards adopted most of Benedict's proposals for 
establishing peace. At the close of the war France 
and Spain resumed diplomatic relations with the 
Vatican, and Great Britain retained permanently 
the embassy she had established during the war. 
Benedict promulgated the new Code of Canon Law, 
established the Coptic College at Rome, enlarged 
the foreign mission field, and in his first Encyclical 
condemned errors in modern philosophical systems. 
He denounced the violation of Belgium and gave 
freely to the victims of the war, widows, orphans, 
and wounded, and established a bureau of communi- 




AEMS OF 

BENEDICT 

XV 



BENEDICT XV 



109 



BENEDICT OF NURSIA 



cation for prisoners of war with their relatives. — 
C.E. Suppl.; U.K. 

Benedictbeurn Abbey, in the Bavarian Alps 
about 30 m. s. of Munich, founded by three brothers, 
Lanfrid, Wulfram, and Eliland, as a college of 
regular canons, 740; revived under the Benedictine 
Rule, 1031. It became famous for scholarship and 
piety during the Middle Ages; was ravaged dur- 
ing the Thirty Years War; suppressed by the 
government, 1803, and used as barracks, hos- 
pitals, and stud-house. In 1901 Freiherr von 
Kramer-Klett, restorer of several monasteries, of- 
fered 5,500,000 marks for the property, but was 
met by a demand for 12,000,000, which he refused. 
—C.E. 

Benedict Biscop, Saint, abbot (c. 628-690), d. 
Wearmouth, England. He was educated at the court 
of Oswy, King of Northumbria, and received the 
Benedictine habit at Lerins, 666, becoming Abbot of 
St. Peter's, Canterbury. He introduced into England 
the Roman Rite in place of the Celtic usages, the 
art of making glass windows, and the building of 
stone churches. Patron of English Benedictines. 
Feast, 12 Feb.— C.E. 

Benedictine Order. See Order of St. Benedict. 
Benediction (Lat., benedictio, a blessing), in 
the Divine Office a brief blessing pronounced by the 
officiant upon the reader before the latter begins the 
lessons of Matins. The blessing is preceded by the 
petition "Jube Domine benedicere" (Deign, Sir, a 
blessing). The early use of such blessings in the 
Office is attested in the 4th century and in the 
Benedictine Office of the 6th century. See Blessing ; 
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament; Bene- 
diction WITH ClBORIUM. (J. G. K. ) 
Benedictional, a book containing benedictions 
or blessings used in the Church. — C.E. 

Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, a 
popular Eucharistic devotion in the Catholic 
Church of the Latin Rite. In the more solemn form 
of this ceremony the officiating priest is vested in 
surplice, stole, and cope. The consecrated Host, 
enclosed in the ostensorium (q.v.), is placed on the 
altar or in a niche above, and is incensed by the 
priest. Then the last two verses of the hymn "Pange 
Lingua" ("Tantum Ergo . . . Genitori . . .") are 
sung, during the second of which the Blessed Sacra- 
ment is again incensed as before. The versicle 
"Panem de ccelo" etc. and its response "Omne delec- 
tamentum" etc. are sung, and the priest chants the 
prayer of the Blessed Sacrament "Deus qui nobis" 
etc. Then with his hands covered by a veil pendent 
from his shoulders he makes the sign of the cross 
over the congregation with the ostensorium; after 
which the consecrated Host is replaced in the taber- 
nacle. Usually a Eucharistic hymn, e.g., "O Salu- 
taris," is sung at the beginning of the exposition, 
and a hymn of praise, e.g., "Laudate Dominum" is 
sung at the conclusion of the ceremony. Other hymns 
and prayers are permitted before the "Tantum 
Ergo"; and nowadays the Divine Praises are gener- 
ally recited by priest and people after the blessing, 
before the Blessed Sacrament is replaced. At least 
twelve candles must be lighted on the altar during 
the function. Benediction originated with the cus- 
tom, which came into vogue during the 14th century, 



of exposing the Blessed Sacrament for adoration. 
Subsequently (c. 16th century) the blessing with the 
Sacred Host was added. The general law of the 
Church permits Benediction, both morning and 
evening, on the feast of Corpus Christi and during 
its octave. For a good reason the bishop may grant 
permission for this devotion on other occasions. 
The second Council of Baltimore allows Benediction 
in churches throughout the United States on Sun- 
days, feasts of the first and second classes, twice a 
week during Lent, every day during a mission, and 
at the Forty-Hours' devotion, besides the days 
designated by the individual bishops. — C.E.; Wuest- 
Mullaney, Matters Liturgical, Cin., 1925; Codex 
luris Canonici, can. 1274. (r. J. c.) 

Benediction with Ciborium, a less solemn form 
of Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. At least 
six candles are lighted on the altar; the priest is 
usually vested in surplice and stole, but may wear 
the cope. The tabernacle is opened so that the 
ciborium containing the Blessed Sacrament can be 
seen; the "Tantum Ergo," "Panem de coelo" etc., and 
the prayer of the Blessed Sacrament are sung or 
recited and the priest imparts the blessing with 
the ciborium as is done in the more solemn form 
with the ostensorium. Incense may be used at the 
beginning of the exposition and during the "Tantum 
Ergo." No special permission of the bishop is re- 
quired for this form of Benediction. — Wuest-Mul- 
laney, Matters Liturgical, Cin., 1925; Codex luris 
Canonici, can. 1274. (f. j. c. ) 

Benedict Joseph Labre, Saint, confessor 
(1748-83), pilgrim, b. Amettes, France; d. Borne. 
After unsuccessful attempts, because of his youth 
and poor health, to obtain the religious habit in 
the Trappist, Cistercian, and Carthusian orders, he 
devoted his remaining 13 years to traveling over 
Europe, visiting famous shrines, and leading a 
life of great mortification. Worn out by austeri- 
ties, he collapsed outside a church in Rome, and 
died shortly after. He was known as the "Saint 
of the Forty Hours Devotion," following this de- 
votion wherever he could. His death was followed 
by a multitude of miracles. Canonized, 1881. Rel- 
ics in S. Maria dei Monti, Rome. Feast, 16 April. 
—C.E. 

Benedict of Aniane, Saint, abbot (745-821). 
After a short military career he entered the mon- 
astery of St. Sequanus and later established a Bene- 
dictine house at Aniane, which became the model 
and center of the monastic reform in France under 
Louis the Pious. In 814 Louis founded for him the 
Abbey of Cornelimlinster. He was the leader of the 
synods at Aix-la-Chapelle, 816 and 817. Benedict 
defended the orthodox teaching against Felix of 
Urgel, leader of the Adoptionists. Feast, 11 Feb. 
— C.E.; Butler. 

Benedict of Nursia, Saint, confessor (c. 480- 
543), founder of western monasticism, b. Nursia, 
Italy; d. Monte Cassino. A brother of St. Scholas- 
tica, when only 17 he renounced the world, and 
the wealth and position of his family and took 
refuge in a cave at Subiaco, in the Sabine moun- 
tains, where he lived as a hermit for several years 
and established 12 monasteries for his followers, 
over which he ruled as abbot. Driven by persecu- 



BENEDICT OF NURSIA 



110 



BENIGNUS 



tion from Subiaco, 529, he settled at Monte Cassino, 
erected a large monastery and established his fa- 
mous rule, combining manual labor and ascetic 
practises; he later founded a second house at Ter- 
racina. He died before the altar after receiving Holy 
Communion. He is invoked against poisoning. Em- 
blems : bush, raven, bell, crosier. Relics at Monte 
Cassino and Fleury-sur-Loire. Feast, R. Cal., 21 
March.— C.E.; Butler. 

Benedict of San Philadelphio (Benedict the 
Moor), Saint, confessor (1526-89), b. San Phila- 
delphio, Sicily; d. Palermo. His parents were 
Ethiopian slaves, converted to Christianity. Freed 
by his master at an early age, he joined a group 
of hermits on Monte Pellegrino, under the Fran- 
ciscan rule, and served as superior for 22 years. 
After the dissolution of this society by Pope Pius 
IV, Benedict joined the reformed Recollects of the 
Franciscan Order, and was elected guardian of the 
house at Palermo, which he reformed and ruled 
until his death. Canonized, 1807. Feast, 3 April. — 
C.E. 

Benedictus, The, or Canticle of Zachary, a 
song of thanksgiving beginning Benedictus Domi- 
nus, Deus Israel (Blessed be the Lord God of 
Israel), uttered by Zachary upon the birth of his 
son, John the Baptist (Luke, 1). It is one of 
the three "evangelical canticles," is included in the 
Roman Breviary for Lauds daily throughout the 
year, and is also used at other liturgical func- 
tions, especially at the moment of interment at 
funerals. 

Benefice (Lat., beneficium, a benefit), a jurid- 
ical entity erected or constituted in perpetuity by 
competent ecclesiastical authority, consisting of a 
sacred office and the right of receiving the revenues 
accruing to that office. These revenues may arise 
from: property, movable or immovable owned by 
the benefice; obligatory contributions made by a 
family or some moral person; the voluntary offer- 
ings of the faithful or stole fees to be paid accord- 
ing to diocesan statute or laudable custom; the 
choir distributions, except a third part of the 
same, if the entire revenues consist of such dis- 
tributions. Benefices are divided by the Code into: 
consistorial, which are usually conferred in a con- 
sistory, or non-consistorial; secular or religious, 
according as they are confided to the care of the 
secular or religious clergy; double (residential), 
which have attached the obligation of residence, or 
simple (non-residential) ; manual (temporary, re- 
movable ) , or perpetual ( irremovable ) , according as 
the incumbent can be removed at will or not; and 
curata, which involved the cure of souls, or non- 
curata. According to an official reply from Rome, 
1921, parishes in the United States are regarded as 
benefices. — C.E.; P.C. Augustine. (w. J. M.) 

Benefices, Collation of, the giving of a vacant 
benefice to one canonically fit by competent ec- 
clesiastical authority, with due respect to an ac- 
quired right of presentation, election, etc. The pope 
can confer any benefice in the universal Church. 
The bishop enjoys the same right within his own 
diocese, but his vicar general does not. While 
the see is vacant, he who rules the diocese can 
confer those benefices for which one has been pre- 



sented or elected, but not those which are of free 
collation. (w. J. m.) 

Benefit of Clergy, exemption from the jurisdic- 
tion of civil courts granted to the clergy in England 
from the time of William the Conqueror, and last- 
ing with occasional restrictions down to 1827 when 
it was abolished. In the early days it was even 
extended to all who could read, since as a rule only 
clerics had that accomplishment. The exemption was 
recognized in the American colonies until denied by 
Act of Congress, 1790. — C.E.; Desmond, The Church 
and the Law, Chi., 1898. (w. G.) 

Benemerenti Medals, pontifical decorations in- 
stituted by Gregory XVI, 1832, and awarded as a 
recognition of distinguished military and civil 
services. The military medal bears on one side 
the image of Gregory XVI and on the other an 
angel bearing a scroll with the word Benemer- 
enti beneath the papal emblems. The civil medal 
has Benemerenti surrounded by a crown of oak 
leaves engraved on its face surface. They are worn 
on the breast, suspended by ribbons of the papal 
colors. 

Benevento (Lat., bene ventum, fair wind), town 
and former papal principality of Campania, Italy. 
It occupies the site of the ancient Maleventum, 
founded by the Samnites and conquered by the 
Romans, 275 B.C., who changed its name; destroyed 
by the Goths a.d. 542. An independent Lombard 
duchy from 571, it was ceded by Emperor Henry 
III to Pope Leo IX, 1053, who led an expedition 
against the Uorman invaders of Benevento and 
finally succeeded in making them his devoted sub- 
jects. From 1053 till 1860, when it was annexed to 
the Kingdom of Italy, this principality, surrounded 
by the Kingdom of Naples, was governed by a dele- 
gate of the Holy See, but was very often occupied 
by the Neapolitans. The seat of an archdiocese since 
939, it was the scene of eleven councils from 
1059 to 1545. Its Byzantine cathedral dates from 
the 9th century; the church of St. Sophia from the 
Lombard period (c. 760). — C.E. 

Benevolence (Lat., bene, well; volens, wish- 
ing), the disposition to promote the welfare and 
happiness of others. In theology, love of benevolence 
means charity, which seeks what is good for the 
sake of one who is loved, in contrast to the love 
of concupiscence, by which good is sought for the 
sake of the one who loves. Friendship consists in 
mutual love of benevolence. 

Bengy, ban-zhe, Anatole de (1824-71), Jesuit 
martyr, b. Bourges, France; d. Paris. He was 
chaplain to the French soldiers in the Crimean 
and Franco-Prussian wars, and was martyred by 
the French Communists. See Commune, Mabtyrs 
of THE. 

Benignus (Lat., kind), Saint, confessor (d. c. 
467), Abp. of Armagh. The son of Sesenen, an Irish 
chieftain, he was converted and baptized by St. 
Patrick, to whom he later served as coadjutor in 
the See of Armagh, being known as St. Patrick's 
favorite disciple and right-hand man. He was re- 
nowned for his musical talent; and assisted in com- 
piling the "Senchus Mor," or old Irish code of law. 
He resigned his see some time before his death. 
Another Irish saint named Benignus was superior 



BENIGNUS 



111 



BENZIGER 



of the monasteries of Kilbannon and Drumlease. 
Feast, 9 Nov.— C.E. 

Benincasa, Ursula, Venerable (1547-1618), 
foundress of the Order of Theatine Nuns, and of the 
Theatine Hermitesses, b. Naples; d. near Castel St. 
Elmo, Italy. Humors of her visions and ecstasies 
excited comment and she was called to Rome and 
questioned by Gregory XIII, who placed her under 
the direction of St. Philip Neri. He was much im- 
pressed by her piety. In 1583 she established near 
Castel St. Elmo the Oblate Sisters of the Immacu- 
late Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, called 
Theatine Nuns, their habit resembling that of the 
Theatine clerics. Their rule included simple vows, 
active life, and adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. 
In 1617 she founded the contemplative Hermitesses. 
The rules of both were approved by Gregory XV 
in 1623. She introduced the wearing of the blue 
scapular of the Immaculate Conception. Commem- 
orated, 20 Oct. 

Benin Coast, Vicariate Apostolic of, West 
Africa, established as a mission, 1860, and as a 
vicariate Apostolic, 1870, comprises a large Negro 
territory; area, 96,250 sq. m.; entrusted to the 
Society for African Missions of Lyons. Vicar 
Apostolic, Ferdinand Terrien, appointed, 1912; resi- 
dence at Lagos. Stations, 184; schools, 100; institu- 
tions, 16; Catholics, 17,743. 

Benjamin (Heb., son of my right hand), young- 
est son of Jacob, and preferred with Joseph above 
all the other sons. Pressed by famine, Jacob would 
not send Benjamin with his brethren into Egypt, 
to seek grain, but consented when Joseph refused 
to give the grain unless the brothers were accom- 
panied by Benjamin, to whom he was very devoted 
(Gen., 42 and 43).— C.E. (f. j. L.) 

Benjamin, Tribe of, one of the 12 tribes of 
Israel, founded by Benjamin. Moses pronounced a 
special blessing upon this tribe (Deut., 33), which 
at the division of the territory of Chanaan under 
Josue, obtained its share between the frontiers of 
Ephraim, Dan, and Juda (Jos., 18). In the time of 
the Judges, it was involved in a war with the 
other tribes (Judges, 19). Later, the first King of 
Israel, Saul, was chosen from the tribe of Benjamin 
(1 Kings, 9). At the death of Solomon, the 10 tribes 
separated from Roboam; but the tribe of Benjamin, 
with that of Juda, remained faithful (3 Kings, 
12). These two formed the Kingdom of Juda, 
and they became, after the Babylonian captivity, 
the germ of a reestablished nation (1 Esdras, 4 
and 10). (f. j. l.) 

Benno, Saint, confessor (1010-1106). Bp. of 
Meissen, b. Hildesheim, Prussia; d. Meissen, Saxony. 
He became a monk and Abbot of St. Michael's, Hil- 
desheim, and was later made master of the canons 
of Goslar. In 1066 he was consecrated Bp. of Meis- 
sen. He joined the Saxon revolt against the emperor, 
Henry IV, but was captured and imprisoned for 
a year. Deposed by the Synod of Mainz, 1085, for 
championing Pope Gregory VII, he was reinstated 
in 1088, when he recognized the antipope Clement 
III; however, he was later loyal to Urban II, the 
legitimate pontiff. He labored to convert the Slavs, 
established numerous religious edifices, and is said 
to have founded the cathedral of Meissen. Patron 



of Munich. Emblems: a fish, and a key. Canonized, 
1523. Relics in the cathedral at Munich. Feast, 16 
June.— C.E. 

Benoit, be-nwa, Michel (1715-74), Jesuit scien- 
tist, b. Autun, France; d. Peking, China. After 
completing his astronomical studies at Paris, he 
was sent to the Chinese mission, and appointed by 
the emperor to design and execute a system of 
decorative fountains in the royal gardens. He made 
a large map of the world, and a general chart of 
the empire, and translated the "Imitation of 
Christ" into Chinese.— C.E. 

Benson, Robert Hugh (1871-1914), priest, au- 
thor, b. Wellington College, England; d. Salford. 
Son of Edward Benson, Abp. of Canterbury, he was 
educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
received Anglican orders 1894, entered the Catholic 
Church, 1903, was ordained, and became assistant 
priest at Cambridge, but retired from pastoral work, 
1908, to devote himself to preaching and writing. 
His writings include "The Light Invisible," "By 
What Authority?," "The Conventionalists," "Lord 
of the World," "Come Rack! Come Rope!," "The 
Coward," "Oddsfish," "Initiation," "The Queen's 
Tragedy," "The Upper Room," "The Mirror of 
Shalott," "The Dawn of All," "Confessions of a 
Convert," "An Average Man," "Paradoxes of 
Catholicism," "The Friendship of Christ," "Book 
of the Love of Jesus," "The City Set on a Hill," 
"The Religion of a Plain Man/' "Alphabet of the 
Saints in Rhyme," and "A Mystery Play in Honor 
of the Nativity of Our Lord."— Martindale, The 
Life of Monsignor Robert Hugh Benson, N. Y., 
1916. 

Benthamism, the utilitarian theory of Jeremy 
Bentham, an English jurist (1748-1832), who taught 
that happiness (pleasure) is the object of life and 
that the highest morality consists in securing the 
greatest happiness of the greatest number, a 
formula taken from Priestly. According to this test 
he found wanting the Established Churches, the 
New Testament, and religion generally. Though 
not a practical man, his theories frequently in- 
fluenced legislation in England and in the United 
States, and, strange to say, helped to bring about 
Catholic Emancipation in 1829. — C.E. 

Bentley, John Francis (1839-1902), architect, 
b. Doncaster, England; d. London. He upheld the 
architectural principles and methods of the Middle 
Ages and promoted the Gothic revival in England. 
Commissioned in 1894 to build the cathedral of 
Westminster, he chose the Byzantine style to avoid 
comparison with Westminster Abbey, designed 
everything to the last detail, and produced the most 
remarkable church erected in England since the 
Reformation. — C.E. 

Benziger, Joseph Charles (1762-1841), foun- 
der of the Catholic publishing house which bears 
his name, b. Einsiedeln, Switzerland; d. there. The 
business, established in 1800, took the name of 
"Benziger Brothers" when he was succeeded in 
1833 by his sons, Charles (1799-1873) and Nicholas 
(1808-64). It still exists at Einsiedeln, under their 
descendants. The New York branch, now inde- 
pendent of the European house, and managed by 
the fifth generation of the family, the three sons 



BENZIGER 



112 



BERNARD 



of Nicholas C. Benziger (1859-1925), was founded 
in 1853. The business includes the sale of church 
goods of all kinds. Branches were established in 
Cincinnati, 1860, and Chicago, 1887. The studios are 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., Bridgeport, Conn., and Pie- 
trasanta, Italy. — C.E. 

Berach, Saint, abbot (d. 595), d. Gortnal- 
nachra, Connaught, Ireland. He was the nephew 
of St. Froech, brother to St. Midabaria, and 
a disciple of St. Kevin. He built a church at Cluain 
Coirpthe, since known as Termonbarry or Kil- 
barry. Patron of Kilbarry, Roscommon, Ireland. His 
crosier is in the Dublin Museum. Feast, 15 Feb. 
—C.E. 

Berard of Carbio (Beraldus), Saint, martyr 
(1220), b. Calvi, Italy; d. Morocco. He joined the 
Franciscans, 1213. Proficient in Arabic, and an elo- 
quent preacher, he was sent by St. Francis with 
four companions to preach Christianity in Morocco, 
1219. They were imprisoned and martyred for the 
Faith, their heads being split open. Emblem: a 
sword. Canonized, 1481. Belies in the monastery at 
Coimbra. Feast, 16 Jan.— C.E. 

Berengarius of Tours (999-1088), theologian, 
b. Tours, France; d. isle of St. Cosme. Educated 
at Chartres under Fulbert, he became director in 
1029 of the school of St. Martin of Tours, and 
in 1039 Archdeacon of Angers. His teaching con- 
cerning the Holy Eucharist was attacked by Hugues 
of Langres, but he appealed to the authority of 
Eriugena. Lanfranc, Abbot of Le Bee, declared 
Eriugena's teaching heretical, and obtained the con- 
demnation of Berengarius, who was cited before a 
Roman Council, but was unable to attend as King 
Henry I imprisoned him. He finally submitted after 
1080, and retired into solitude on the island of St. 
Cosme near Tours, and died reconciled to the 
Church.— C.E. ; U.K. 

Bergerac, Peace of, truce formed between Cath- 
olics and Huguenots in France confirmed by the 
Edict of Poitiers, 1577. Huguenot worship was re- 
stricted to suburbs of one town in each bailiwick 
and to places where it had been hitherto practised. 
Freedom of worship had been granted by the Edict 
of Beaulieu (1576) but this toleration had met with 
great opposition and had resulted in renewal of 
civil war. 

Berlin, capital, Republic of Germany. It grew 
out of two settlements in the Mark of Branden- 
burg: Kolln, first mentioned, 1237; and Berlin, dat- 
ing from 1244. A first attempt at union was made, 
1307; Berlin-Kolln joined the Hanseatic league, 
1340, and by the 15th century had gained great im- 
portance. The spread of Christianity and the de- 
velopment of civilization throughout the Mark may 
be attributed largely to the Teutonic Knights and 
the Cistercian monks. At the time of the Reforma- 
tion the city numbered about 18 churches, but in 
1539 the new faith was formally accepted by the 
nobility, and a few months later the Lord's Supper, 
according to the Lutheran Rite, was celebrated for 
the first time, in the Dominican church, later trans- 
formed into the Protestant cathedral. The monas- 
teries were suppressed, the last Catholic priest died, 
1571, and for about 150 years public Catholic service 
was forbidden, and Mass could be celebrated only 



in the private chapels of Catholic embassies. Al- 
though the Thirty Years War, accompanied by 
plague, depleted the population to 4000, the city re- 
gained its importance, but suffered again during 
the Seven Years War when it was twice plundered. 
At the close of the war, however, Frederick the 
Great inaugurated a strenuous campaign of recon- 
struction, and, since the conquest of Silesia had 
greatly increased the Catholic population, he en- 
couraged religious toleration and built the Catholic 
church of St. Hedwig. The partition of Poland, fol- 
lowed by secularization, added further to the num- 
ber of Catholics in Berlin, but it was not until 1848 
that comparative freedom was obtained. Since then 
the number of Catholics has grown consistently with 
the development of the city, and now forms 11 per 
cent of the total population of 4,024,165. The city 
is in the Diocese of Breslau. Among the medieval 
buildings are the 13th-century Marienkirche and 
Klosterkirche.— C.E. ; U.K. 

Bermondsey (A.-S., Bermond's isle), a former 
Benedictine abbey in Southwark, London. It was 
founded, 1082, by Alwyn Childe, a citizen of Lon- 
don, who established there a community of monks 
.subject to Cluny; it became an abbey, 1399. A 
hospital and relief house of St. Thomas in South- 
wark, founded by the prior, 1213, was attached to 
the monastery for over 200 years. The abbey was 
suppressed by Henry VIII, being at that time the 
only Cluniac abbey in England. 

Bermudas, group of islands in the west At- 
lantic Ocean, and a colony of the British Empire, 
with a representative government; area, 19.3 sq. 
m.; pop., 30,113. During the 17th century the Ber- 
mudas experienced the same religious troubles 
which beset England. In 1615 a law excluded Cath- 
olics from the colony. Secessions from the Estab- 
lished Church took place and the various sects 
persecuted one another. The Quakers were the prin- 
cipal sufferers because of their attempts to educate 
the Negroes. Gradually religious toleration was in- 
troduced and by a law of 1867, persons taxed in 
other churches were exempted from supporting the 
Church of England, and that Church no longer re- 
ceives government grants. Ecclesiastically Bermuda 
is under the jurisdiction of the Abp. of Halifax, 
X. S., and has a priest, a church, and a school at 
Hamilton, and mission stations at St. George and 
Ireland Island.— U.K. ; C.E. Suppl. 

Bernadette Soubirous, Blessed, virgin (1844- 
79), b. Lourdes, France; d. Nevers. When only 14 
years of age she witnessed 18 apparitions of Our 
Lady at Lourdes, instructing her to make known 
to the world the miraculous healing powers which 
the Blessed Virgin would give to the waters there 
by her presence. In 1866 Bernadette joined the 
Sisters of Charity at Nevers and in 1878 took 
her perpetual vows. Beatified, 1925. Feast, in the 
dioceses of Nevers, Tarbes, and Lourdes, and in 
the chapels of the Sisters of Charity, 12 May. 

Bernard, Claude (1588-1641), ecclesiastic, sur- 
named "the poor priest," b. Dijon, France; d. Paris. 
After studying under the Jesuits at Dole, he went 
to Paris, became a priest, and devoted his immense 
fortune to the poor, the sick, and the imprisoned. 
He founded the seminary of the Trente-Trois for 



BERNARD 



113 



BERSABEE 




CLAUDE BERNARD (1813-78) 



educating poor students for the priesthood, and 
popularized the prayer "Memorare" (Remember O 
Most Pious Virgin). — C.E. 

Bernard, Claude (1813-78), physiologist, b. 
near Villefranche, France; d. Paris. In 1839 he 
became interne to Magendie, professor of medicine 

at the College de 
France, whom he was 
to succeed in 1855. 
Engaging in research 
work in physiology, he 
studied the pancreas 
and discovered the 
glycogenic function of 
the liver and the vaso- 
motor system. He wrote 
many articles on physi- 
ology. He was honored 
with a state funeral 
from Notre Dame ca- 
thedral.— C.E. 

Bernardine of 
Feltre, Blessed (1439-94), 5. Feltre, Italy; d. 
Pavia. Joining the Franciscans in 1456, he was or- 
dained priest, 1463, taught in Franciscan schools, 
and began his missionary labors throughout the 
larger cities of Italy. He was superior of the prov- 
ince of Venice, 1483-84. He is best known as the 
reorganizer of the charitable lending-houses, called 
montes pietatis (q.v. ). Emblem: a green hill of 
three mounds, with a cross on each. Relics at Pavia. 
Feast, 0. F. M., 28 Sept.— C.E. 

Bernardine of Siena, Saint, confessor (1380- 
1444), the apostle of Italy, b. 
Massa, Italy; d. Aquila. In 
1397 he completed a course in 
civil and canon law, whereupon 
he joined the Confraternity of 
Our Lady, connected with the 
hospital of Santa Maria della 
Scala, ministered to the plague- 
stricken, and distributed his 
fortune among the poor. He 
joined the Friars Minor at 
Siena, 1402, was ordained, 1404, 
and began his missionary ca- 
reer at Milan, 1417. The fame 
of his eloquence spread and he 
gained influence over the lead- 
ing Italian cities. He is respon- 
sible for the popular devo- 
tion to the Holy Name. Em- 
blem: chrism. Canonized, 1450. 
Relics in Franciscan church, 
Aquila. Feast, 20 May.— C.E. ; 
Butler. 

Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint, confessor, abbot 
(1090-1153), Doctor of the Church, b. Castle Fon- 
taines, near Dijon, France; d. Clairvaux. Particular 
care was taken with his education, because his great 
destiny had been predicted before his birth; he 
showed remarkable interest and talent in literature. 
With his father and brother and 30 noblemen, Ber- 
nard entered the Benedictine monastery at Citeaux, 
in 1113. He was sent, 1115, at the head of a band 
of monks to found the house at Clairvaux and was 




consecrated abbot. He practised such austerities 
that his health was seriously impaired. The perfec- 
tion of the monastic life there became the model 
for the 163 monasteries of the Cistercian reform 
founded by Bernard. The fame of his learning 
spread and he became the defender of the Church 
against the erroneous teaching of Abelard, Arnold 
of Brescia, and Gilbert de La Porree, championed 
Pope Innocent II, causing him to be recognized as 
supreme pontiff in France, England, Ireland, and 
Germany, and preached the second Crusade, 1133-37. 
His writings breathe the most tender devotion to 
Our Lord and His Blessed Mother. Many miracles 
are ascribed to him. Patron of bees and wax chan- 
dlers. Emblems: Holy Communion, pen, bees, and 
instruments of the Passion. Canonized, 1174. Belies 
at Clairvaux; skull in the cathedral of Troyes. 
Feast, R. Cal., 20 Aug.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Bernard of Menthon, Saint, confessor (923- 
1008), b. near Annecy, Savoy (France) ; d. Novara 
(Italy). Having become archdeacon of Aosta, 966, 
he spent 42 years laboring among the ignorant and 
idolatrous people of the Alps, making many con- 
versions and performing miracles. He is best known 
as the founder (c. 962) of the Augustinian hos- 
pices at the Great and Little St. Bernard passes 
in the Alps. Represented in art chaining a demon to 
the mountains. Relics in the monastery at Novara; 
head in the monastery of Mont-joye, Aosta. Can- 
onized, 1681. Feast, 15 June.— C.E. 

Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo (1598-1680), archi- 
tect and sculptor, b. Naples; d. Rome. Skilled in 
and sculpture, he won fame 
through his architectural work 
in Rome, notably the baldachi- 
num and colonnade of St. 
Peter's and the Scala Regia 
connecting the church with the 
Vatican. Among the best ex- 
amples of his sculpture are the 
tomb of Countess Matilda and 
the statue of St. Bibiana. — C.E. 
Berno (d. 1191), apostle of 
the Obotrites, a Wendish tribe, 
dwelling by the Baltic in Meck- 
lenburg. He was a member of 
the Cistercian monastery of 
Amelungsborn when appointed 
Bp. of Mecklenburg, 1155. Three 
years later the pagans forced 
him to transfer his see to 
Schwerin, which became a cen- 
ter of missionary activity car- 
ried on mainly by the Cister- 
cians, from the monasteries 
established by him. During the 
schism caused by Barbarossa, Berno remained loyal 
to Rome, and at its cessation visited the pope, and 
took part in the Lateran Council of 1179. — C.E. 

Bersabee, ber-sa'be-e, or Beersheba (Heb., well 
of seven, or well of swearing), ancient town at the 
southern extremity of Palestine, 28 m. sw. of 
Hebron. The expression "Dan to Bersabee" was used 
to denote the entire length of Palestine (Judges, 
20 ) . This locality is the cradle of the Hebrew race, 
connected with memories of Agar, Ismael, and Abra- 



painting, poetry, 



ST. BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX 



BERSABEE 



114 



BETHANY 



ham (Gen., 21), of Isaac (Gen., 26), Jacob who was 
born there, and his sons (Gen., 28 and 46). 

Bertha (Teut., bright, famous), Queen of Kent 
(d. c. 612). She was the Christian wife of the 
pagan King Ethelbert, and welcomed St. Augustine 
on his mission to England, 597. Though sometimes 
called saint, no evidence of her cult exists. — C.E. 

Berthold (d. 1198), bishop and apostle of the 
Livonians, killed near Riga in a crusade against the 
pagans who threatened the destruction of the re- 
cently established Christian community. He had 
previously been Cistercian Abbot of Lockum, Han- 
over, and about 1196 had succeeded Meinhard, first 
Bp. of Livonia, laboring ten years on the Livonian 
mission. — C.E. 

Berulle, ba-rul, Pierre de (1575-1629), cardinal, 
founder of the French Congregation of the Oratory, 
b. Cerilly, Champagne, France. After his ordination 
he labored for the conversion of Protestants in 
union with St. Francis de Sales. With Mme. 
Acarie he introduced the reformed Carmelite nuns 
into France, and in 1611 established the Oratory 
on the model of St. Philip Neri's at Rome; to it 
is due the 17th-century reform of the French 
clergy. He wrote several devotional works, notably 
a life of Jesus. — C.E. 

Beschi, bes'ke, Costanzo Giuseppe (1680-c. 
1746), Jesuit missionary and Tamil poet, b. Cas- 
tigione, Italy; d. Manapar, India. He labored 
about 40 years on the Madura mission and became 
famous for linguistic and literary work in the 
Tamil language. He is the author of grammars of 
High and Low Tamil, and several Tamil dictionaries 
and ascetical works. His classic "Tembavani" 
(Unfading Garland) is the noblest epic poem in 
honor of St. Joseph in any language; "Para- 
martaguru Kadey" (Adventures of the teacher 
Paramarta) is a delightful, witty satire, the most 
fascinating book in Tamil. — C.E. 

Besford Court Hospital, Worcestershire, Eng- 
land, welfare home for mentally-defective Catholic 
children, restricted to feeble-minded boys from the 
ages of about seven to twenty-one. It consists of a 
junior department, conducted by nuns, in which the 
Montessori system of instruction is followed, and a 
senior department where the following vocations 
are taught: skilled carpentry, bricklaying, plumb- 
ing, gardening, rural handicrafts, and painting. To 
provide an intermediate stage between institutional 
life and life in the community, hostels have been 
constructed on the estate where the youth lives the 
life of an ordinary workman two or three years 
before dismissal. 

Bessarion, Johannes (c. 1403-72), cardinal, 
classical scholar, b. Trebizond, Asia Minor; d. Ra- 
venna, Italy. In 1436 he was made Bp. of Nica^a, 
and accompanied John VII Pala^ologus to Ferrara, 
where he contributed much to bring about the re- 
union of the Churches, 1439; later he was made 
cardinal and embraced the Latin Rite. In 1443 he 
became Bp. of Sabina and in 1449 of Frascati. From 
1450-55, as governor of Bologna, he calmed internal 
factionism, restored the university, and promoted 
classical studies. After the fall of Constantinople, 
he labored unceasingly to save the Oriental Chris- 
tians, and was rewarded for his efforts with the 




JOHANNES 
CARDINAL BESSARION 



commendatory abbacy of the Greek Basilians at 
Grottaf errata; subsequently he was named Patri- 
arch of Constantinople. In 1463 he succeeded in 
allying Venice and Matthias Corvinus against the 
Turks. He established 
the first Roman acad- 
emy to revive interest 
in the ancient classics 
and was very success- 
ful, but his hopes of 
permanent Church re- 
union and of Turkish 
expulsion were unful- 
filled. He bequeathed his 
Greek codices to Venice, 
where they formed the 
nucleus of the Library 
of St. Mark.— C.E. 

Besse, Jean Mar- 
tial Leon, monastic historian (1851-1920), b. St. 
Angel, Correze, France; d. Chevetogne, Namur, Bel- 
gium. A Benedictine monk, he was sent as master of 
novices to restore the ancient Abbey of St. Wandrille 
de Fontenelle. In 1895 he was appointed professor of 
history and director of the Apostolic school at the 
monastery in Silos, Spain. During the World War he 
directed the weekly publication of the newspaper, 
"L'Univers." His royalist sympathies inspired him 
to write "The Church and the Monarchy." He was 
founder of the "Bulletin de Saint Martin," "Revue 
Mabillon," and "La vie et les arts liturgiques." His 
literary works include: "The Monks of Ancient 
France," crowned by the French Academy, "The 
Benedictine Monk," "The Monks of the Orient," 
"The African Monarchy," "Ecclesiastical Studies 
after the Method of Mabillon," and "Saint Wan- 
drille."— C.E. Suppl. 

Bestiaries (Lat., bestia, wild beast), books in 
prose or verse, containing descriptions and illustra- 
tions of animals, fabled and real. Widely popular 
in the Middle Ages, they were important rather 
for their symbolism than for their negligible 
zoological interest. Every quality of human nature 
was typified by some animal and bestiaries are thus 
a sort of key to the grotesques which are in- 
separable from Romanesque and Gothic sculptural 
ornamentation. The lamb or sheep represented the 
soul or the believer; the phoenix, Christ or immor- 
tality; the serpent, the devil; the lion, either the 
devil or Christ. The prototype of the bestiaries was 
the "Physiologus," written probably by an Alex- 
andrian Greek in the 2nd century a.d., and trans- 
lated into Latin, Syriac, Arabic, and other lan- 
guages, whence it became popular as a literary 
source from the 7th to the 13th centuries. A first 
Anglo-Saxon version appeared in the 8th century, 
and German and French translations in the 11th 
and 12th.— C.E. ; U.K. 

Bethany, beth'an-e, or Bethania (Heb., house 
of mercy). (1) Ancient village of Palestine, 1% m. 
E. of Jerusalem, at the base of the Mount of Olives. 
It was prominent as the home of Mary, Martha, and 
Lazarus, and the scene of the raising of Lazarus to 
life (John, 11). From Bethany Our Lord sent two 
of His disciples to find the ass that was to bear 
Him on His triumphant entry into Jerusalem 



BETHANY 



115 



BEURON 



(Luke, 19) and. near this village. He ascended 
into heaven (Luke, 24). (2) Bethany beyond the 
Jordan, mentioned as the place of Our Lord's 
baptism (John, 1), is of doubtful location. — C.E. ; 
Heuser, The House of Martha at Bethany, N. Y., 
1927. 

Bethel (Heb., house of God). (1) Ancient Cha- 
naanite town formerly called Luza, situated 12 m. 
N. of Jerusalem. Nearby Abraham twice offered 
sacrifice (Gen., 12 and 13). It was the scene of the 
vision of Jacob's Ladder and a sacred place under 
the Judges where the Israelites "consulted God" 
(Judges, 21), and where the Ark of the Covenant 
was probably kept for a time. (2) The name for 
any dissenting chapel in England, and sometimes 
used as the name of a Methodist or a Baptist 
church. — C.E. 

Bethlehem (Heb., house of bread). (1) Beth- 
lehem of Zabulon (Jos., 19), a small town 7 m. nw. 
of Nazareth. (2) Bethlehem of Judea, less cor- 
rectly known as Bethlehem of Juda (Judges, 17; 19; 
1 Kings, 17), originally known as Ephrata (Mich., 
5), city, Palestine, 5 m. s. of Jerusalem, closely 
connected with patriarchal history as the place of 
death of Rachel, Jacob's wife (Gen., 35), the site of 
the romance of Ruth and Booz, and the birthplace 
of David. It became sacred to Christians as the 
birthplace of Our Lord, and the church of the 
Nativity now occupies the traditional site. — 
C.E. 

Bethlehemites. (1) Military order dedicated to 
Our Lady of Bethlehem, wearing a habit like 
the Dominicans and a red star. They came from 
Palestine to Bohemia, 1217, and now devote them- 
selves to care of the sick and education. (2) Order 
of knights dedicated to Our Lady of Bethlehem, 
founded by Pius II, 1453, for the defense of the 
island of Lemnos, but soon suppressed owing to 
the recapture of the island by the Turks. (3) Hos- 
pitallers, founded by Ven. Pedro de Betancourt, c. 
1650, at Guatemala, to care for the sick and pris- 
oners, and teach poor children; confirmed by Rome, 
1673; extended to Peru, 1672. They had 33 houses 
of monks and one of nuns, in Central and South 
America at the time of their suppression by the 
government, 1820. — C.E. 

Bethphage, beth-fa-je (Heb., house of unripe 
figs), village on Mount Olivet, near the road from 
Jerusalem to Jericho (Luke, 19), from which began 
Our Lord's triumphant entry into Jerusalem 
(Matt., 21). 

Bethsabee, beth-sa'be-e, wife of Urias the Heth- 
ite, and afterwards wife of David and mother of 
Solomon (2 Kings, 11). At the height of his glory 
David committed adultery with Bethsabee; had her 
husband placed in the thick of battle so that he 
might be killed; and then married her. In David's 
old age she prevailed upon him to have her son 
Solomon crowned king in place of his older brother 
Adonias (3 Kings, 1), who had proclaimed himself 
king without the knowledge of David. Solomon on 
his accession pardoned Adonias; soon after, how- 
ever, the latter instigated another conspiracy and 
was put to death. Two genealogies of Our Lord 
include two sons of Bethsabee, Solomon (Matt., 1) 
and Nathan (Luke, 3). (f. J, L.) 




POOL OF 

BETHSAIDA 



Bethsaida, b£th-sa/da (Heb., house of fishing). 
( 1 ) City, E. of the Jordan, on Lake Genesareth, 
Palestine. Nearby occurred the miracles of the 
loaves and fishes (Luke, 9) and the restoration of 
sight to the blind man (Mark, 8). (2) City, home 
of Peter, Andrew, and Philip 
(John, 1; 12), possibly w. 
of the Jordan or else iden- 
tical with (1). (3) Pool in 
Jerusalem (John, 5), where 
Our Lord cured a man 
"eight and thirty years un- 
der his infirmity." — C.E. 

Betrothal (A-S., 
treowth, truth), an agree- 
ment to marry, made by mu- 
tual promises. As a matri- 
monial impediment it was 
practically done away with 
by the legislation of Pius 
X, who ruled that such a 
compact, to have any effect on a proposed marriage 
to another, must have been made in a written and 
dated document, signed by both parties and by the 
pastor or bishop of the place, or at least by two 
witnesses; and even this formal pledge does not 
oblige one party to marry the other. — C.E.; U.K.; 
Ayrinhac, Marriage Legislation in the New Code of 
Canon Law, N. Y., 1919. (J. F. s.) 

Betting, the backing of an affirmation or fore- 
cast by offering to forfeit, in case of an adverse 
issue, a sum of money or some article to one who, 
by accepting, maintains the opposite with a cor- 
responding stipulation. Though a bet be and often 
is, null and void in the eyes of the law, yet it 
may be a valid contract binding in conscience 
if the object is honest and if it fulfills the follow- 
ing conditions: (a) the parties must have the 
free disposal of what they stake and both must 
bind themselves to pay if they lose; (b) both must 
understand the matter of the bet in the same sense ; 
(c) neither must have absolutely certain evidence 
of the truth of his contention which he does not 
reveal to the other. — C.E.; Koch-Preuss. 

Beuno, Saint, confessor (d. 660), Abbot of 
Clynnog Fawr, b. Powis-land, Wales; d. Carnarvon- 
shire. He studied in the monastery of Bangor, 
North Wales, where he was ordained priest, and 
became active in missionary work. Cadvan, King of 
Gwynedd, was his benefactor. In 616 he founded 
the Abbey of Clynnog Fawr in Carnarvonshire. Ac- 
cording to tradition he restored his niece St. Wine- 
fride to life at Holywell where many miracles have 
since then taken place. Eleven churches and a 
Jesuit house, formerly of theological studies, now 
of novices and tertiaries, in the Diocese of St. 
Asaph are named for him. Feast, 21 April. — C.E.; 
Butler. 

Beuron, noted Benedictine abbey and art school, 
Sigmaringen, Hohenzollern, Germany, founded, 777. 
It was destroyed in the 10th century; reestablished 
as an Augustinian monastery, 1077 ; and suppressed, 
1802. The Benedictine Order was reestablished by 
Maurus and Placidus Wolter, 1863; erected into 
an abbey by Pius IX, 1868. Dispersed by Bismarck, 
1875, the monks returned in 1887 and founded a 



BEURON 



116 



BIBLE 



flourishing school of varied art whose decorative 
work is especially celebrated. The present abbey 
houses over 160 religious. 

Bewcastle Cross, a headless stone cross 14% 
ft. high, bearing an English runic inscription, 
found in the village of Bewcastle, Cumberland. One 
of the two famous ancient Northumbrian crosses 
which scholars designate as principal churchyard 
crosses, excellent examples of Anglo-Saxon sculp- 
tural art of the 7th and 8th centuries. 

Bhutan, bu-tan', independent monarchy in the 
southeastern Himalayas, bounded n. and E. by 
Tibet, s. by British India, w. by Sikkim and the 
Tibetan district of Chumbi; est. area, 20,000 sq. m. ; 
est. pop., 250,000. Polygamy and polyandry are 
practised, and the modified form of Buddhism pro- 
fessed by the majority of the people consists 
principally in propitiating evil spirits and reciting 
passages from the Tibetan scriptures. From the 16th 
century the country was ruled jointly by a Dhama 
Rajah and a Deb Rajah, representing respectively 
the ecclesiastical and civil powers, which in 1907 
were combined and entrusted to one ruler, a heredi- 
tary maharajah. Policy in foreign relations is 
guided by the advice of the British government. 
Bhutan is included with Assam and Manipur in the 
Prefecture Apostolic of Assam in charge of the 
Salesian Fathers, established in 1889. — U.K. 

Biard, Pierre (1567-1622), Jesuit missionary, 
b. Grenoble, France; d. Avignon. After laboring un- 
successfully at the Jesuit mission of Port Royal, 
Acadia, he was transferred with his co-worker, 
Edmond Masse, to Saint Sauveur (now Bar Har- 
bor, Me.) in 1613, but the Virginian marauder, 
Argall, destroyed the colony and carried off Biard 
and Masse. Argall's boat was forced across the 
ocean by stress of weather to Wales where the 
missionaries were released and sent to France. 
— C.E. 

Bibiana, Saint, virgin, martyr (363), d. Rome. 
Her legend which is connected with the martyrs 
Sts. John and Paul, and has no historical basis, 
relates that she was the daughter of the prefect 
Flavianus, and Dafrosa, and was persecuted with 
them under Julian. She was tortured and died from 
her sufferings. Her body, which was left exposed 
by her persecutors, was buried, by a holy priest 
named John near the palace of Licinius; there Pope 
Simplicius built a basilica in her honor, 465. Feast, 
R. Cal., 2 Dec— C.E. ; Butler. 

Bible (Gr., biblion, book), Books of the. These 
number 73, according to the Catholic Canon of 
books which really contain the revelation of God to 
man. According to the Council of Trent, there are 
three groups in the O.T., embracing 46 books : ( 1 ) 
21 historical books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, 
Numbers, Deuteronomy, Josue, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 
2 Kings ( 1 and 2 Samuel ) , 3 and 4 Kings ( 1 and 2 
Kings), 1 and 2 Paralipomenon (1 and 2 Chron- 
icles), Esdras, Nehemias, Tobias, Judith, Esther, 
and 1 and 2 Machabees; (2) 7 didactical books: 
Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticle of Can- 
ticles (Song of Solomon), Wisdom, and Ecclesias- 
ticus (Sirach) ; (3) 18 prophetical books: Isaias, 
Jeremias (with Lamentations), the major prophets 
(Baruch, Ezechiel, Daniel), and the minor prophets 



(Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias or Obadiah, Jonas, Mi- 
cheas or Micah, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias or 
Zephaniah, Aggeus or Haggai, Zacharias, Mala- 
chias). The difference between the Jewish and Cath- 
olic counting is due to the fact that the Catholics 
accept also the so-called deuterocanonical books 
There are 27 books of the N.T. : the 4 Gospels (Mat- 
thew, Mark, Luke, John) ; the Acts of the Apostles; 
14 Epistles of St. Paul (Romans, 1 and 2 Corin- 
thians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colos- 
sians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, 
Titus, Philemon, Hebrews) ; 7 Catholic Epistles 
(James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 2, and 3 John, Jude) ; 
and the Apocalypse, the only prophetical book of 
the N.T. Each book of the Bible is treated under 
its own title. (ed. ) 

Bible, Editions of the. Since the Bible was 
written (the O.T. in Hebrew, the N.T. in Greek) 
many centuries before the invention of printing, 
the only way to multiply copies was by hand. The 
autograph originals and the earliest copies have all 
been lost, the oldest extant manuscripts of the 
whole Bible having been written in the 4th cen- 
tury. Handwritten copies, even if made by pains- 
taking scribes, inevitably contain variations from 
the original, and the number of such variants were 
greatly increased by the hands of careless or 
ignorant copyists. Therefore, by the middle of the 
15th century, when printing was invented, there 
existed a vast number of manuscript copies of the 
original Bible text, differing from one another in 
thousands of passages. It has been the task of 
Scripture scholars, by the comparison and appraisal 
of these manuscripts, to reconstruct the original as 
exactly as possible. The Latin Vulgate is the basis 
for all modern texts, the most notable English trans- 
lation being the Douay Version (see Dotjay Bible). 
Any printed reproduction of the Bible i.e., of the 
original text), in whole or in part, is an edition. 
Various editions of the Hebrew O.T. have been 
published by eminent scholars, both Jewish and 
Christian. Among the best-known editions of the 
Greek N.T. are those by Tischendorf, Tregelles, 
Westcott and Hort, and Nestle. — C.E., V, 286; 
Grannan; Schumacher. (n. t. ) 

Bible, Names of. The Bible contains the revela- 
tion of God to man, and is therefore named from 
the Greek, biblion, "The Book," book of all books. 
Our Lord used the name Scriptures (Lat., scribere, 
to write), in Matthew, 22, because it is the writ- 
ten record of that revelation, the Written Word, or 
Holy Writ. The Evangelists also use this name. It 
is also known as the Old and New Testaments, 
Testament meaning the covenant, the understanding 
between God and man, the word Old designating 
revelation prior to the coming of Christ, and New, 
His own revelation as recorded by the Apostles. 
Other names still are Holy or Sacred Book, 
Revelation, and Word of God. — Grannan. 

Bible, Study of the, chief occupation of the au- 
thorities of the Catholic Church, of its early Fathers 
and Doctors, of scriptural specialists, and theo- 
logians. Due to their devout as well as scientific 
labors we have what is called an Introduction to 
the Bible, treating the inspiration of the Sacred 
Books, their Canon, their meaning (exegesis) and 



BIBLE 



117 



BIBLE IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



the rules which guide students in determining this 
(hermeneutics), as well as the late studies neces- 
sitated by the criticism, higher as it is called, of 
the Sacred Books. See Introduction, Biblical; 
Canon of Holy Scriptures; Exegesis; Her- 
meneutics; Criticism, Biblical. (ed.) 
Bible, Use of the. In the Catholic Church it is 
threefold, doctrinal, liturgical, and pietistic. Its 
doctrinal use grows out of the official teaching of 
the Church as incorporated in the decrees of the 
Council of Trent and the Vatican Council, which 
states that the Sacred Scriptures, together with 
Apostolic tradition, constitute the twofold fount of 
Divine revelation. Thus it is that Catholic theo- 
logians and preachers have ever considered the in- 
spired Bible a treasure house from which to draw 
for proof and sanction of the Church's teaching in 
doctrinal and moral matters. Indeed, it is no ex- 
aggeration to say that the roots of dogmatic, moral, 
and ascetical theology are deeply grounded in the 
Sacred Scriptures. In liturgy the Catholic Church, 
like the Jewish Church before it (Deut., 31; 2 
Par., 29; Luke, 4), has given Sacred Scripture, in 
both its Old and New Testament portions a most 
prominent place. The earliest accounts of the 
Eucharist or Mass describe the reading of selections 
from both Testaments; and the official public pray- 
ers of the Catholic Church today, found in the 
Roman Missal and Breviary, are composed largely 
of biblical passages. Its use pietistically is a com- 
plement to its doctrinal and liturgic usages. From 
time immemorial the Catholic Church has always 
directed her preachers, in their devotional sermons 
and the direction of souls, to draw heavily on the 
Sacred Scriptures, and the prayers which the 
Church has approved for the piety and sanctifica- 
tion of the faithful, are composed largely of scrip- 
tural passages. Also, the Church supplements these 
uses of the Bible by recommending that it be read 
in private as a means of personal sanctification. It 
was with this in mind that Pope Leo XIII, on 13 
Dec, 1898, granted an indulgence of 300 days to 
those reading the Gospel for 15 minutes a day and 
a plenary indulgence to those reading it every day 
for a month, with the usual conditions of confes- 
sion, communion, and prayer for the pope. — Gran- 
nan. (J. A. c) 
Bible and the Popes, The. The popes, both in 
their own persons, and through the various par- 
ticular and oecumenical councils, have always mani- 
fested a profound interest in, and exercised a close 
and prudent guardianship over, the Bible. The first 
popes whose connection with the Bible is note- 
worthy are those of the 4th, 5th, and Gth centuries. 
Of these the first is Pope St. Damasus, who lived 
in the latter half of the 4th century. In the year 
382 he convoked a synod in Home to settle the 
question of the canonicity of the so-called Deutero- 
Canonical Books. This sjniod formulated and pub- 
lished the Damasan catalog of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, a complete and perfect canon, which has ever 
since been received in the Church. In the following 
year, 383, he commissioned St. Jerome to revise 
the text of the Old Latin version, then much in 
need of emendation, and it was, no doubt, this com- 
mission which later inspired St. Jerome to give to 



the world his famous Latin Vulgate. During the 
two centuries following several Roman pontiffs, as 
witnessed by the letter of Innocent I to St. Ex- 
superius (405), the Canons of Gelasius (496), and 
Hormisdas (523), republished the Canon of 
Damasus, lest the faithful be erroneously led into 
repudiating any of the Sacred Books. Nor did the 
popes of this period confine their interests in the 
Bible to the canonization of its various books, and 
to keeping pure its text, for several of them, not- 
ably St. Leo the Great (461) and St. Gregory the 
Great (604), have left numerous homilies which 
proved them profound students and splendid exe- 
getes of Holy Writ. The invention of printing in 
the 15th century brought about not only a mul- 
tiplicity of versions but also a great number of 
uncritical editions of St. Jerome's Vulgate and the 
Greek Septuagint. But, through the tireless efforts 
of several popes of this time, namely, Popes Julius 
III (1555), Pius IV (1565), Gregory XIII (1585), 
Sixtus V (1590), and Clement VIII (1641), the 
celebrated revisions of the Vulgate and the Septua- 
gint, which are still in common use, were begun 
and successfully completed. 

Recent popes have vied with their distinguished 
predecessors as defenders and teachers of the Bible. 
Popes Leo XIII, Pius X, Benedict XV, and Pius XI 
have all issued scholarly and weighty pronounce- 
ments on the Bible and biblical studies. Of these 
the decrees and encyclical letters of Leo XIII and 
Pius X are especially worthy of mention. The en- 
cyclical letter, "Providentissimus Deus," of Leo 
XIII, dated 18 Nov., 1893, has been justly styled 
the "Magna Carta" of Bible students. Therein the 
sovereign pontiff not only vindicates the inspired 
character and authority of the Bible against the 
nationalists and modernists of his day, but also 
lays down judicious norms to guide the interpreter 
of the Scriptures, and prescribes further that which 
in the mind of the Church constitutes the prepara- 
tion and qualifications of the competent Catholic 
exegete. Not content with the effects of the "Provi- 
dentissimus Deus" the same pontiff published an- 
other memorable letter, the "Vigilantise," in which 
he sounds a warning note against the insidious at- 
tacks of nationalistic and modernistic scholars. As 
a final safeguard against any future attacks or 
abuses, he created the Pontifical Biblical Commis- 
sion to which he confided the supervision and direc- 
tion of the work of Catholic scholars in connection 
with their study of the Bible. Pius X continued 
the work of his distinguished predecessor through 
the issuance of several letters, chief of which are 
the Apostolic letter of 18 Nov., 1907, in which he 
gives instructions regarding the methods to be em- 
ployed in the teaching of Sacred Scriptures in the 
seminaries; a letter written 3 Dec, 1907, addressed 
to Abbot Gasquet, authorizing him to begin the re- 
vision of the Vulgate with a view to reproducing 
as far as was possible the original text of St. 
Jerome; and the Apostolic letter, "Vinea Electa," 
7 May, 1909, through which medium he officially 
established the Pontifical Biblical Institute at 
Rome. (J. A. c.) 

Bible in Public Schools, a ground of contention 
wherever superintendents of schools have sought to 



BIBLE IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



118 



BIBLE SOCIETIES 



PART OF PAGE OF PICTURE BIBLE 



impose the reading of the Bible to the pupils as a 
daily or frequent exercise. It is considered incon- 
sistent with the non-sectarian policy of the schools. 
It is opposed by non-Christian parents as prose- 
lytism for the Christian religion; by Jews, as only 
Christian versions are used; and by Catholics be- 
cause the version used is in nearly every instance 
the Protestant version and the principle involved 
is that the Bible is the sole rule of faith. Very 
commonly also since the passages selected are sec- 
tarian, the intrusion of this practise is considered 
out of place. In several states either the courts or 
the school superintendents or commissioners have 
forbidden this reading as tending to sectarianism. 
The latest decision is that of the court at Lead, S. D. 
Bible Reading by Laity. In the history of the 
Church there never has been a general prohibition 
against the reading of the Bible by the laity. While 
the Church does not consider Bible reading neces- 
sary for salvation, she has always approved such 
reading under proper conditions. In consequence, we 
find that any restric- 
tions which the Church 
has placed on the read- 
ing of the Bible were 
aimed at the use of 
heretical or corrupt ver- 
sions, or versions with- 
out proper notes or au- 
thorization, and not 
against the reading of 
the Bible itself. The Albigenses and Waldenses who 
appealed to unauthorized and, at times, corrupt ver- 
sions in their disputes with Catholics, gave occasion 
for the first restrictive decrees. These decrees, edited 
by the Synods of Toulouse ( 1229 ) , Tarragona ( 1234 ) , 
and Oxford ( 1408) , aimed to restrict the reading of the 
Bible in the vernacular. The adoption of printing 
in the 15th century created conditions which made 
further restrictions imperative. The Protestant re- 
formers, who were keenly alive to the advantages 
of the printing-press, used it to multiply their 
heretical versions, while Catholics produced nu- 
merous translations in the vernacular. This multi- 
plication of versions by men who lacked qualifica- 
tions essential for the work, and who acknowledged 
no proper supervision, made for the corruption of 
the Sacred Text, so that the Council of Trent 
(1546-63) was compelled to take action. The Coun- 
cil strictly prohibited the reading of all heretical 
Latin versions, unless grave reasons necessitated 
their use. The Council itself did not forbid the 
reading of the new Catholic translations, although 
even these later fell under the ban of the Index 
Commission which Trent set up for the supervision 
of future legislation regarding the Bible. In 1559 
the Commission forbade the use of certain Latin 
editions, as well as German, French, Spanish, 
Italian, and English vernacular versions. Two cen- 
turies later, however, it modified the severity of this 
legislation by granting permission for the use of all 
versions translated by learned Catholic men, pro- 
vided they contained annotations derived from the 
Fathers, and had the approval of the Holy See. 
Our present discipline grows out of the decree, 
"Ofnciorum ac Munerum," of Leo XIII. This decree 




states that all vernacular versions, even those pre- 
pared by Catholic authors, are prohibited if they 
are not, on the one hand, approved by the Apostolic 
See, or, on the other hand, supplied with proper 
annotations and accompanied by episcopal appro- 
bation. However, it contains a provision whereby, 
for grave reasons, biblical and theological students 
may use non-Catholic editions as long as these do 
not attack Catholic dogma. — U.K.; P.C. Augustine. 

(J. a. c.) 
Bibles, Picture, manuscript books in which 
copious illustrations with short accompanying 
texts, or commentaries, made up an almost complete 
Bible. Among the earliest, the "Bible Moralisee" 
(in allusion to the moral lessons frequently inter- 
spersed), or "Bible Historiee," a work of the 13th 
century, is preserved in sections in the Bodleian 
Library (Oxford), the British Museum, and the 
Bibliotheque Rationale in Paris. The whole con- 
sisted of 630 pages, illuminated on one side only, 
and comprising about 5000 illustrations. Each page 
contained two columns 
of four pictures each, 
alternating with two 
columns of appropriate 
text. Many offered a 
comparative study of 
Old and New Testament 
incidents. The numer- 
ous existing copies of 
such Bibles show how 
widely they were distributed in the ages before the 
invention of printing made reading a common ac- 
complishment. — C.E. 

Bible Societies were first formed for the dis- 
semination of the Sacred Scriptures, but in time 
extended their scope so as to embrace the twofold 
work of translating and editing. The first real 
Bible Society was the Von Canstein Bible Institute 
of Saxony, founded in 1710, and still thriving in 
Halle, Germany. As Protestantism developed, these 
societies were multiplied. England, Wales, Ireland, 
the Scandinavian countries, and France had each 
their own foundations, though many of these were 
supported by the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
an organization established in 1804. In the United 
States the years 1808 and 1809 saw the institution 
of these societies in New York, Boston, Hartford, 
Princeton, and Philadelphia. In 1816 Elias Bou- 
clinot, president of the New Jersey Bible Society, 
succeeded in uniting some 128 local societies into 
the American Bible Society, which still functions 
at Astor Place, New York City. The Catholic 
Church has steadfastly refused to endorse these 
societies or their activities, because as the Divinely 
authorized custodian and interpreter of the Sacred 
Scriptures, she has deemed inadvisable the dissemi- 
nation of the bare text, which needs emendation 
and explanation in so many places; and because 
these societies have repeatedly shown hostility to 
the Church by their many attempts to impose un- 
authorized and mutilated Protestant versions of the 
Bible on Catholic peoples; and also because of their 
lack of good faith, for they have never offered to 
spread among Catholics a Catholic version with tm- 
primatur and approved notes. — C.E.; U.K. (j. A. C.) 



BIBLIA PAUPERUM 



119 



BIBLICAL COMMISSION 



Biblia Pauperum (Bible of the Poor), books 
popular especially in the 15th century, consisting of 
about 40 pages of pictures illustrating the New 
Testament, with appropriate prophetic scenes from 
the Old on either side of each page and explanatory 
texts in the corners. Their invention is ascribed to 
St. Anschar, Bp. of Bremen. With the introduction 
of the xylographic or block -book process they were 
published much more cheaply than the earlier pic- 
ture bibles, and were thus more accessible to the 
poor. They were used by the mendicant orders, in 
instructing the people. When the printing of the 
whole Bible with illustrations became practicable 
they were gradually given up. Five copies are pre- 
served in the Bibliotheque Rationale in Paris. — C.E. 

Biblical Commission, established by Leo XIII, 
30 Oct., 1902, for the maintenance and development 
of all that pertains to 



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biblical science. It is 
composed of a few car- 
dinals and a large corps 
of eminent biblical 
scholars of various na- 
tionalities. On 18 Nov., 
1907, Pius X declared 
that all Catholics are 
bound in conscience to 
accept the decisions 
published by this com- 
mission. On questions 
affecting the general 
historicity of the Bible, 
the commission has de- 
cided that "tacit quota- 
tions" in historical 
statements are not to 
be admitted, except 
where, subject to the 
mind and decision of 
the Church, there are 
solid reasons for admit- 
ting such quotations 
and for proving that 
the sacred writer does 
not himself approve 
what he quotes nor make 
it his own. This was 
aimed at those who, to 
escape certain histor- 
ical difficulties in the text, supposed that in such 
statements the writer was quoting from some un- 
inspired document. It was further decided that the 
historical narratives must be accepted as genuinely 
historical and not as merely having the appearance 
of history for the purpose of setting forth some 
religious idea; an exception was granted under 
proper restrictions where it could be solidly proved 
that the writer meant to give only a parable or al- 
legory, and not an historical narrative. Moses must 
be held to be the author of the Pentateuch, though 
it was conceded that he might have used secretaries 
in the actual writing, who wrote under his guidance 
and whose work was approved by Moses and pub- 
lished under his name. It may also be held that 
Moses made use of earlier documents or oral tradi- 
tions and that various additions and minor mocli- 






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ua at rctfOrqcfftiraumetfrr 
Im h o^Ditl Cujbab pji ifr rriu 
•PrmutfB 'com dtLipeicma 




BIBLIA PAUPERUM 



fications were later introduced into the Pentateuch 
either intentionally or through error. 

The first three chapters of Genesis were declared 
to be literally historical to the exclusion of all 
fables or legends; this historical character holds 
especially for those facts which touch the funda- 
mentals of the Christian religion, e.g., universal 
creation by God, the special creation of man, the 
formation of the first woman from man, the unity 
of the human race, the original happiness and sub- 
sequent fall of Adam and Eve, and the promise of a 
Redeemer. Single words and phrases, however, might 
be used in these chapters in a metaphorical or 
anthropomorphical sense, and natural phenomena 
might be described in popular, rather than in 
strictly scientific, expressions. While David need 
not be considered the sole author of the entire 

Psalter, a large number 
of the Psalms must be 
attributed to him, espe- 
cially those which in 
other parts of Scripture 
are expressly cited as 
his; the antiquity of 
the titles prefixed to 
the Psalms is to be up- 
held and their testi- 
mony is not to be set 
aside without solid rea- 
son ; some of the Psalms 
may have been divided 
or joined into one or 
slightly modified for 
liturgical or other pur- 
poses; there is no prob- 
ability in the opinion 
that not a few Psalms 
were composed after the 
time of Esdras and Ne- 
hemias or even as late 
as the Machabean times ; 
many of the Psalms are 
to be recognized as fore- 
telling the coming of the 
Messias and describing 
His kingdom. The true 
character of the proph- 
etic writings must be 
acknowledged; they 
really foretold distantly future events, especially 
regarding the Messias. The arguments used by 
critics to show that Isaias could not have written 
the whole of his book are declared to be uncon- 
vincing. Decisions were issued defending the tra- 
ditional position on the authorship of the four 
Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Pastoral 
Epistles, and the Epistle to the Hebrews, though the 
present form of the latter Epistle may be attributed 
to some disciple of St. Paul. The Gospels and the 
Acts are historically reliable; the first three Gos- 
pels were written in the following order: Aramaic 
St. Matthew (the Greek translation being substan- 
tially the same as the original), St. Mark, St. 
Luke; this arrangement excludes the "Two Docu- 
ment Theory" advocated by most non-Catholic 
critics as a solution of the Synoptic problems; 



BIBLICAL COMMISSION 



120 



BILLUART 



under these restrictions the Synoptic problem is left 
open to discussion. The writings of the Apostles are 
not to be construed in such a way as to support 
the opinion that they looked upon the Second Com- 
ing of Christ as imminent. — C.E.; Rome and the 
Study of Scripture, St. Meinrad Abbey, Ind., 1919. 

( w. A. d. ) 

Biblical Institute at Rome, The, a Pontifical 
Institute in charge of the Jesuit Fathers, but under 
the direct and immediate jurisdiction of the Holy 
See, formally established by Pius X, 7 May, 1909, 
through the publication of the Apostolic Constitu- 
tion, "Vinea electa." The purpose of its institution 
was to found a post-graduate school for the train- 
ing of teachers and writers who would be properly 
qualified to defend the truths of Sacred Scripture. 
The professors of the Institute are chosen from 
among the Jesuit Fathers, and are all specialists 
in their respective branches. The subjects taught 
embrace the special questions of biblical introduc- 
tion, archaeology, history, geography, philology, and 
interpretation. Applicants for admission to the In- 
stitute must be graduates of philosophy and the- 
ology as established for ecclesiastical seminaries or 
religious clergy, and, if they aspire to degrees in 
Sacred Scripture, they are further required to have 
previously taken a doctorate in Sacred Theology. 
A library, archaeological museum, and special pub- 
lication complete the facilities of the school. By 
virtue of a Motu Proprio issued 30 Sept., 1928, 
by His Holiness Pope Pius XI, the Biblical Insti- 
tute was incorporated into the Gregorian Univer- 
sity, though, nevertheless, it is to remain under 
the exclusive jurisdiction and obedience of the 
Roman pontiff. (J. A. c. ) 

Biblical Institute of Jerusalem, The, founded 
by the Dominicans, 1891, under the direction of 
Fr. M. J. Lagrange, and approved by Leo XIII, 
1892. The purpose of its institution was to form 
a progressive center of Catholic biblical study, 
which would aid in offsetting current rationalistic- 
modernistic attacks upon the Holy Bible. The school 
is particularly interested in oriental languages, 
and biblical geography and topography. Among its 
important contributions to biblical science is the 
discovery of the famous mosaic map of Madaba, 
a map which has shed considerable light on the 
history and geography of that part of ancient 
Palestine which lay between Samaria and the Nile 
delta. It also publishes the well known "Revue 
Biblique." The Biblical Institute of Jerusalem still 
remains an active and progressive school of thor- 
oughly sound scientific biblical research, (j. A. c.) 

Bibliomancy (Cr., biblion, book; manteia, divi- 
nation), a form of divination, practised by taking 
at random a passage from the Bible or other 
book and deriving therefrom portents of the fu- 
ture. 

Bickerstaffe=Drew, Francis (pseudonym, John 
Ayscough; 1858-1928), writer, b. Headingly, Leeds, 
England; d. Salisbury. He was educated at Pem- 
broke College, Oxford; became a Catholic, 26 Oct., 
1878; and was ordained, 1884. In 1891 he was 
appointed private chamberlain to Leo XIII; in 
1903, private chamberlain to Pius X; in 1904, 
domestic prelate; in 1909, Knight of the Holy Se- 



pulcher and Count. He served as military chaplain 
at Plymouth, 1892-99, at Malta, 1899-1905, and at 
Salisbury Plain, 1905-09. During the World War 
he served with distinction. In 1918 he became as- 
sistant principal chaplain royal, and in 1919, Com- 
mander of the British Empire. Under the name of 
John Ayscough he published several novels, includ- 
ing "Marotz," "Dromina," "San Celestino," "Hurd- 
cott," "Jacqueline," and "Abbotscourt" ; short 
stories, among them those in a "Roman Tragedy" 
and "Prodigals and Sons"; and essays, notably 
"Saints and Places," "Levia Pondera," and "French 
Windows." 

Bidding=Prayer (A.-S., biddan, to pray), the 
prayer just before the sermon in the Anglican 
Church. Originally the bidding of prayers signified 
the praying of prayers; later it came to signify the 
special prayer before the sermon. (c. J. D.) 

Biel, bel, Gabriel (1425-95), called "the last of 
the Scholastics," b. Speyer, Germany; d. Tubingen. 
After serving as a preacher in the cathedral of 
Mainz, he became superior of the Clerics of the 
Common Life at Butzbach, and assisted in founding 
the University of Tubingen, where he became pro- 
fessor of theology, 1464. In his commentary on the 
"Sentences," though calling Occam his master, he 
constructed an orthodox theological system. His 
views in political economy were progressive, and 
his treatise on currency stigmatizes the debasing 
of coinage as dishonest exploitation of the people. 
— C.E. 

Bielski, be-eTske (Wolski), Marcin (1495- 
1575), chronicler, b. province of Sieradz, Poland; 
d. there. A prolific writer, he is called the father 
of Polish prose, as he was the first author to use 
that language. His works include a biography of 
the philosophers, poems, and a universal history 
of Poland from 550, continued to 1597 by his son 
Joachim ( 1540-99 ) .—C.E. 

Bier (A.-S., beran, carry), the framework on 
which the corpse or containing coffin is laid before 
burial or is carried to the grave. 

Bigamy, in criminal law, formally contracting a 
marriage while a former one remains undissolved; 
in ecclesiastical law, the contracting of a valid 
marriage after the death of a first spouse. 

Bigot, one who through ignorance adheres ob- 
stinately to a social, political, or religious belief, 
opinion, or practise, and is intolerant of others 
who hold different views. 

Bill of Rights, the name usually given to the 
solemn declaration of the rights and liberties of 
English subjects, which also settled the Protestant 
succession to the British crown, drawn up, 1689, 
and accepted by William III and Mary before 
their accession. In the United States the Bill of 
Rights means the first ten amendments to the 
Constitution. 

Billuart, bil-o6-ar, Charles Bene (1685-1757), 
theologian and controversialist, b. Kevin, Belgium: 
d. there. He entered the Dominican Order and be- 
came one of the most learned commentators of St. 
Thomas's "Summa." A famous preacher, he de- 
fended publicly in Maastricht the doctrine of the 
Real Presence, silencing his Calvinist opponents 
by his incisive logic and extensive learning. For 



BILLUART 



121 



BIRETTA 



many years lie held the offices of prior and pro- 
vincial in his order. — C.E. 

Bilocation (Lat., bis, twice; locatio, place), the 
actual presence of the same finite being in two 
totally different places at the same time. A physical 
body is said to be in place circumscriptively, every 
exterior part juxtaposed with its corresponding 
part of the environing surfaces. A spiritual being 
is said to be in place definitely, entire in every 
part of space occupied. A mixed mode of location 
is that of a being circumscriptively in one place 
and definitely elsewhere, as is Christ in heaven and 
in the Sacred Host. This latter mode of bilocation 
is pertinent to the Catholic doctrine of the Holy 
Eucharist. All the physical laws of matter known 
to natural science contradict the bilocation of a 
material body as physically possible. As an absolute 
or metaphysical impossibility involving an intrinsic, 
essential contradiction, Catholic philosophers main- 
tain that there is no intrinsic repugnance to a 
mixed mode of location. Since local extension is not 
an essential note of material substance, but merely 
a relation, bilocation does not involve the multi- 
plication of a body's substance but only the mul- 
tiplication of its local relations to other bodies. — 
C.E.; Pohle-Preuss, The Sacraments, II, 181, St. L., 
1922. 

Bi nation, the offering of Mass twice on the 
same day by the same celebrant; permitted on days 
when the faithful are obliged to assist at Mass 
and there are not enough priests for the number of 
Masses needed by the congregations. — C.E. 

Binding and Loosing, the power promised by 
Christ to the rulers of His Church when He said 
to the Apostles: "Whatsoever you shall bind upon 
earth, shall be bound also in heaven; and what- 
soever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed 
also in heaven" (Matt., 18; cf. 16). Whatever be 
the primary signification of this metaphor in the 
Aramaic language, these words as used by Christ, 
as is evident from the context and from Christian 
tradition, meant that He was to confer upon the 
rulers of His Church the power to bind the faith- 
ful to the observance of laws and to loose them 
from impediments to eternal happiness, especially 
from sin and its consequent debt of punishment. 
—Pohle-Preuss, The Sacraments, III, 9-11, St. L., 
1924. (f. j. c.) 

Binet, Jacques Philippe Marie (1786-1856), 
mathematician, b. Rennes, France; d. Paris. In 1823 
he succeeded Delambre in the chair of astronomy 
at the College de Prance. In his memoir on the 
theory of the conjugate axes and of the moments 
of inertia of bodies he enumerated the principle 
now known as Binet's Theorem. — C.E. 

Biogenesis (Gr., bios, life; genesis, generation), 
name for the theory affirming that life originates 
only from pre-existing life; a fact supported by 
both reason and experience. The most minute and 
universal research has proved that all visible or- 
ganisms arise only from germs of the same kind 
and never from inorganic matter. Reason affirms 
that the cause must be adequate to the effect; 
something cannot come from nothing. Lifeless mat- 
ter can never generate life, the contradictory to 
its essential nature. Life owes its ultimate origin 



solely to the creative act of God. The name for the 
opposite theory which has no standing in science, 
is abiogenesis. — C.E.; Maher, Psychology, N. Y., 
1909. 

Biology (Gr., bios, life; logos, science), the sci- 
ence of life and living organisms. It is concerned 
with the origin, structure, development, functions, 
and relations to environment, of plant and animal 
life, and the causes thereof. A list of distinguished 
Christian biologists is included under Medical 
Science (q.v.).— C.E.; U.K. 

Biondo, Flavio (1388-1463), archaeologist and 
historian, b. Forli, Italy; d. Rome. He was secre- 
tary to Popes Eugenius IV, Nicholas V, Calixtus 
III, and Pius II. He is considered a founder of the 
science of archaeology and of Christian and medi- 
eval topography, and compiled three encyclopedias 
which form the basis of all subsequent dictionaries 
of Roman antiquities. — C.E. 

Biot, Jean Baptiste (1774-1862), physicist and 
mathematician, b. Paris; d. there. In 1800 he ob- 
tained the chair of mathematical physics in the 
College de France, and subsequently was engaged 
in the standardization of the length of the meter. 
He discovered the laws of rotary polarization by 
crystalline bodies, and advocated the corpuscular 
theory of light. — C.E. 

Birds (in Symbolism). In the O.T. and the N.T. 
symbolic references to birds occur, and these were 
multiplied in medieval litera- 
ture and art. The dove was an 
early type of purity, as in Can- 
ticle of Canticles, 5 and 6; of 
peace, as in the story of the 
Deluge; of simplicity and inno- 
cence, as in Matthew, 10. In 
early Christian art it typified 
the Holy Ghost; and later, as 
the soul, it is sometimes seen flying 
of the dead. The eagle, reputed to have the power of 
looking directly at the sun, is a symbol of Christ 
gazing undaunted on the brightness of God the 
Father, and of St. John absorbed in contemplating 
the highest truth. The eagle was also a type of Bap- 
tism, from the legend that a dying eagle could renew 
its youth by plunging three times into a spring of 
pure water (Ps., 102). The pelican, feeding her 
young with the blood of her breast, symbolizes Christ 
the Kedeemer, "nostro pelicano" as Dante calls Him. 
The phoenix, said to rise rejuvenated from its own 
ashes, is the type of resurrection and eternity. The 
peacock, believed incorruptible, represents immor- 
tality, and in later art, pride. The cock is the 
emblem of St. Peter, and sometimes of vigilance. 
The vulture represents greed; the raven may sym- 
bolize the Jews, or occasionally 
confession and penance. As em- 
blems of the saints, birds are 
associated in art with St. Fran- 
cis of Assisi and with Ven. 
biretta Joseph Anchieta, S.J., because 

of miraculous instances in connection therewith. 
—C.E. 

Biretta, stiff, square cap with three or four 
ridges on its upper surface, worn by clerics, whose 
rank is distinguished by its color, when entering 




PELICAN" 

from the mouth 




BIRETTA 



122 



BISHOP 



sanctuary for Mass and at other functions. — C.E.; 
O'Brien, History of the Mass, N. Y., 1882. 

Birinus, Saint, confessor (d. 650), apostle of 
Wessex, d. Dorchester, England. A Benedictine monk 
at Rome, he was consecrated at Genoa by Abp. 
Asterius of Milan and sent by Pope Honorius to 
spread the gospel in England. He arrived in Wes- 
sex, 634, and converted King Cynegils. He estab- 
lished his see at Dorcic, now Dorchester. Relics at 
Winchester, where numerous miracles have taken 
place. Feast, 3 Dec— C.E. 

Birmingham, city, England. Tracing its history 
from Saxon times, and mentioned in Domesday 
Book, from the 14th century until the Reformation 
Birmingham was governed by the Guild of the Holy 
Cross. During the anti-Catholic riots which fol- 
lowed the changed order, a church and convent 
were destroyed, 1688, and in 1791 the "Church and 
King" riots which occurred here culminated in the 
exile of Dr. Priestley. Previous to the erection of 
the city into a diocese, 1850, it formed part of the 
Midland, and later the Central Vicariate, of which 
the last vicar Apostolic was William B. Ullathorne. 
The city was raised to an archiepiscopal see, 1911. 
The oldest parish church, St. Martin's, now Angli- 
can, dates from the 13th century, but the original 
building has been replaced. The Cathedral of St. 
Chad, designed by Pugin, was built 1840, and the 
relics of its patron, preserved at Lichfield until 
the Reformation, now repose over the high altar. 
Through the generosity of John Hardman, patron 
of ecclesiastical art, the cathedral choir has become 
one of the foremost in the country. Newman came 
to Birmingham after his ordination and founded 
the Oratory, at Edgbaston, making it his home for 
forty years. 

Birmingham, Akchdiocese of, England, com- 
prises Warwickshire, Oxfordshire, Staffordshire, 
and Worcestershire; diocese, 1850; archdiocese, 
1911; suffragan sees: Clifton, Plymouth, and 
Shrewsbury. Bps. and Abps. : William Ullathorne, 
O.S.B. (1850-88), Edward Ilsley ( 1888-1921 ), John 
Mclntyre (1921-29), and Thomas L. Williams 
(1929). Churches and chapels, 229; priests, secular, 
224; priests, regular, 152; seminary, 1; elementary 
schools, 126; other schools, 47; institutions, 25; 
Catholics, 129,626. 

Birt, Dom Henry Norbert (1861-1919), eccle- 
siastical historian, b. Valparaiso, Chile; d. London. 
He entered the Benedictine Order at Downside Ab- 
bey, England, 1880, was ordained, 1889, and after a 
period of teaching and parochial work at Coventry, 
became assistant and secretary to Abbot Francis 
Gasquet, army chaplain during the South African 
war, and to the home forces during the World 
War. He served prominently on the Committee of 
the Catholic Truth Society and was on the Council 
of the Catholic Record Society. His works include: 
"Elizabethan Religious Settlement"; "History of 
Downside School"; "Lingard's History Abridged": 
"Benedictine Pioneers in Australia"; "Obit Book 
of the English Benedictines"; and articles for the 
Catholic Encyclopedia and for various Catholic 
periodicals. — C.E. Suppl. 

Birth, Defect of, a canonical impediment caused 
by illegitimacy of birth, that is birth out of lawful 



wedlock, whereby one is impeded from receiving 
orders licitly, and is inhibited from exercising the 
orders he may have received illicitly; it also ren- 
ders one ineligible to be a higher superior in a 
religious order, or to be admitted into an ecclesi- 
astical seminary. The defect may be cured by the 
subsequent marriage of the parents, or by a papal 
rescript, or by religious profession, or by a dis- 
pensation; but such legitimatization does not re- 
move the impediment against receiving the cardi- 
nalate, or consecration as a bishop, abbot, or prelate 
nullius. — C.E. 

Birth Control, the voluntary prevention of con- 
ception through arrested coition or the use of 
contraconceptives, for the purpose of limiting the 
number of offspring. As commonly used the term 
means the absolute prevention of pregnancy. While 
the Catholic Church does not urge married persons 
to beget the largest possible number of children, 
and does not sanction the intemperate use of mar- 
riage, she does condemn each deliberate act of birth 
control as intrinsically evil (S.Off., 21 May, 1851; 
19 April, 1853; S.Pcen., 13 Nov., 1901). In cases 
(»f ill health or poverty she insists on marital ab- 
\ tinence. The Catholic doctrine that birth control 
is essentially wrong, is not a mere disciplinary 
measure, like the law of clerical celibacy, which 
can be abrogated or modified by the Church. It is 
a definition of the law of God, which no power, 
not even the Church itself, can abrogate or con- 
travene. In the Divine plan the primary purpose 
of the marital act is the procreation of offspring, 
and its secondary purposes are the cementing of 
conjugal love and the allaying of concupiscence. 
As birth control defeats the primary purpose of 
the marriage relation, it is opposed to the Divine 
Will, which the Church must sustain. This teach- 
ing is reenforced by other weighty considerations, 
e.g., birth control undermines the respect of hus- 
band for wife, and vice versa, and thereby increases 
unhappiness among married people and the con- 
sequent number of divorces. The essential evil of 
birth control, however, consists in frustrating the 
primary purpose of marriage, the propagation of 
the species. — U.K.; Bruehl, Birth Control and Eu- 
genics, N". Y., 1928. (f. j. h.) 

Bishop (Gr., episkopos, overseer), Divinely in- 
stituted member of the ecclesiastical hierarchy 
(Trent, Sess. XXIII, ch. 4, can. 6), and successor 
of the Apostles. The Sacrament of Orders, i.e., con- 
secration, confers on bishops spiritual power in 
the Church, and imprints on their souls an indelible 
spiritual character. In the hierarchy of orders they 
are superior to priests; in the hierarchy of juris- 
diction by Christ's will, they rule a diocese, in due 
dependence and submission to the Roman pontiff. 
— C.E.; P.C. Augustine. (r. b. m.) 

Bishop, Methodist, prelate in the American 
Methodist Episcopal Church elected by the General 
Conference. They are not bishops in the sense in 
which this name is used in the Catholic Church and 
Anglican, or Episcopalian, Church, but superintend- 
ents, sharing in common their jurisdiction without 
being confined to any diocese or district. For prac- 
tical reasons the General Conference at its session 
every four years designates episcopal residences. 



BISHOP 



123 



BLACK LETTER 



Their duties being entirely executive, the bishops 
do much traveling to various churches, promoting 
temporal and spiritual interests. Between the 
bishops and other ministers there is no distinction 
of order. 

Bishop, Titular, one who has been appointed by 
the Holy See to a diocese which, in former times, 
had been canonically established and possessed 
cathedral church, clergy, and laity, but on account 
of pagan occupation of the diocesan territory has 
now neither clergy nor people. See Titular Sees. 
Bishop, William (c. 1553-1624), first episcopal 
superior in England after the extinction of the hier- 
archy, b. Brailes, Warwickshire, England. About 
1574 he joined Dr. Allen at Douai, and subse- 
quently completed his studies at Rome, returning to 
the English mission. In 1598 he went to Rome on 
behalf of the secular clergy in connection with the 
"archpriest controversy"; his views were unfavor- 
ably received and for some time he was forbidden 
to return to England. When the injunction was 
withdrawn he returned, and soon after he drew up 
the famous "Protestation of Allegiance" to Eliz- 
abeth, which was violently denounced by his oppo- 
nents. In 1623 he was named titular Bp. of Chalce- 
don and Vicar Apostolic of England. He organized 
a system of church government throughout the 
country, establishing a chapter of 24 canons to 
assume jurisdiction during any vacancy of the 
vicariate. — C.E. 

Bishop of Rome, the pope who, besides being 
head of the universal Church, occupies its central 
and principal see, Rome, in succession to its first 
bishop, Peter. 

Bishops and Regulars, Congregation of. This 
congregation originated in 1601 from the union 
of the congregations for the Consultations of 
Bishops and for the Consultations of Regulars. 
Presided over by a cardinal prefect, it had an 
adequate number of cardinals and the usual officials. 
Its competency was wide; only questions of doc- 
trine, the formal interpretation of the Tridentine 
Decrees, marriage processes, and rites and cere- 
monies were excluded. Thus it was competent in 
all business concerning bishops and the proper ad- 
ministration of dioceses. It received appeals against 
bishops, and replied to doubts about diocesan ad- 
ministration. It also treated all affairs about re- 
ligious; settled controversies between orders, or 
within an order; considered the establishment and 
suppression of religious houses; gave permission 
for religious to transfer to another order; and took 
cognizance of those who left their order. Pius X, 
8 Sept., 1908, suppressed it, giving its competency 
over affairs of bishops to the Congregation of the 
Council, and that over the affairs of religious to 
the newly founded Congregation for the Affairs of 
Religious.— C.E., XIII, 142. (c. E. D.) 

Bismarck, Diocese of, comprises the western 
half of North Dakota; area, 35,998 sq. m. ; estab- 
lished, 1910; suffragan of St. Paul. Bishop: Vincent 
Wehrle (1910). Churches, 154; priests, secular, 40; 
priests, regular, 25 ; religious women, 258 ; high 
schools, 6; primary schools, 17; pupils in parochial 
schools, 2536 ; institutions, 5 ; Catholics, 48,097. 
^^Slsjnarckj^OTToEDUAKD Leopold von (1815- 



98), prince, statesman, b. Schonhausen, Germany; 
d. Friedrichsruh. He entered the University of Got- 
tingen, 1832, then studied law in Berlin. About 1846 
he became a member of the provincial diet of Sax- 
ony; in 1847, deputy from Brandenburg in the 
Prussian Diet; and in 1850, Prussian delegate at 
Frankfurt. He quickly gained the confidence of 
Frederick William IV. Bismarck worked for the 
removal of Austria from the Germanic Confedera- 
tion. In 1857 he was appointed ambassador to 
Russia, and in 1861, to Paris. In 1862 he became 
minister of foreign affairs and head of the cabinet. 
He created a large army which, 3 July, 1866, 
crushed Austria at Sadowa, terminating the Seven 
Weeks War. This victory assured Prussian suprem- 
acy. Bismarck now turned to the consolidation of 
the North German states. He headed the German 
Liberal Nationals and granted a new constitution 
with universal suffrage. In 1870 the Franco-Prus- 
sian War tested the strength of the German union. 
Germany emerged victorious, and the states of 
North and South Germany united under William I, 
crowned first German Emperor in the Palace of Ver- 
sailles, 18 Jan., 1871. Bismarck was made chan- 
cellor with the title of prince. He next concentrated 
on the nationalization of the empire. In his effort 
to crush all possible enemies he inaugurated the 
Kulturkampf (struggle for civilization) against 
Catholics whom he feared because of their allegi- 
ance to the pope. With the election of Pope Leo 
XIII a reconciliation was effected, and by 1884 
diplomatic relations had been resumed with Rome. 
In 1882 he had formed the Triple Alliance of 
Austria, Germany, and Italy. The last years of 
his chancellorship were devoted to a vigorous cam- 
paign against socialism, but with the accession 
of William II, 1888, his long domination came 
to an end. His resignation was requested, 1890, 
and he withdrew to his estate of Lauenburg. — U.K. ; 
Weber, General History of the Christian Era, II, 
465-486, Wash., 1928. (c. V.) 

Black, liturgical color symbolizing mourning. 
Black vestments are used on Good Friday, to ex- 
press grief at the death of the Saviour, and unless 
the rank of a feast require otherwise, at funerals 
and offices for the dead to show sorrow and sym- 
pathy. However, at these times the tabernacle veil 
is purple, as it is never allowed to hang a black 
veil before the Blessed Sacrament. (j. c. T. ) 

Black Fast, a form of fasting with abstinence 
from flesh meat, eggs, butter, cheese, and milk 
enjoined. — C.E. 

Black Friars. (1) Name popularly applied in 
Great Britain to the members of the Dominican 
Order, because of the black mantle which they wore 
over their white habits. (2) Well-known districts 
in London and in Glasgow, 

so called because of the ft ff f h p j* f| ft f 
former location of Domini- ^ ^ * *il*> * 
can monasteries in these 
places. 

Black Letter, name given to form of type used 
by early printers in distinction from "Roman" 
type. It is also called "Gothic." It is still used in 
Germany. In England its use is confined to fancy 
printing. 



black letter 



BLACKWELL 



124 



BLESSED BREAD 



Blackwell, George (c. 1545-1613), archpriest, 
b. Middlesex, England; d. London. Ordained at 
Douai, 1575, he served in England for nearly 20 
years. When Card. Allen died, 1594, he was named 
archpriest by Clement VIII, 1597-98. On the pro- 
mulgation of the Oath of Allegiance of James I, 
1606, he was confused by its ingenious wording 
into thinking it acceptable to conscientious Cath- 
olics, and in spite of its condemnation by Paul V, 
1606 and 1607, he signed it and urged the clergy 
to do so. On defending his conduct, he was deposed 
from the office of archpriest by the pope and re- 
placed by George Birkhead, or Birket, 1608. — U.K. 

Blairs College (St. Mary's College), Blairs, 
Aberdeen, Scotland, ecclesiastical college founded 
1829, comprising the two "little seminaries" of 
Aquhorties and Lismore. The first important Cath- 
olic collegiate foundation in Scotland after the 
Reformation, it has educated many priests for the 
Scottish mission. The archives of the Diocese of 
Glasgow, and important correspondence left by 
Abp. Beaton (d. 1603), are preserved here. The 
college was rebuilt, 1897 and 1903. Faculty, 11; 
students, 143. 

Blaise, Saint, martyr (c. 316), Bp. of Sebaste, 
d. Sebaste, Armenia. According to legend he was a 
physician at Sebaste, where he later became bishop. 
He was cast into prison by the pagans in the 
persecution of Licinius. He performed a wonderful 
cure on the throat of a child, who was choking 
from a fishbone he had swallowed, and, consequently, 
is invoked against throat troubles. He is honored 
as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers (q.v.). In 
many places on his feast day the faithful receive 
the blessing of St. Blaise, given by holding two 
candles against the throat in the form of St. An- 
drew's cross. Emblems: a wax taper, and iron 
comb. Feast, 3 Feb.— C.E.; Butler. 

Blanche of Castile (1186-1252), mother of St. 
Louis of France. Entrusted with the regency during 
the minority of her son, she had to contend with 
the hostility of the feudal barons. She was an 
energetic woman and had excellent counsellors in 
Friar Guerin, Chancellor Barthelemy of Roye, and 
the papal legate, Frangipani. When Louis IX 
reached his majority, he found his kingdom en- 
larged and his authority strengthened. Blanche was 
again regent during the king's absence on the 
Crusade. — U.K. (f. p. d.) 

Blanchet, blan-sha, Francois Norbert (1795- 
1883), first Abp. of Oregon City, b. St. Pierre, 
Quebec, Canada; d. Portland, Ore. Educated at the 
Seminary of Quebec, he was ordained, 1819, and 
went west as vicar-general and first missionary to 
the Oregon country, 1838. He was made vicar 
Apostolic and consecrated in Montreal, 1845, being 
named Abp. of Oregon City, 1846. After 42 years 
of heroic labor in the Northwest, he resigned, 1880. 
— Augustin Magloire (1797-1887), brother of pre- 
ceding, 1st Bp. of Walla Walla, Wash, (present see, 
Seattle), b. St. Pierre; d. Fort Vancouver, Wash. 
He was ordained, 1821, consecrated at Montreal, 
1846, and reached Walla Walla, 1847, by wagon 
overland through the United States. When the Dio- 
cese of Walla Walla was suppressed and the Dio- 
cese of Nesqually erected, 1850, he officiated at first 



in a log cathedral at Fort Vancouver. He resigned, 
1879.— C.E. 

Blandina, Saint, virgin, martyr (177), d. 
Lyons. She was a Christian slave, who, with the 
other martyrs of Lyons, suffered at the hands of 
the fanatic heathen populace. After being exposed 
to the wild beasts in the arena and remaining un- 
scathed, she was scourged, placed on a red-hot 
grate, thrown before a wild steer, and slain with 
a dagger. Relics in the church of Saint-Leu, Amiens. 
Feast, 2 June.— C.E. 

Blane (Blaan), Saint, bishop and confessor (d. 
590), b. and d. island of Bute, Scotland. Educated 
in Ireland under Sts. Comgall and Kenneth, he be- 
came a monk, and went to Scotland as bishop among 
the Picts. He founded a monastery at Dunblane, on 
the site of which the cathedral of Dunblane now 
stands. His church was at Kingarth, Bute. His 
works include sacred hymns, instructions to cate- 
chumens, and pious writings. Buried at Kingarth, 
where many miracles are attributed to him. Feast, 
10 Aug.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Blasphemy (Gr., blapto, injure; phemi, speak), 
any word of malediction, reproach, or contumely 
pronounced against God. — C.E. 

Blathmac, Saint, martyr (750-855), b. Ire- 
land; d. Iona, Scotland. According to the biography 
by Strabo, he was of noble Irish lineage. In 824 
he joined the Columban monks at Iona, and later 
became abbot. While celebrating Mass he was mur- 
dered by the Danes for refusing to reveal to them 
the shrine of St. Columba. Feast, 19 Jan. — C.E.; 
Butler. 

Blemmida, Nicephorus (c. 1198-1272), Ortho- 
dox Greek writer, b. Constantinople. Ordained at 
ISTicaea about 1223, he subsequently entered a mon- 
astery which he had founded at Ephesus. One of the 
most brilliant men of his day, he is particularly 
noted as having recognized that the Latin Church 
was correct in its doctrine concerning the procession 
of the Holy Ghost.— C.E. 

Blessed, the official ecclesiastical title, prelimi- 
nary to sainthood, conferred by a solemn judgment 
of the Church after sufficient investigation has 
proved that the virtues of a deceased person have 
been heroic, and that God has testified to this by 
miracles worked through the intercession of the 
respective person. The solemnities of beatification 
are briefly as follows. On the day on which beatifi- 
cation takes place Mass is said in St. Peter's in 
the presence of the Congregation of Bites. After the 
Gospel, the secretary of the Congregation reads 
the papal decree of beatification, at the conclusion 
of which a painting of the newly beatified is exposed 
over the altar and the Mass is finished. About the 
hour of Vespers the Holy Father comes down to 
the basilica to venerate the new blessed. Regarding 
the cultus of the blessed, attention must be paid to 
the special indult issued by the sovereign pontiff. 
Usually the Mass and Office may be said on a fixed 
day within certain limits of place or by certain 
classes of persons. — C.E. (c. v.) 

Blessed Bread. When the primitive custom of 
the faithful's supplying the bread for consecration 
was discontinued, the usage arose of bringing com- 
mon bread usually presented at the Offertory of the 



BLESSED BREAD 



125 



BLOSIUS 



Mass to be blessed by the priest before the Oblation 
and distributed to those present as a token of love 
and union. Although generally consumed in church, 
it was frequently carried home. It was called panis 
benedictus, pants lustratus, panis lustralis, and 
pain benit in France. From France the custom 
reached Canada and confined itself mainly to the 
Quebec province. It still exists in some few localities 
of the Western Church, especially in France. See 
Antidoron; Eulogia. — O'Brien. History of the 
Mass. N. Y., 1882. 

Blessed Sacrament, Devotion to the. Among 
the various devotions to the Blessed Sacrament may 
be mentioned: Adoration, Perpetual; Benedic- 
tion; Exposition; Forty Hours; and Visits to 
the Blessed Sacrament, each of which is treated 
under its own article. Amongst the most beautiful 
and inspiring of devotions to the Blessed Sacrament 
are processions in which the Blessed Sacrament is 
borne along the line of march by the priest. These 
processions are time-old and not at all unusual. The 
cross-bearer leads, flanked by two acolytes bearing 
lighted torches, followed by a line of servers in cas- 
socks and surplices and by troops of boys and girls 
in white, some of them strewing flowers in the path 
of the celebrant bearing the Sacred Host, as he fol- 
lows at the end of the line. The usual route of these 
processions is around the church beginning at the 
high altar, following down the middle aisle, up the 
aisle on the Gospel side and around by the Epistle 
side, up again through the middle aisle back to the 
altar. Benediction is given at the conclusion of the 
services. Corpus Christi processions are usually in 
the open grounds or fields (see Corpus Christi). 
The hymn chanted during the procession, the 
"Pange Lingua," has special reference to the Blessed 
Sacrament. 

Blessing (A.-S., bloedsian, redden with blood, 
from the custom of sprinkling the altar with blood 
in sacrifice), as used in the Scriptures, has several 
meanings: praise; expression of desire that good 
fortune go with a person or thing; dedication of 
a person or thing to a sacred purpose; and a gift. 
In a strictly liturgical sense a blessing is a rite 
of ceremonies and prayers by which an authorized 
minister sanctifies persons or things to Divine ser- 
vice or invokes Divine favor upon them. The prayer 
usually mentions the object of the blessing and is 
accompanied by the sign of the Cross. In the Appen- 
dix of the Roman Ritual there are over 200 such 
blessings of everything imaginable : of the sick, 
fields, flocks, archives, libraries, food, cheese, beer, 
carriages, railroads, homes, airplanes, electrical ma- 
chines, fire-engines, elevators, lifts, women pregnant 
and after delivery, organs, pilgrims, wells, schools, 
seismographs, horses, printing presses, vineyards, 
etc. In the Divine Office the blessing pronounced by 
the officiant upon the reader is known as the bene- 
diction (q.v. ). For the papal blessing, see Blessing, 
Apostolic. — C.E.; Sullivan, Externals of the Cath- 
olic Church, N. Y., 1917. 

Blessing, Apostolic, the benediction given by 
the pope at the end of liturgical functions at which 
he presides, and sometimes after audiences; also the 
solemn benediction "Urbi et Orbi" (to the city and 
world) pronounced by the pope immediately after 



his election, from the balcony of St. Peter's, as well 
as on Maundy Thursday, Easter, Ascension Day, 
and the Assumption. The power to bestow the papal 
blessing has been delegated to all bishops, who 
may give it in their own dioceses, on Easter Sun- 
day and on one other solemn feast. Abbots or prel- 
ates nullius, vicars Apostolic and prefects Apos- 
tolic, even when not bishops, can give it in their 
territories on only one of the more solemn feasts 
each year. Regulars w T ho are privileged to bestow 
the blessing, may do so only in the town churches 
or in those of nuns or tertiaries lawfully aggre- 
gated to their own order, and in the prescribed 
formula. All priests who are assisting the sick 
should grant them the Apostolic blessing or "last 
blessing" with a plenary indulgence for the mo- 
ment of death, according to the formula and under 
the usual conditions. — C.E. 

Blind, Catholic Work for the. Although there 
was no education for the blind until the 18th cen- 
tury, mainly due to the error as to their mental 
capacities, the Church provided for their corporeal 
needs from the earliest ages. Special care was given 
to them, and hospices for the blind were founded 
by St. Basil at Caesarea (4th century), St. Bertrand 
in France (7th century), William the Conqueror, 
and St. Louis, King of France, who established at 
Paris, c. 1260, the "Hospice des Quinze-Vingts," 
surviving to this day. In the 16th century special 
processes for their education, attempted by Cardano 
and the Jesuit, Francesco Lana-Terzi, met with 
little success. The modern movement for education 
of the blind was originated by Valentin Hauy 
(1745-1822), who provided a system of tactual 
printing which resulted in a permanent literature, 
and founded the first school for the blind, 1784. 
Various inventors made improvements on Haliy's 
device, and in 1829 Louis Braille perfected his dot 
system which was soon adopted in most countries 
and is the basis of other simpler methods. To 
supply Catholic literature gratuitously for the 
blind in the United States, Joseph Stadelman 
founded, in 1900, a society called "The Xavier 
Free Publication Society for the Blind of the City 
of New York," which 
prints and circulates 
thousands of volumes. 
—C.E. 

Bliss (A.-S., blithe, 
happy), intense glad- 
ness; the perfect hap- 
piness of heaven; eter- 
nal beatitude. 

Blood is the price 
of Heaven, hymn writ- 
ten by Rev. F. W. Faber 
in the 19th century. 

Blosius, Francois 
Louis (1506-66), Bene- 
dictine abbot and spiritual writer, b. Donstienne, near 
Liege, Belgium; d. Liessies. He joined the order at 
the age of 14, studied at the University of Louvain, 
and became Abbot of Liessies, holding this office 
until his death. As abbot he inaugurated a reform 
confirmed by Pope Paul III. His many writings 
on spiritual subjects enjoy a well-deserved reputa- 




FRANgOIS LOUIS 
BLOSIUS 



BLOSIUS 



126 



BODY 



tion. Three have been translated into English: 
"Mirror for Monks," "A Book of Spiritual Instruc- 
tion," and "Comfort for the Faint-hearted." — C.E. 

(r. j. m.) 
Blue, a liturgical color, not in use throughout the 
Church according to Roman Ritual, but used in 
some places at certain times. It is the color spe- 
cially associated with Our Lady and indicates con- 
stancy, fidelity, genuineness, and aspiration, being 
significant, in the Levitical system, of the air. In 
pre-Reformation England there was -o general rule 
as to colors but blue was often used. The Exeter 
ordinal for 1327 prescribes blue for certain double 
feasts of saints. According to an inventory of 
Meaux Abbey, Yorkshire, 1396, feasts of virgins 
not martyrs were kept in sky blue. Blue was one 
of the colors for confessors. In the 14th century at 
Wells blue was used in Advent and on Ash Wednes- 
day. Inventories of 18 of the prebenclal churches 
of St. Paul's taken in 1458 show that out of 18 
churches 10 had blue vestments, and out of 83 suits 

11 were blue. An inventory of St. Dunstan's, Canter- 
bury, 1500, includes a "best" vestment of blue. 
According to a decree of the Congregation of Rites, 

12 Feb., 1884, by special indult some dioceses of 
Spain must use blue vestments instead of white on 
the feast of the Immaculate Conception, during its 
octave, and during the year whenever the Mass of 
the Immaculate Conception is said. Mexico has the 
same privilege and also Lourdes, France. In Colom- 
bia blue vestments were used by special privilege 
on the occasion of the Coronation of Our Lady of 
Chiquinquira at Bogota, to which city the statue 
was brought for the ceremony. — Hope and Atchley, 
English Liturgical Colors, Lond., 1918; Henry, 
Catholic Customs and Symbols, N. Y., 1925. 

Blue Laws, stringent legal measures dealing 
with private morals and conduct, especially the 
puritanical laws of the early American colonies. 
The term "blue" originated in England where it 
was associated with strict adherents of Puritanism, 
since to be constant, faithful, or "true blue" was 
considered Puritanic. The more liberal inhabitants 
of the New York colony are believed to have stig- 
matized their stricter neighbors in New Haven as 
"blue" and the term is sometimes traced to the 
covers of blue paper which bound the session laws 
of Connecticut. Among those actually enacted were 
prohibitions against unneces- 
sary Sunday travel, mixed 
dancing, gambling, regulations 
regarding wearing apparel, the 
obligation of belonging to an 
approved church imposed upon 
all freemen, voters, and mili- 
tary officers, and laws against 
Catholic priests and Quakers. 
—U.K. 

BMT., in catacomb inscrip- 
tions = bene merenti (to the 
well-deserving). 
Boat, emblem in art associated with St. Peter 
as fisherman. 

Boat, Incense (so called from its shape), vessel 
that holds the incense before it is put into the 
censer. 




INCENSE BOAT 
AND CENSER 



Bobbio Missal, a MS. of the 7th century found 
by Mabillon, at Bobbio, North Italy, now in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris (Lat. 13,246). 
While the MS. is also called Gallican and attributed 
to the Province of Besangon, it is now recognized to 
be Irish in a much Bomanized form. The Missal 
contains a "Missa Bomensis cottidiana." other 
Masses for various days and intentions, the Order 
of Baptism, and the "Benedictio Cerei." (d. r. ) 

Boccadipecora, Teobaldo (Celestine II), 
antipope (1124). He was elected but the Boman 
nobility demanded Cardinal Lambert as pope. To 
prevent a schism he resigned and Lambert was 
elected as Honorius II. — Mann. 

Body, Relation of Soul and. The body and the 
soul of a living material being are incomplete sub' 
stances which so mutually complete and perfect one 
another, that there arises from their union one 
complete substance. In the case of a rational soul, 
if we except the soul of Christ, the result of this 
substantial union is a human person. In Christ the 
human nature consisting of soul and body exists in 
the Divine Personality of the Word, the Second 
Person of the Holy Trinity. Pius IX (1857) de- 
clared it to be Catholic doctrine that in man "the 
rational soul is the true, per se, and immediate 
form of the body"; "per se" indicates, naturally 
and essentially destined for this union; and "im- 
mediate" signifies, with nothing intervening between 
body and soul. The whole human soul is in the 
whole body and the whole human soul is in each 
part of the body. According to its faculties, how- 
ever, it is in definite parts; e.g., as to seeing, it is 
only in the eye, and as to hearing, it is only in 
the ear. At the general resurrection the body will 
be reunited to the soul (see Body, Resurrection 
of). — Maher, Psychology, N. Y., 1909. (j. f. g.) 

Body, Resurrection of (Lat., re, again; sur- 
gere, to rise), a substantial conversion whereby the 
human body resolved into its component parts by 
death is restored to its former condition. The resur- 
rection is styled a conversion to distinguish it from 
creation by which an entirely new being comes into 
existence. In ancient times the resurrection was 
denied especially by the Sadducees, the Gnostics, the 
Manichaeans, and the medieval Albigenses and 
Waldenses, and is still violently attacked by athe- 
ists, materialists, and rationalists. The doctrine is 
well founded in Holy Writ being contained in both 
the Old and New Testaments. The classic text of 
the O.T. is the following from Job (19): "For I 
know that my Redeemer liveth, and in the last day 
I shall rise out of the earth. And I shall be clothed 
again with my skin; and in my flesh I shall see my 
God." Another passage of Scripture is that describ- 
ing the vision of Ezechiel ( Ezech., 7 ) . The prophet 
saw how the dry bones on the field of the dead be- 
gan to stir, took on sinews and flesh, and were 
covered with skin. When they stood upright and 
breathed and lived, the Lord said to the prophet: 
"Son of man : all these bones are the house of 
Israel. . . . Behold. I will open your graves, and 
will bring you out of your sepulchres, my people, 
and will bring you into the land of Israel." Though 
this vision symbolizes the restoration of Israel, it 
would have been unintelligible to the Jews had 



BODY 



127 



BOISGELIN 



they not been familiar with belief in a resurrection 
of the dead. In the N.T. we have the distinct 
assurance of Christ and the Apostles that the dead 
will rise again. Our Lord accused the Sadducees of 
ignorance because they denied the resurrection of 
the dead. "You err, not knowing the Scriptures 
nor the power of God" (Matt., 22). He also pre- 
dicted that He Himself would raise the dead to life: 
"The hour cometh, wherein all that are in the 
graves shall hear the voice of the Son of God. And 
they that have done good things shall come forth 
unto the resurrection of life: but they that have 
done evil, unto the resurrection of judgment" 
( John, 5 ) . The Apostles testified to the resurrection, 
St. Paul especially placing the resurrection of the 
dead on the same level, as regards certainty, with 
the resurrection of our Lord; "Now if Christ be 
preached, that he rose again from the dead, how do 
some among you say that there is no resurrection 
of the dead? But if there be no resurrection of the 
dead, then Christ is not risen again. And if Christ 
be not risen again, then is our preaching vain: and 
your faith is also vain" (1 Cor., 15). Tradition of 
the early Church establishes the dogma of the resur- 
rection, the Fathers not only referring to it, but 
even writing entire treatises appealing both to 
Scripture and reason. — C.E., XII, 789; Pohle- 
Preuss, Eschatology, St. L., 1924. (c. V. ) 

Body and the Eagles (Matt, 24; Luke, 17), 
parable following a description given by Jesus of 
His second coming. When and where that is to hap- 
pen He refuses to tell His disciples, but He assures 
them, that when it does happen it will be so evident 
that they will realize it of themselves, just as the 
eagles find by instinct and with their senses a 
carcass without further indication. Hence, there is 
no need to fear deception by false prophets, an- 
nouncing the second coming of Christ; the very 
fact that this so-called Christ needs announcing is 
proof that he is not the true Christ. Let them there- 
fore live in peaceful preparation until they actually 
find themselves before their Lord and Master. — 
Fonck, tr. Leahy, Parables of the Gospel, Cin., 
1915. (n. G.) 

Boehme (Behmen), Jakob (1575-1624), mys- 
tic and theologian, b. Altseidenberg, Germany; d. 
Gorlitz. He had little education, but having studied 
the Bible and several mystics, as a devout Lutheran, 
he preached and wrote on religious and philosophi- 
cal subjects. His first book, published without his 
knowledge, 1612, aroused bitter opposition. The 
Elector of Saxony protected him against persecution 
as a heretic, 1624. He taught a sort of dualism in 
the nature of God as an explanation of good and 
evil, one of his basic theories being the apprehen- 
sion of a principle by its opposite. His followers, 
called Bohmists or Behminists, were numerous in 
Germany, Holland, and England. His complete 
works were translated and published in England, 
1644-62. His theories were studied by several phi- 
losophers, including Isaac Newton, William Blake, 
Georg Wilhelm Hegel, and Friedrich Schelling.— 
U.K. 

Bogota or Santa Fe de Bogota (Chibcha, lo- 
catd, end of the farm-lands ) , capital of the Republic 
of Colombia, founded in 1538 by Gonzalo Ximenez 



de Quesada, a Spanish conqueror. The Plaza de 
Bolivar, the principal square, contains the cathedral 
in Corinthian style with a jeweled statue of the 
Blessed Virgin. There are 30 churches, some pos- 
sessing paintings of Murillo, II Spagnoletto, and 
Gregorio Vazquez. Many old conventual buildings 
have been used for secular purposes since 1861, the 
national library and museum being housed in the 
former Jesuit college. Bogota is the seat of an 
archdiocese. The college of Saint Bartholomew 
founded by the Jesuits, 1605, is the oldest "college" 
in America still in existence and directed by its 
founders. Among other institutions of learning are 
the secular College of Our Lady of the Rosary and 
the Dominican College of St. Thomas. The National 
Observatory of St. Bartholomew is directed by the 
Jesuits. Est. pop., 166,148. 

Bohemia. See Czechoslovakia. 

Bohemian Brethren. See Moravians. 

Bohemian College, Rome, established, 1884. 
partly with the revenues of the ancient Bohemian 
hospice founded by Emperor Charles IV, and with 
contributions from Leo XIII and the Bohemian 
bishops. The distinguishing mark of the students, 
who attend the Propaganda, is a black sash with 
two yellow stripes at the ends. — C.E., XIII, 135. 

Boileau=Despreaux, bwa-lo-da-pra-o, Nicolas 
(1636-1711), satirist and critic, b. Paris; d. there. 
After studying law and theology, Boileau devoted 
himself to poetry and wrote satires, attacking the 
mediocre poets and pedantic authors of his day. 
Louis XIV forced his election to the French Acad- 
emy, 1684, in spite of bitter opposition due to the 
fact that many of the Academicians wore among the 
victims of Boileau's satirical humor. His principal 
works are: "Satires" and "Epitres," treating 
chiefly moral and literary subjects; "Art Poetique," 
a literary code in which he sets forth his poetical 
theories; and "Le Lutrin," a mock-heroic poem. 
He was called the "Lawgiver of Parnassus," and 
greatly contributed to the formation of the French 
classic ideals in literature. — C.E. (f. p. d.) 

Boise, Diocese of, comprises the State of Idaho; 
area, 84,290 sq. m.; erected, 1893; suffragan of 
Oregon. Bishops: Alphonse Glorieux (1893-1917); 
Daniel Gorman (1918-27). Churches, 122; priests, 
secular, 70; priests, regular, 18; religious women, 
387; academies, 6; primary schools, 18; pupils in 
parochial schools, 2025; institutions, 12; Catholic 
population, 21,000. 

Boisgelin, Jean de Dieu Raymond de Cuce de 
(1732-1804), cardinal, b. Rennes, France. He became 
Bp. of Lavaur in 1765, and in 1769 was trans- 
ferred to Aix. In 1789 he represented the clergy of 
his province at the States-General, where he defended 
the rights of the Church, advocated the claim of 
every citizen to have a voice in the government, and 
spoke in favor of abolishing the traces of feudalism. 
When the majority adopted its anti-religious legis- 
lation, he wrote the famous protest against the 
civil constitution of the clergy. Subsequently he 
proposed that his fellow-bishops place their resigna- 
tions in the hands of the pope. When exiled he went 
to England, and after religious peace was restored 
under Napoleon, returned to France, where he was 
promoted to the Archbishopric of Tours and made 



BOISGELIN 



128 



BOLOGNA 



a cardinal. He possessed remarkable literary and 
oratorical gifts, and was chosen a member of the 
French Academy, 1776.— C.E. 

Boisil, Saint, confessor (d. 664), Abbot of Mel- 
rose, Scotland. He is famous as the teacher of St. 
Cuthbert, and was renowned in his day for his 
spiritual gifts. He died of the yellow plague. Relics 
at Durham. Feast, 23 Feb.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Bokenham, Osbern (1393-1447), Augustinian 
friar and poet, b. Old Buckenham, Norfolk, England. 
His writings are mainly religious. The "Lyvys of 
Seyntys" does not merit serious consideration from 
modern hagiologists, but is of decided historical 
value as showing the evolution of English litera- 
ture; it is written in the Suffolk dialect. — C.E. 

Bolivia, independent inland republic in western 
central South America; approximate area, 560,000 
sq. m.; est. pop., 2,990,220, mainly Catholic. Chris- 
tianity was introduced by the Jesuit missionaries 
in the 16th century, and after the expulsion of the 
order, 1767, the work was continued by the Fran- 
ciscans. Catholicism is the official religion, endowed 
by the state, but other forms of worship are tol- 
erated, and since 1912 the civil marriage service is 
obligatory. In 1925 the country was dedicated to 
the Sacred Heart. Bolivia is represented at the 
Holy See by an envoy extraordinary and a minister 
plenipotentiary; an internuncio resides at La Paz. 
Church administration is thus divided: 



Year Chs. Pp. Srs. 
1551 515 200 
1847 174 161 



95 



70 


105 


. 260,000 


30 


17 


60,000 



Caths. 
366,560 
200,300 
100,000 



Sucre, A 

Cochabamba, D. . 

La Paz, D 1608 

Oruro, D 1924 

Potosi, D 1924 

Santa Cruz de la 

Sierra, D 1605 

Tarija, D 1924 

Beni, V.A 1917 

Chaco, V.A 1919 

Pilcomayo, P.A 1925 



Bollandists, group of Belgian Jesuits who com- 
pile the "Acta Sanctorum," named for John van 
Bolland, editor of the first volume. The Acta is a 
hagiographical work comprising the Acts of all 

saints venerated 
throughout the Chris- 
tian world and contain- 
ing a vast amount of 
material on church his- 
tory in all countries 
and centuries, with nu- 
merous details of chro- 
nology, geography, law, 
government, literature, 
fine arts, and industry. 
The saints are arranged 
according to the days of 
the year, each of which 
is treated as a separate 
unit. The work was planned by Herbert Kosweyde 
(d. 1629), a Belgian Jesuit who collected a vast 
amount of material from the libraries of Belgium. 
His successor Bolland extended Rosweyde's plan to 
include all information from whatever source on 
each saint and his cult, prefacing each text with a 
study to determine the author and historical value. 
It met with the encouragement of churchmen and 




JOHN VAN 
BOLLAND, S.J. 



scholars, and in 1660 at the invitation of Alexander 
VII two colleagues, Henschen and Papebroch, made 
a journey from Antwerp to Rome and gathered 
material which long remained one of the most valu- 
able resources of the work. By 1709 it was carried 
to Volume V of June, the 24th of the collection, 
and was continued in Antwerp mainly by Belgian 
Jesuits assisted by historians throughout the world 
until 1773, when the suppression of the Jesuits 
caused their removal to Brussels. Joseph II com- 
pelled them to sell their effects, and in spite of 
the attempts of Napoleon I to restore the Bol- 
landists, work was not resumed until 1837 when 
a new group was organized, receiving aid from 
most of the European governments and societies 
of learned men. In 1869 the subsidy of the Bol- 
landists was removed from the governmental budget, 
and another disastrous setback was caused by the 
World War, after which the work was reorganized 
by Fr. Hippolyte Delehaye who published the 65th 
volume in 1926 (to 10 November). The new Bol- 
landists are also treating extensively saints of the 
eastern countries, thanks to the recent greater ac- 
cessibility of oriental texts. They also publish the 
"Analecta Bollandiana," informing scholars of 
newly-discovered material, as well as collections of 
hagiographical documents in Greek, Latin, and 
oriental languages, and catalogs containing detailed 
descriptions of the Greek, Latin, and oriental 
hagiographical manuscripts in various great li- 
braries.— C.E. ; U.K.; Delehaye, The Work of the 
Bollandists, Princeton, 1922. 

Bologna, bo-lo'nya, city of Italy. Christianity 
and the episcopate date back to the early part of 
the 2nd century. Sts. Vitalis and Agricola were mar- 
tyred there during the Diocletian persecution. In 
the 6th century it became a patrimony of the Holy 
See but in the 9th century was wrested from the 
popes. Charlemagne made it a free city. Weakened 
by internal struggles between Guelphs and Ghibel- 
lines, it lost its independence, regained it, and 
finally became a papal possession again, 1506. In 
1860, by an unanimous vote, it became part of the 
Kingdom of Italy. The churches of Bologna are 
noted for their architectural beauty and art treas- 
ures, particularly the Cathedral of St. Peter, 910, 
the church of Corpus Christi, erected by St. Cathe- 
rine of Bologna, and the shrine of the Madonna of 
St. Luke, with its portico of 635 arches. Bologna is 
also famed for its watch-towers, built by medieval 
nobles. In the center of the city are two leaning 
towers, erected in the 12th century, the Asinella, 
274 ft. high, and the Garisenda, 137 ft. high. 

Bologna, University of, Italy, developed from 
the "Schools of Liberal Arts" which flourished at 
Bologna in the 11th century. It was a "jurist" 
university in origin, owing to the organization by 
Irnerius of a school of law, distinct from the arts 
school in the early 12th century and the adoption 
of the "Decretum Gratiani" of the Camaldolese 
(or Benedictine) monk, Gratian, as the recognized 
text-book of canon law (c. 1140). The work was 
continued by such eminent jurists as Odopedus 
(d. 1300), Joannes Andrea (1270-1348), St. Ray- 
mond of Pennafort (1175-1275), and Ricardus An- 
glicus (c. 1250). At the beginning of the 13th 



BOLOGNA 



129 



BONA MORS CONFRATERNITY 



century the university is said to have numbered 
10,000 students, the foreigners forming two "univer- 
sities," the Cismontanes comprising 17 nations and 
the Ultramontanes 18 nations, organized like 
guilds. It was a "student university/' the pro- 
fessors being hired by the students, with two kinds 
of lectures, an "ordinary" lecture reserved for the 
doctors and an "extraordinary" one which might 
be given by a student as part of the preparation for 
his baccalaureate degree. No examination was re- 
quired for the bachelor's degree, a private one was 
necessary for a Licentiate and a public one for a 
Doctorate. Permission to lecture was given after 
five years study of law. The medical school was 
organized by Thaddeus of Florence, c. 1260, and the 
foundations of modern anatomy were laid by Mun- 
dinus (1275-1326). The faculty of theology was 
established by Pope Innocent VI, 1360, and re- 
ceived many privileges from succeeding popes. 
Numerous colleges were established by laymen and 
ecclesiastics, all being finally consolidated into one 
university. Modern literature and science owe much 
to this university and classical studies nourished 
there under such great humanists as Francesco 
Filelfo (1398-1481) and in more recent times Giu- 
seppe Mezzofanti (1774-1849), later a cardinal. 
Among the distinguished men of natural science, 
the university counts the anatomists Alessandro 
Achillini (1463-1512), Andreas Vesalius (1514-64), 
and Marcello Malpighi (1628-94); the botanist, 
Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1607); and the physicist, 
Lui.^i Galvani (1737-98). Among the famous women 
processors were the mathematicians, Laura Bassi 
(1711-78) and Maria Agnesi (1718-99), and the 
Greek professor, Clotilda Tambroni (1758-1817). 
The university suffered during the Napoleonic wars 
but was greatly assisted by the popes until the 
suppression of the Papal States. Its library was 
founded by Aldrovandi in 1605 and numbers about 
250,000 volumes. Included in the university are 
faculties of philosophy and letters, mathematics, 
science, law, medicine, and schools of pharmacy, 
agriculture, and engineering. Students, 2140. — C.E. 
Bolshevism (Kussian, BolshinstvO, majority), 
term first used, 1903, to designate the radical left 
wing of the Social Democratic Party in Kussia. 
They stood for the immediate introduction of the 
socialist state by revolutionary methods, and were 
opposed to all alliance with parliamentary methods. 
They opposed the entry of Kussia into the World 
War. The ineffectiveness of Kerensky's government 
after the overthrow of the czar gave the Bolshe- 
viki the opportunity to come forward as the friends 
of the revolution, and by the coup of 6 Nov., 1917, 
they overthrew his government. With the support of 
the Red Guards Nicolai Lenin assumed the dictator- 
ship of Russia, with Leon Trotzky as commissioner 
of foreign affairs and an executive committee called 
the Council of Peoples' Commissars. As its professed 
aim bolshevism seeks "the complete liberation of the 
laboring classes from spoliation and oppression." 
Their way to this aim is the overthrow of capitalism 
and the substitution of communism under the dic- 
tatorship of the proletariat. With the supremacy 
of bolshevism in Russia, land and natural resources 
were nationalized, industries turned over to the 



workers, the employment of labor disallowed, and 
trade restricted by prohibitory taxation. More re- 
cently, however, concessions have been made in 
favor of the employment of labor and the taxes 
on trade have been lightened. Nominally under the 
new constitution religion is free; actually it has 
been persecuted and a very active propaganda car- 
ried on against it. Education is controlled in the 
interests of communism. The Bolsheviki, numbering 
something over 1,000,000, exercise the dictator ship 
of the proletariat over the many millions who make 
up the population of the United Soviet Republics.— 
U.K.; Makeev and O'Hara, Russia, N. Y., 1925. 

(j. F. MCC.) 

Bolzano, Bernhard (1781-1848), mathemati- 
cian and philosopher, b. Prague, Bohemia; d. there. 
Ordained, 1805, he was appointed to the chair of 
the philosophy of religion in Prague University, 
Owing to the rationalizing tendencies of his lectures, 
he was dismissed, 1820, and retired into private 
life, engaging in mathematical studies. His theory 
of parallel lines (1804) anticipated Legendre. He 
developed the theory of functions of one real vari- 
able, and made notable additions to the theory of 
differentiation, the binominal theorem, and the con- 
cept of infinity. — C.E. 

Bombay, Archdiocese of, India, comprises the 
Island of Bombay, several outlying churches in the 
Island of Salsette, a large portion of the Bombay 
Residency north of the river Nerbudda to Quetta, 
including the districts of Gujerat (Broach, Baroda, 
Ahmedabad), Kathiawar, Cutch, Sind, and a part 
of Beluchistan; erected into archbishopric, 1886; 
suffragan sees, Calicut, Mangalore, Poona, Trich- 
inopoly, and Tuticorin. Formerly a vicariate Apos- 
tolic, its bishops were Carmelites from 1708-1850; 
a Capuchin, Anastasius Hartmann, governed, 1850- 
58; and since then the Jesuits have held the epis- 
copal succession. George Porter (1886-89) was 
first archbishop, succeeded by Theodore Dalhoff 
(1891-1906), Hermann Jurgens (1907-16), Alban 
Goodier (1919-28), and Joachim Lima (1928). 
Churches and chapels, 47; priests, secular, 31; 
priests, regular, 42; religious women, 115; colleges 
and high schools, 15; primary schools, 92; institu- 
tions, 21; Catholics, 35,610. 

Bona, Giovanni (1609-74), cardinal, liturgist, 
b. Moncovi, Italy; d. Rome. Having entered the Cis- 
tercian monastery at Pignerola, and labored at 
Turin, Asti, and Mondovi, he was called to Rome 
(1651) to preside over the whole Cistercian con- 
gregation. Pope Alexander VII, his intimate friend, 
appointed him consultor to the Congregation of the 
Index and to the Holy Office, and in 1669 he was 
created cardinal. Besides writing many ascetical 
works of which the most popular is "A Guide to 
Eternity" (1658; Eng. tr., 1900), he is famous as 
the author of "De Rebus Liturgicis" (1671), a 
veritable liturgical encyclopedia, treating all sub- 
jects concerning the Mass such as rites, churches, 
vestments. — C.E. 

Bona Mors Confraternity, The (Happy 
Death), founded, 1648, in the church of the Gesu, 
Rome, by Rev. Vincent Caraffa, seventh General of 
the Society of Jesus. It was raised to an archconfra- 
ternity by Benedict XIII who authorized the erec- 



BONA MORS CONFRATERNITY 130 



BONIFACE VII 



tion of such confraternities in all Jesuit churches; 
this privilege was extended to other churches in 
1827. Its object is the preparation of members for 
a happy death by a well regulated life, and partic- 
ularly through devotion to the Passion of Christ 
and the sorrows of Mary. The practises of the asso- 
ciation, and the indulgences granted may be found 
in the manual of the confraternity (New York, 
1896).— C.E. 

Bonaparte, Charles Lucien Jules Laurent, 
Prince of Canino and Musignano (1803-57), 
ornithologist, b. Paris; d. there. The son of Lucien 
Bonaparte, he went to the United States, where he 
devoted himself to natural science and completed 
Wilson's "American Ornithology." Returning to 
Rome, 1828, he published his "Iconography of 
American Fauna," 1834-41.— C.E. 

Bonaventure, Saint, Doctor of the Church 
(1221-74), Card.-Bp. of Albano, b. Bagnorea, Italy; 
d. Lyons, France. Cured of an illness in his youth 
by St. Francis, he entered the Order of Friars 
Minor, c. 1243. He lectured at the University of 
Paris, 1248-55. Elected Minister General of the 
order, he governed until 1273, when he was made 
Card.-Bp. of Albano. In this capacity he instituted 
needed reforms, settled the dispute between the 
Spirituales and Kelaxati (contending groups of 
Friars Minor), revised the constitution of the order, 
and wrote a life of St. Francis which was approved 
as authoritative at the chapter of Pisa, 1263. He 
was commissioned by Pope Gregory X to prepare 
the questions for discussion at the Fourteenth 
CEcumenical Council at Lyons, 1274, but he died 
while the council was still in session. Emblems: 
communion, ciborium, cardinal's hat, tongue of 
St. Anthony of Padua. Canonized, 1482. Relics at 
Bagnorea. Feast, R. Cal., 14 July. — C.E.; Butler. 

Bones, Human, emblem in art associated with 
St. Ambrose. He holds them in his hand as symbols 
of his discovery of the relics of Sts. Gervase and 
Protase. 

Boniface (Lat., well-doer), Saint, martyr 
(306), d. Tarsus, Cilicia. He was steward to the 
rich Roman lady, Aglae, who sent him to obtain 
some relics of the martyrs. Arriving in Tarsus, he 
was tortured and beheaded, for asking the prayers 
of some Christians who were being put to death. 
Relics in church of S. Sophia, Benevento. Feast, R. 
Cal., 14 May.— Butler. 

Boniface, Saint, martyr, apostle of Germany 
(675-755), Abp. of Mainz, b. Devonshire, England; 
d. Dokkum, Netherlands. Educated at Exeter, he 
joined the Benedictine Order at Nutshalling, and 
was ordained, 705. In 716 he set out on a mission- 
ary journey to Friesland, but was obliged to return 
because of political disturbances. Declining the 
Abbacy of Nutshalling, he was authorized, 719, by 
Pope Gregory II to preach to the Germans east of 
the Rhine. He labored in Frisia with St. Willibrord, 
refused the See of Utrecht, offered to him by Willi- 
brord, and continued his missionary work in Thur- 
ingia and Hessia. He was called to Rome by Greg- 
ory II who consecrated him regional bishop, 722, 
giving him the name Boniface, probably the Latin- 
ized form of Winfrid, his original name. Returning 
to Hessia, he destroyed the sacred oak of the thun- 



der god, Thor, at Geismar, thus dealing a blow 
to heathenism. In 732 Gregory III made him arch- 
bishop with no definite province. He established the 
Church in Bavaria, founding the bishoprics of Pas- 
sau, Ratisbon, Salzburg, Freising, Eichstadt, and 
Neuburg. Commissioned by Pope Zacharias, 741, to 
reform the whole Frankish Church, he held councils, 
established bishoprics, and, laboring against count- 
less difficulties, effected a complete reform of the 
clergy. He was made Abp. of Mainz, 748, and re- 
signed his see, 754, to accomplish his long-dreamed- 
of mission to Friesland. He built a number of 
churches there, and was slain by pagan savages. 
His works include letters, a grammar, sermons, 
poems, and a penitential. His genius for organiza- 
tion brought about the unification of the Church 
in Germany. Patron of Germany. Emblems: oak, 
axe, book, fox, scourge, fountain, raven, sword. 
Buried in the cathedral at Fulda. Feast, R. Cal., 
5 June.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Boniface I, Saint, Pope (418-422), b. probably 
Rome; c. 350; d. there. The minor clergy disputed 
his election and chose Eulalius. Both were conse- 
crated and the Emperor Honorius ended the result- 
ing schism by recognizing Boniface. During his 
pontificate he supported St. Augustine against 
Pelagianism and was famous as a disciplinarian 
and organizer. Feast, R. Cal., 25 Oct. — C.E.; 
Grisar. 

Boniface II, Pope (530-532), b. c. 450; d. Rome. 
He was of Germanic ancestry. While archdeacon, 
he was nominated as next pope by Felix IV, who 
feared a schism. After Felix died, the Roman clergy 
elected Dioscorus. Both were consecrated but the 
schism ended in 22 days with the latter's death. 
During his pontificate the Semipelagian contro- 
versy was ended by the Second Council of Orange. 
— C.E.; Grisar. 

Boniface III, Pope (607), b. probably Rome, c. 
550; d. there. He was sent as legate to Constanti- 
nople by Gregory the Great. As pope he obtained 
from Emperor Phocas a confirmation that Rome 
was the head of all churches, and its bishop was 
"Universal Bishop." — C.E.; Mann. 

Boniface IV, Saint, Pope (608-615), b. Prov- 
ince of Valeria, Italy, c. 550; d. Rome. Few partic- 
ulars are known of his pontificate which is marked 
by the expansion of the Church in England. Melli- 
tus, first Bp. of London, visited him, 610, and 
returned to England with decrees relative to the 
newly-established Church there. As pope, Boniface 
converted a Roman temple and the Pantheon into 
churches. Feast, R. Cal., 1 June. — C.E.; Mann. 

Boniface V, Pope (619-625), b. probably Naples ; 
d. Rome. As pope he was noted for his love of his 
clergy, whom he aided by decrees and subsidies. 
He encouraged the newly-established Church in 
England and constituted Canterbury the primatial 
see, 625.— C.E. ; Mann. 

Boniface VI, Pope (896), b. probably Rome; d. 
there. He was elected through the efforts of a 
Roman faction and reigned only 15 days. The 
Council of Rome, 898, declared his election null. 
— C.E.; Mann. 

Boniface VII, antipope (974; 984-985). See 
Franco, Boniface. 



BONIFACE VIII 



131 



BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER 




ARMS OF 

BONIFACE 

VIII 



Boniface VIII (Benedetto Gaetani), Pope 
(1294-1303), b. Anagni, Italy, c. 1235; d. Rome. 
Prior to his election he was cardinal-priest, and 
legate to Sicily, France, and England. Having suc- 
ceeded Celestine V when the latter ab- 
dicated he at once began his efforts to 
free the papacy from Neapolitan in- 
fluence. He attempted to end wars be- 
tween Venice and Genoa, Charles II 
of Naples and James II of Aragon, and 
the Guelphs and Ghibellines; secured 
the release of Jens Grand, Abp. of 
Lund, imprisoned by Eric VIII of Den- 
mark; recognized the election of Albert, 
Duke of Austria, as King of Germany; and con- 
quered and excommunicated the warlike leaders of 
the Colonna faction in Rome for their tyranny and 
treason. To combat Philip the Fair of France who 
was taxing his dependents unjustly, he promulgated 
his famous Bull "Unam Sanctam," which defined 
the relations of the powers of Church and State. 
Philip, unwilling to correct his misuse of power, re- 
solved to summon a general council against the 
pope. By means of generous subsidies he levied an 
army of mercenaries headed by Nogaret and Sciarra 
Colonna, to force the pope to attend the council. The 
troops broke into the papal stronghold at Anagni, 
and the two leaders seized Boniface and imprisoned 
him in the palace for three days without food or 
drink. He was then taken to Rome and kept under 
the close surveillance of the Orsini. Worn out from 
the indignities he had sustained, the pope died one 
month later. He was noted as a canonist of great 
ability and a man of learning. During his pontificate 
he founded the university of Rome, encouraged the 
painter Giotto, and enlarged the Vatican Library. 
His memory has suffered from the unjust condem- 
nations of Jacopone da Todi and Dante, whom he 
censored for their ultra-spiritual Catholicity. — 
C.E.; Funk, Manual of Church History, St. L., 
1910. 

Boniface IX (Pietko Tomacelli), Pope (1389- 
1404), b. Naples; d. Rome. While pope he recog- 
nized Rupert of Bavaria as the ruler of Germany, 
established the University of Ferrara, and fortified 
Rome. During his pontificate the Papal States, as 
they appear in the 15th century, were founded; 
the synod of London, 139G, condemned the anti- 
papal teachings of Wyclif; and the University of 
Oxford, when consulted by King Richard II, in 
1398, issued a document in favor of the pope against 
the encroachment of temporal rulers. — C.E.; Pastor. 

Boni Homines, name of several re- 
ligious orders of the Middle Ages. The 
Boni Homines of Grammont were 
founded in France in the 11th century 
by St. Stephen of Muret. They followed 
the rule of St. Augustine or of St. 
Benedict. Favored by the kings of Eng- 
land, then rulers of Normandy, they 
spread throughout the north of France. 
Their oldest monastery, erected at Vin- 
cennes by Louis VII, 1164, passed in the 16th cen- 
tury to the Minims who also received the name of 
Bonshommes. The Fratres Saccati, or Brothers of 
Penitence, established in Saragossa and Valenci- 




aems of 

BONIFACE 



ennes in the 12th century, and introduced into Eng- 
land, 1257, were also known as Boni Homines or 
Bones-homes. Their monastery at Ashridge was 
seized by Henry VIII and granted to the Egertons, 
afterwards earls and dukes of Bridgewater. 
Through the influence of the Black Prince, an- 
other English house of the order was erected at 
Edington, Wiltshire. The Portuguese Boni Homines, 
or Secular Canons of St. John, were founded in the 
15th century by John of Vicenza. They had 14 
houses in Portugal, took charge of all the royal 
hospitals, and labored as missionaries in India and 
Ethiopia. Some heretical sects, such as the teachers 
of the Cathari or Albigenses, adopted the name 
Boni Homines. — C.E. 

Bonner, Edmund (1500-69), Bp. of London, d. 
Southwark, England. He was the agent of Henry 
VIII at Rome in his divorce proceedings. An oppo- 
nent of the Reformation, he was imprisoned till 
Mary's accession, 1553. As Bp. of London, he had 
much to do with the ecclesiastical trials of the 
heretics, among them Anne Askew, who refused 
to avail herself of his intercession. Under Eliza- 
beth, he was deprived of his office, and, 20 April, 
1560, was imprisoned in the Marshalsea. He stead- 
fastly refused to take the Oath of Supremacy, and 
died in prison. — C.E. 

Bonze, bon'ze (Jap., hozu, monk), name given 
by Europeans to members of Buddhist monasteries 
in China and Japan; less correctly applied to all 
Buddhist priests. 

Book, emblem in art associated with Apostles, 
Fathers and Doctors of the Church, and Evangelists. 
In the hand of Evangelists and Apostles it is an 
attribute and represents the Gospel. In that of Doc- 
tors of the Church it signifies learning or works. 
In that of any other saint it may be the Gospel. 

Book of Common Prayer, book which contains 
the "administration of the Sacraments and other 
Rites and Ceremonies of the Church after the use 
of the Church of England." It was adopted by the 
realm of England as the standard service book by 
the first Act of Uniformity passed, 21 Jan., 1549, 
ostensibly to make for uniformity by having it in 
English but actually to abolish the use of the 
Catholic service books, e.g., those of Bangor, Here- 
ford, Lincoln, Salisbury, and York, and to eliminate 
those tenets and practises condemned by the Re- 
formers. Among these were the Real Presence, seven 
sacraments, auricular confession, the Mass, prayers 
for the dead, and the invocation of the Blessed 
Virgin and saints. In 1552 a second Book of Com- 
mon Prayer was published to meet the criticism of 
the imprisoned Catholic Bp. Gardiner and the "Cen- 
sura" of Bucer. The restoration of Catholic services 
upon the accession of Mary I prevented the wide 
use of this 1552 edition, but a third and revised 
edition was published in 1559, after Elizabeth 
ascended the throne. The use of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer was forbidden by Parliament, 1645. 
under penalty of fine and imprisonment and in its 
place was substituted the Presbyterian "Directory 
for the Public Worship of God in the Three King- 
doms." Under Charles II the Book of Common 
Prayer was revised, 1662, to comply with Presby- 
terian demands. By order of a Royal Commission, 



BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER 



132 



BORRUS 



1906, the edition of 1662 underwent a further re- 
vision and as approved by the National Assembly 
of the Church of England, 1927, was submitted to 
Parliament. The House of Lords accepted it but 
it was rejected by the House of Commons on the 
grounds that an alternative order for the adminis- 
tration of Holy Communion with proposed reserva- 
tion of the Eucharist to make it available for ad- 
ministration to the sick, favored the doctrine of the 
Real Presence. This objection was met by amend- 
ments specifically repudiating any manifestation 
of belief in the Real Presence. Ancient Catholic 
Missals, Breviaries, Rituals, and Pontificals in use 
prior to the reign of Edward VI had comprised the 
sources for the original book. These were purged 
of things pronouncedly Catholic and numerous an- 
cient feasts and saints' days were deleted from the 
Calendar. Several saints were added, some omitted, 
in the revised edition of 1928. It contains daily 
morning and evening prayers, Collects, Epistles and 
Gospels for the year, order for Holy Communion, 
Baptism, Confirmation, Matrimony, visitation of the 
sick, burial of the dead, churching of women, the 
Psalter, ordination of priests and deacons, conse- 
cration of bishops and the Thirty-nine Articles of 
religion. In April, 1928, the Assembly of the Church 
of England finally approved the revised prayer- 
book measure, which was however rejected by the 
House of Commons, 14 June. Recently (1929) the 
Anglican bishops have incurred much censure by 
ordering the use of the rejected Book of Common 
Prayer in Anglican churches. — C.E. ; U.K. ; Gasquet, 
Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer, Lond., 
1890. 

Book of Hours, name of a liturgical book, used 
during the Middle Ages, containing prayers, psalms, 
antiphons, responsories, hymns, lessons, versicles, 
and little chapters to be recited at the canonical 
hours. In the Armenian and Ruthenian Churches 
such books are still in use, but in the Latin Church 
they have been incorporated in the Divine Office or 
Breviary. The "Tres Riches Heures," a 15th-century 
manuscript in the Musee Conde, Chantilly, executed 
under the direction of the Duke of Berry and 
reputed to have been illuminated by the Limbourg 
brothers, is one of several beautiful Books of Hours 
still extant. It contains a calendar embodying a 
concrete, naturalistic conception of the seasons, the 
first attempt at modern landscape art. The 
"Grandes Heures" and the "Tres Belles Heures" 
(Brussels) of the Duke of Berry, the Book of 
Hours of Etienne Chevalier (Chantilly), and the 
Hours of Anne of Brittany (Paris) are similar. 

Book of Life, figurative expression in Holy Writ 
(Apoc, 21) for predestination, which signifies 
God's foreknowledge of the elect. It is plain that 
God by virtue of His omniscience must infallibly 
know the number of the elect and the lost, which, 
however, does not imply that the fate of either the 
elect or the damned is sealed by God without pre- 
vision of each individual's merit. Damnation is in 
no way forewilled, but merely foreknown by God. 
See Predestination. (c. v.) 

Book of Martyrs, Foxe's, history of the perse- 
cution of the Reformers in England, by John Foxe 
(1516-87), an extreme Reformer. His work, en- 



titled "Acts and Monuments" but popularly known 
as the "Book of Martyrs," was first published, 
1563, and had numerous editions. It contains three 
volumes: the first deals with early Christian per- 
secutions and contains a sketch of medieval church 
history and an account of the Wyclifite movement 
in England and on the Continent; the second treats 
of the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI; and 
the third gives that of Mary I. It includes a 
number of documents and is illustrated through- 
out by woodcuts, most of them luridly depicting 
the sufferings of the martyrs. A convocation of the 
Anglican Church, 1571, ordered that copies of the 
work be kept for public inspection in all cathedrals 
and in houses of church dignitaries. It enjoyed 
great popularity among Puritans and members of 
the Low Church until the 19th century, and con- 
tributed greatly towards anti-Catholic prejudice in 
England.— C.E. 

Book of the Dead, celebrated work of the an- 
cient Egyptians, comprising a collection of prayers 
and incantations for use of the dead. The author- 
ship was ascribed to the god Thoth. Earlier forms 
were written in hieroglyphics; under the 21st and 
22nd dynasties cursive character was used. Papyri 
were buried with the dead. The ritual was based 
on the belief that the souls had to pass through 
a difficult region called Tuat and that prayers 
and amulets were necessary. After religion had 
become more spiritual an ethical element was intro- 
duced. Chapter CXXV which belongs to 18th dy- 
nasty depicts the soul brought before Osiris for 
judgment and is remarkable for its lofty moral 
standard. The cult of Osiris was connected with 
the Egyptian belief in immortality. 

Bordone, bor-do'na, Paris (1500-70), painter of 
the Venetian school, b. Treviso, Italy; d. Venice. 
Strongly influenced by Giorgione and by Titian, he 
successfully imitated the latter whom he closely 
approaches as a portrait painter. His finest paint- 
ing is in the Academy of Venice, "The Fisherman 
Presenting the Ring of St. Mark to the Doge." — 
C.E. 

Borie, Pierre Rose Ursule Dumoulin, Blessed, 
martyr (1808-38), Vicar Apostolic of Western 
Tonkin, b. Beynat, France. He sailed for the 
Chinese missions in 1830, and in 1832 was trans- 
ferred from Macao to Tonkin, where he was be- 
headed (24 Nov.). His remains were transferred 
to Paris, 1843. Beatified, 1900.— C.E. 

Borromeo, Federico (1564-1631), cardinal, 
Abp. of Milan, b. Milan; d. there. He was a cousin 
of St. Charles Borromeo, possessed extraordinary 
erudition, and was a model of episcopal zeal, an 
indefatigable preacher, a reformer of abuses, and 
an apostle of religious education. During the famine 
and pest at Milan, 1627-28, he fed 2000 poor daily, 
and inspired his clergy with a devotion immor- 
talized in Manzoni's "Betrothed." He founded the 
Arnbrosian Library, and wrote numerous works on 
various ecclesiastical sciences. — C.E. 

Borrus, Christopher (1583-1632), mathemati- 
cian and astronomer, b. Milan; d. Rome. He was 
one of the first Jesuit missionaries to Cochin- 
China, and later taught mathematics at Coimbra, 
and in 1632 became a Cistercian. His history of 



BORRUS 



133 



BOSTON 




BUGGIERO GIUSEPPE 
BOSCOVICH 



the Cochin-China mission is one of the best sources 
of information concerning that country. He drew 
up the first chart of the Atlantic and Indian 
oceans showing the spots where the magnetic needle 
makes the same angle with the meridian, thus 
anticipating Halley, and suggested a new method of 
determining longitude at sea. — C.E. 

Boscovich, Ruggiero Giuseppe (1711-87), nat- 
ural philosopher, b.Ragusa, 
Italy; d. Milan. Educated 
at the Jesuit college at 
Ragusa, he joined the order 
and was appointed profes- 
sor of mathematics at the 
Roman College, 1740. Be- 
sides publishing astronom- 
ical dissertations on sun- 
spots, transit of Mercury, 
etc., he showed his ability 
as a practical engineer by 
repairing the cracked dome 
of St. Peter's, measuring an 
arc of a meridian between 
Rome and Rimini, and making a complete survey 
and map of the States of the Church. He invented 
a micrometer, still used, which requires no artificial 
illumination of the field of the telescope. In his 
work on the molecular theory of matter he holds 
that all matter consists of innumerable point-like 
structures which repel each other when they are 
very close; as their distance increases the re- 
pulsion becomes attraction. He headed a political 
embassy which resulted in his being elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society of London. — C.E 

Boso (d. 970), 
apostle of the Wends, 
first Bp. of Merse- 
burg. He was a Bene- 
dictine who was sent 
by the Emperor of 
Germany to convert 
the conquered Wends. 
His labors were so 
successful that in 
968, three sees, 
Merseburg, Zeitz, and 
Meissen, were erected 
in his mission. — C.E. 

Bossuet, bos-swa, JACQIJES BENIGNE B0SSUET 
Jacques Benigne (1627-1704), bishop and pul- 
pit orator, b, Dijon, France; d. Paris. He was 
educated at the Jesuit college in Dijon and in 
Paris, where he was ordained, 1652, after a re- 
treat made under the direction of St. Vincent 
de Paul. After holding the post of archdeacon 
in Metz for seven years, he returned to Paris 
where he devoted all his attention to preaching. 
Appointed Bp. of Condom, 1669, he resigned, 1670, 
upon being chosen as preceptor of the Dauphin. 
When his duties ended, 1681, he became Bp. of 
Meaux. He took a prominent part in the Assem- 
bly of the French Clergy, 1682, and averted a 
schism. Bossuet is known chiefly for his sermons 
and funeral orations, but he also ranks high as an 
historian, a controversialist, and an ascetic writer. 
His best-known historical works are; "Discours sur 




l'Histoire Universelle," a philosophy of history, 
and "History of the Variation of the Protestant 
Churches." In his controversy with Fenelon on 
quietism, he shows himself unnecessarily harsh and 
bitter. He is ultra-conservative in his dispute with 
Richard Simon on the critical study of the Scrip- 
tures. His ascetical works comprise numerous let- 
ters of direction, "Elevations sur les Mysteres," 
and "Meditations sur l'Evangile." The French con- 
sider him the greatest master of pulpit eloquence 
and have surnamed him "The Eagle of Meaux." 
The best complete edition of his works is that of 
Guillaume (Bar-le-Duc). The funeral orations were 
edited by A. Gaste (Paris, 1883), the sermons by 
Abbe Lebarq (Paris, 1890).— C.E. ; U.K. (f. p. d.) 
Boston, capital of Massachusetts. Few of the 
early Irish emigrants to Boston were Catholics, 
as they were unwilling to settle in a Puritan colony. 
Traces of the Catholic Church are found as early 
as Sept., 1646, when a ship was in port having 
two priests on board, who were the guests of the 
governor. Fr. Druillettes visited Boston, 1650, to 
discuss with Gen. Gibbons details of a trading 
pact and alliance with the Canadian French against 
the Iroquois; it is surmised that he said Mass at 
the governor's home. The "Weekly Rehearsal," 20 
March, 1732, announces: "We hear that Mass has 
been performed in town this winter by an Irish 
priest among some Catholics of his own nation, of 
whom it is not doubted we have a considerable 
number among us." During the French and Indian 
War, 100 French Catholics were arrested in Boston 
"to prevent any danger the town may be in," but 
the sheriff refused to hold them. The Boston "Town 
Records" admitted that toleration in religion was 
desirable, but excluded "Roman Catholics" be- 
cause their belief was "subversive of society." A 
favorite New England diversion was a procession 
on 5 Nov. of the pope and the devil, in celebration 
of the "Gunpowder Plot," usually attended by riot. 
In 1775 Washington expressed his dismay that his 
soldiers should insult the religion of a country 
with which they were seeking to form an alliance. 
The French Huguenot church, now 18 School 
Street, was taken over by the Catholics and opened 
on All Saints Day, 1788, under the patronage of the 
Holy Cross; this was the first Catholic church in 
New England. After 1848 many German Catholics 
settled in Boston; they were followed by Italians, 
Portuguese, Poles, Lithuanians, and others. After 
the Civil War Catholics were active and powerful 
in political, business, and professional life; though 
they formed one-quarter of the population of Bos- 
ton in 1844, no Catholic had ever held an elective 
or appointive public office. Until 1860 there were 
only three Catholic teachers in the public schools. 
The first Catholic member of the Common Council 
was elected 1857; the first alderman, 1870; the 
first member of Congress, 1882. For the past 50 
years nearly one-half of the mayors of Boston have 
been Catholic. Public memorials have been erected 
in honor of Col. Thomas Cass, soldier; John Boyle 
O'Reilly, poet-journalist; and Patrick Andrew Col- 
lins, statesman. The school founded in 1820 by Bp. 
Cheverus and taught by the Ursuline nuns, was the 
only Catholic school in New England until 1826, 



BOSTON 



134 



BOTANY 



when Bp. Fenwick established a second one for boys 
and girls. In 1829 a classical school was started 
for the education of young men studying for the 
Church. Up to 1845 boys in the public schools were 
forcibly compelled to take part in Protestant pray- 
ers and read the Protestant Bible. Catholics estab- 
lished a parochial school about this date. A few 
years later Boston College (q.v. ) was founded. 
For higher education today there is also Emmanuel 
College, for girls, established by the Sisters of 
Notre Dame. The Young Men's Catholic Association 
has evening classes. Many prominent Catholic 
writers have aided Boston's literary fame, e.g., 
John Boyle O'Reilly, James Jeffrey Roche, and 
Katherine E. Conway, editors of "The Pilot"; also 
Louise Imogen Guiney poet and essayist; and Pearl 
Mary Craigie (John Oliver Hobbes), novelist and 
dramatist. Catholic population, 304,915. — Catholic 
Builders of the Nation, I, 229-250, Bost., 1923. 

Boston, Archdiocese of, Massachusetts; em- 
braces Essex, Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and 
Plymouth counties, excepting the towns of Matta- 
poisett, Marion, and Wareham; area, 2465 sq. m. ; 
diocese, 1808; archdiocese, 1875; suffragans: Bur- 
lington, Fall River, Hartford, Manchester, Portland, 
Providence, and Springfield. Bishops: Jean Louis 
Lefebvre de Cheverus (1810-23); Benedict J. Fen- 
wick (1825-46); John Bernard Fitzpatrick (1846- 
Q6); John Joseph Williams (1866-1907); William 
Card. O'Connell (1907). Churches, 350; priests, 
secular, 722; priests, regular, 314; religious women, 
3398; colleges, 3; seminaries, 4; academies, 19; 
high schools, 57; parochial schools, 136; pupils in 
parochial schools, 90,526; institutions, 31; Cath- 
olics, 999,000.— C.E. 

Boston College, Boston, Mass., founded, 1863; 
conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; col- 
lege of arts and sciences; school of education; 
school of law; graduate, extension, and summer 
schools; library of 115,000 volumes; professors, 
107; students, 2500; degrees conferred in 1929, 311. 

Botany (Or., botane, plant), the branch of biol- 
ogy which systematically investigates every aspect 
of plants. Its principal divisions include: cytology, 
which treats of the cell; ecology, which is concerned 
with the influence of environment; economic bot- 
any; morphology, the science of the external forms 
of plants; paleobotany, which deals with fossil 
plants; pythopathology, which treats of diseases of 
plants; and taxonomy, which has plant classifica- 
tion as its subject matter. Distinguished in the 
science are the following: 

Catholics. — Francesco Castracane degli Antelmi- 
nelli (1817-99), a priest was one of the pioneers in 
combining microscopy and photography, renowned 
for his diatomic researches, and the discoverer of 
3 new genera, 225 new species, and 30 varieties. 
Patrick Barry (1816-90), horticulturist, established 
one of the largest nurseries in the United States at 
Rochester in conjunction with George Ellwanger, 
and wrote extensively on horticulture. Andrea 
Cesalpino (1519-1603) inaugurated the systematiza- 
tion of plant classification and laid the basis of 
plant physiology and morphology; the plant species 
Csesalpinia is named in his honor. Stephen Ladis- 
laus Endlicher (1804-49) founded a new botanical 



system and classification, established the first 
Austrian periodical devoted to the natural sciences, 
and was the author of standard botanical works. 
Bernard de Jussieu (1699-1777) was a pioneer in 
the natural classification of plants and author of 
several standard botanical treatises; a genus of tree 
belonging to the Onograceae family was named Jus- 
sienia by Linnaeus in his honor. Antoine Laurent 
de Jussieu (1748-1836), nephew of the preceding, 
made important expositions and practical applica- 
tions of the above-mentioned natural classification. 
Adrien Henri de Jussieu (1797-1853), son of the 
preceding, one time president of the French Acad- 
emy of Sciences, was the author of a famous ele- 
mentary text-book on botany and did important 
investigation on the plant family Malpighiaceae. 
Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-84) was renowned for 
his researches on hybridization, and author of the 
law of heredity designated by his name. Filippo 
Parlatore (1816-77), author of the valuable "Flora 
Italiania" and of several treatises on organography, 
paleontology, and taxonomy, founded the "Giornale 
botanico Italiano" and was instrumental in found- 
ing the general herbarium at Florence. Charles 
Plumier (1646-1704), renowned botanical explorer, 
discovered several new species of, and wrote the first 
treatise on, American ferns, and made distinguished 
researches on the plants of Antilles and Central 
America. Leon Abel Provancher (1820-92), the 
"Father of Natural History in Canada," did famous 
research on the flora and fauna of Canada. Joseph 
Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708) drew up an arti- 
ficial system of plant classification and made a 
valuable exposition of the distinction between genus 
and species. Louis Rene Tulasne (1815-85) is noted 
for his contributions to mycology, the science of 
fungi, particularly for his researches on parasite 
fungi; certain genera of fungi have been named in 
his honor. Franz Paula von Schrank, S.J. (1747- 
1835), directed the Munich Botanical Garden and 
made valuable descriptions and classification of 
flora. 

Other Christian Botanists. — Karl Adolf Agardh 
(1785-1859) inaugurated the study of seaweeds. 
John Bartram (1699-1777) founded the first botani- 
cal garden in America, was ranked by Linnaeus as 
the greatest natural botanist in the world, and was 
instrumental in introducing several American 
plants into Europe. George Beniham (1800-84), 
master in systematic botany of the 19th century, 
did important work on plants native to the Pyrenees 
and was the author of the first comprehensive work 
on the flora of China. Alexander Braun (1805-77) 
made several contributions to the science of morph- 
ology, and directed the famous Berlin Botanical 
Garden. Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (1778-1841) 
was the author of the first natural system of 
botanical classification. Asa Gray (1810-88) 
founded the Harvard herbarium and botanical 
library, was a pioneer in classifying plants accord- 
ing to affinity, author of numerous standard botani- 
cal works, and particularly renowned for his 
researches on plant distribution and on North 
American flora. Heinrich Friedrich Link (1767- 
1851) directed the botanical gardens of Berlin and 
wrote several famous botanical works. Karl von 



BOTANY 



135 



BOUVET 



Linne (1707-78), more commonly known as Lin- 
nwus, author of the Linnean system of plant clas- 
sification according to sex, is considered the founder 
of modern systematic botany, and inaugurated 
binary terminology. Karl Friedrich von Martins 
(1794-1868) did noted work on Brazilian flora, 
discovered new palms, and wrote a standard work 
on them. Ferdinand Yon Milller (1825-96), the 
foremost authority on Australian flora, made dis- 
tinguished researches on plant acclimatization. 
Thomas Nut tall (1786-1859), one time curator of 
the Harvard Botanical Gardens, discovered several 
new genera and new species of American flora. 
John Ray (1628-1705), known as the "Father of 
Natural History in England," was renowned for 
his contributions to taxonomy, and clarified and 
restricted the use of the term species. William 
Turner (1510-68) was the founder of scientific bot- 
any in England. — Kneller, tr. Kettle, Christianity 
and the Leaders of Modern Science, St. L., 1911. 

Botticelli, bot-ti-cheTli, Sandro (Alessandro di 
Mariano Filipepi; c. 1447-1510), painter, b. Flor- 
ence; d. there. His first master in art was Filippo 
Lippi whose influence is apparent in his earlier 
work, as in the so-called Chigi Madonna of the 
Gardner collection in Boston. From the Pollajuoli 
brothers he learned anatomy. Under the patronage 
of the Medici he produced many of his best-known 
paintings, among them "Spring" (Academy of 
Florence) and "The Birth of Venus" (Uffizi Gal- 
lery). Invited to Rome by Sixtus IV to assist in 
decorating the Sistine Chapel, he executed three 
frescos, "History of Moses," "The Temptation of 
Christ," and "The Destruction of Core, Dathan, and 
Abiron," besides five portraits of the popes. In 
1483 he painted his masterpiece "The Magnificat," 
now in the Uffizi, the finest of the tondi, or circular 
pictures of the Madonna and Child, originated by 
him. In his late years he designed about 90 illus- 
trations for the "Divina Commedia." The Academy 
of Florence has his "Madonna and Child with 
Angols and Saints," and a beautiful "Coronation of 
the Virgin." Other well-known paintings are "The 
Calumny of Apelles," "Pallas and the Centaur," 
"St. Augustine," and "The Last Communion of St. 
Jerome."— C.E.; U.K. 

Botulph (Botolph), Saint, abbot (d. c. 680). 
He was educated on the Continent and returning to 
England founded a monastery at Icanhoe, at times 
identified with Boston ( Botulph 's town), in Lin- 
colnshire (hence Boston, Mass.). His name also 
survived in Bossal, Yorkshire; Botesdale, Suffolk; 
and Botolph, Huntingdon and Sussex. Patron of 
over 50 ancient Catholic (now Protestant) churches, 
in England, mostly in Norfolk and Suffolk; three 
are in the City of London. Relics at Thorney, West- 
minster, and Ely. Feast, 17 June. — C.E.; Butler. 

Botwid (Botwintjs or Botuidtjs), Saint, mar- 
tyr (d. 1120), apostle of Sweden, b. province of 
Sudermannland, Sweden. Of pagan parents, he was 
converted to Christianity in England and returned 
to evangelize his countrymen. While performing his 
missionary duties, he was murdered by a Slavonic 
captive whom he had converted and instructed. 
Buried at Botkirk, Sudermannland. Feast, 28 
July. 




LOUIS BOURDALOUE 



Bouguereau, boog-e-ro, Guillaume Adolphe 
(1825-1905), painter, b. La Kochelle, France; d. 
Paris. The winner of the Grand Prix de Rome, 
1850, he studied four years in Rome, painting there 
the canvas now in the Luxembourg, "The Body of 
St. Cecilia borne to the Catacombs." His religious 
pictures are admired for their sentiment and har- 
monious color. One of the best known is the "Vierge 
Consolatrice" of the Louvre. — U.K. 

Bounty, Bountifulness (Lat., tonus, good), at- 
tribute of God, the abundance of His goodness or 
benevolence, springing from a gratuitous love pro- 
moting our happiness out of sheer kindliness. To 
God we are indebted for our every good. Extending 
to all creatures, it is universal and boundless. 

Bourdaloue, boor-da-loo, Louis (1632-1704), 
pulpit orator, b. Bourges, France; d. Paris. Hav- 
ing joined the Society of Jesus when only 16 years 
of age, he taught successively rhetoric, philosophy, 
and moral theology. He 
began to preach in his 
33rd year and was so 
successful that he was 
invited to appear before 
the court no less than 10 
times and preached in 
Paris for 34 consecutive 
years. His contempora- 
ries place him even above 
Bossuetandhe was called 
"The Preacher of Kings 
and the King of Preach- 
ers." The characteristics 
of his eloquence are, religious logic, keen psychologi- 
cal analysis, and fearless apostolic severity. His first 
editor, Bretonneau, somewhat disfigured his style 
under pretense of improvement, and it is only of 
late that Fr. Griselle has rediscovered the true 
Bourdaloue. — C.E.; Griselle, Histoire critique de la 
predication de Bourdaloue, Paris, 1901 ; (Euvres 
Completes, in course of publication, 1919. (f. p. d.) 

Bourdin, Maurice (Gregory VIII), antipope 
(1118), b. probably Limoges, France; d. Salerno, 
Italy, c, 1137. A Cluniac monk, he was made Abp. 
of Braga, Portugal, 1111, but was suspended by 
Paschal II, 1114. In 1117 he crowned the papal 
enemy, Emperor Henry V; for this he was excom- 
municated. After Paschal's death Henry had him 
proclaimed pope, 1118. Later, he was forced to flee 
to Sutri, where Callistus II captured him and 
imprisoned him in a monastery. — C.E., VI, 795. 

Bourgeoys, Marguerite, Venerable (1620- 
1700), foundress of the Congregation of Notre 
Dame de Montreal, b. Troyes, France; d. Montreal. 
A member in Troyes of the lay confraternity at- 
tached to the Congregation de Notre Dame, founded 
in Lorraine by St. Peter Fourier, 1598, she volun- 
teered to go to Canada in 1653 with Paul de Cho- 
medey de Maisonneuve, the governor of Montreal, 
and opened a free school there in 1657. Later she 
returned to France for helpers and in 1676 estab- 
lished the Congregation of Notre Dame de Mon 
treal, whose rules were formally drawn up and ap- 
proved in 1698. She was declared venerable in 1878. 

Bouvet, Joachim (d. 1732), Jesuit scholar and 
missionary; b. Le Mans, France; d. Peking. Arriv- 



BOUVET 



136 



BRADY 



ing in China, 1688, he was appointed mathematician 
to Emperor Khang-hi, and from 1708-15 made a 
survey of the empire, and prepared maps of the 
provinces. He shared all the labors of his fellow- 
missionaries, who were aided by his influence with 
the emperor, and compiled a Tatar treatise on 
mathematics and a Chinese dictionary. — C.E. 

Bowden, Henry Sebastian (1836-1920), Ora- 
torian and writer, b. London; d. there. He became 
a Catholic, 1852. Having served in the Scots Fusilier 
Guards, 1855-67, he resigned as captain, and joined 
the Oratorian Fathers in London. Ordained, 1870, 
he became Prefect of the Brothers of the Little 
Oratory, and was three times superior of the 
Oratorians. He was celebrated for his work among 
converts and in the Oratory Middle School for boys. 
His writings include "The Religion of Shake- 
speare," "Dante," and "Miniature Lives of the 
Saints."— C.E. Suppl. 

Bowing, a symbol of reverence and worship. 
Catholics bow their heads especially at the Holy 
Name of Jesus, and also at the prayer "Gloria 
Patri" (Glory be to the Father, etc.). During the 
Mass, when the creed is said, they genuflect, but do 
not bow, at the words "et incarnatus est" (and 
He was incarnate). For church ceremonies three 
classes of bows are specified: profound, moderate, 
and slight. — Fortescue, Ceremonies of the Roman 
Rite, Lond., 1920. (j. c.T.) 

Bowyer, Sir George (1811-83), Baronet, writer 
on jurisprudence, b. Berkshire, England; d. Lon- 
don. He became a Catholic, 1850, and was hence- 
forth the foremost lay defender of the Church in 
England. In Parliament he denounced the Italian 
Revolution, blaming Palmerston, Russell, and Glad- 
stone for officially abetting it. His writings include 
commentaries on the constitutional and civil laws 
of England and a treatise on universal public law. 
—C.E. 

Boy=Bishop, a boy chosen from the monastery 
school or cathedral choir to preside as bishop be- 
tween St. Nicholas's Day, 6 Dec, and the feast of 
Holy Innocents, 28 Dec. The custom dates from 
early times and was in vogue in most Catholic 
countries, but chiefly in England. — C.E. 

Boyce, John, known as Paul Peppergrass 
(1810-64), priest and author, b. Donegal, Ireland; 
d. Worcester, Mass. He spent 19 years on the 
American mission, where he wrote several novels, 
including "Shandy Maguire, or Tricks upon Trav- 
ellers," "The Spaewife, or the Queen's Secret," and 
"Mary Lee, or the Yankee in Ireland." — C.E. 

Boycott, an organized severing of business and 
social relations with an individual or a firm in 
order to punish or coerce. The practise, named from 
its first victim, originated in measures devised by 
Charles Stewart Parnell, as head of the Irish Land 
League, 1880, against Capt. Boycott, the notoriously 
harsh land-agent of Lord Erne in the district of 
Connemara, Ireland. It has become a common coer- 
cive measure against employers in trade disputes, 
or in strikes, both in England and the United 
States. The morality of such a measure, if adopted 
through a just grievance and if unaccompanied by 
violence, is unquestioned, although in several states 
practise is held to be illegal and is prohibited by 



statute. A secondary boycott, or the attempt by 
the same measures to force another to join in a 
primary boycott, is generally condemned as an in- 
fringement of one's right to free intercourse with 
others. In two cases of boycotting brought before 
the Supreme Court, that of the Buck's Stove Co. 
against the American Federation of Labor (1907), 
and that against the Danbury Hatters' Union 
(1908), the court declared the boycott illegal as 
being "in restraint of trade." 

Boyle Abbey, Cistercian monastery near El- 
phin, Roscommon, Ireland, founded by Maurice 
O'Duffy, 1161. The church was consecrated, 1218. 
In 1235 the English forces under Fitzgerald and 
MacWilliam occupied the abbey and seized all its 
possessions, even stripping the monks of their 
habits. Under Elizabeth it was suppressed and its 
extensive lands confiscated, 1569. Among its famous 
abbots was Donagh mor O'Daly. — C.E. 

Boy Scouts, a non-sectarian organization of a 
military type, whose purpose is the development of 
character and good citizenship in boys; founded in 
England in 1908 by Gen. Sir Robert Baden-Powell, 
it soon became international in its development. At 
present there are nearly 650,000 registered scouts 
in the United States, divided among over 25,000 
troops. The boys range from 12 to 18 years of age, 
and are in the charge of over 175,000 scout officials, 
a position considered so important that courses for 
scout leaders are now included in the curriculum 
of many colleges. A monthly magazine, "Boys' 
Life," and a semi-monthly bulletin, "Scouting," for 
scout officials, are among their publications. The 
1927 statistics of the Catholic committee on scout- 
ing show an enrollment of nearly 30,000 Catholic 
boys in troops attached to Catholic churches and 
Catholic institutions. Benedict XV manifested his 
approval of the Boy Scouts by bestowing the Apos- 
tolic blessing "on all who further the Catholic 
extension of the Scout movement under the auspices 
of the ecclesiastical authorities," 1919. — U.K.; 
Annual Report of the Boy Scouts of America. 

Bracton (Bratton), Henry de (d. 1268), ju- 
rist and author, b. probably Bratton-Clovelly, or 
Bratton-Fleming, Devonshire, England. He, is 
thought to have been a student at Oxford, and is 
known to have been an itinerant judge in 1245. It 
is uncertain whether he was ever chief justice, 
though he often pleaded before Henry III. He held 
several ecclesiastical preferments, as was usual for 
judges, among them the Barnstaple archdeaconry 
and the chancellorship of Exeter, also a canonry 
and prebend in the church of Bosham in Sussex, and 
in Exeter cathedral where he lies buried. His chief 
work, "On the Laws and Customs of England," 
written sometime before 1259, is the greatest 
medieval treatise on English law and was often 
quoted by Coke. It was first printed in 1569. A 
translated and revised edition was published by Sir 
Travers Twiss, 1878-83.— C.E. 

Brady, William Maziere (1825-94), ecclesias- 
tical writer, b. Dublin; d. Rome. He was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, and became an Anglican 
clergyman. While Vicar of Clonfert, Co. Cork, 1863, 
he published "The Clerical and Parochial Records of 
Cork, Cloyne, and Ross." He wrote also in favor of 



BRADY 



137 



BRANLY 



the disestablishment of the Protestant Church in 
Ireland, and on the passage of the act went to Rome 
for research in church history. He became a Cath- 
olic there in 1873, and served afterwards as cor- 
respondent for the London "Tablet." Among his 
published works are "Episcopal Succession in Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, a.d. 1400 to 1875," 
"Annals of the Catholic Hierarchy in England and 
Scotland, a.d. 1585-1876, with a Dissertation on 
Anglican Orders," and "Anglo-Roman Papers." — 
C.E. 

Brahma, name used in two senses in Hindu 
mythology. The Sanskrit noun stem brahman in its 
neuter form means the power resulting from prayer 
or prayer in the abstract, and in the masculine 
form means the one who possesses this power, hence 
also the priestly caste. Brahma is the nominative of 
brahman. It refers (neuter) to Atman, creator and 
world spirit, and also (masculine) to the personal 
aspect of that divinity, the creative activity, form- 
ing with Vishnu and Shiva the Hindu Trimurti or 
trinity. The god is represented as bearded with 
four heads, each crowned with a pointed tiara, and 
with a scepter. His temple is at Pushkar, Rajpu- 
tana. See Brahmanism. — U.K. 

Brahmanism, religious and social system of 
India, teaching as a religion the divine inspiration 
of the Vedas, the worship of certain gods, and that 
the final end of man is freedom from reincarnations 
and absorption in the impersonal essence of Brahma 
(q.v. ). As a social system it teaches the preemi- 
nence of the Brahman caste, and the duties and 
positions of the other castes. Its sacred literature 
includes: the four Vedas (1500-800 B.C.), regarded 
as inspired, with appended Brahmanas, dogmatic 
treatises for priests; the Upanishads (800-500 
B.C.), pantheistic and metaphysical speculations; 
the Sutras (600-400 B.C.), ceremonial guides; the 
Dharmashastras, law books, including the Laws of 
Manu (5th century B.C.), formulating the Brahman 
social system; the epic poems, Ramayana and 
Mahabharata. Early Brahmanism consisted chiefly 
in the worship of deified nature, and in sacrifices 
to the gods and to dead ancestors. The intricate 
and exacting ritual of the Brahmanas gave rise to 
priestly preeminence; and from the Upanishads 
evolved a pantheistic or Vedantic conception of the 
universe. Brahma became the impersonal, eternal 
principle from which all things, including the per- 
sonal Brahma and all other gods, emanate as mani- 
festations. The ultimate goal of man is reabsorption 
and identification with Brahma effected by a series 
of rebirths on an ascending scale, until by medi- 
tation and self-effacement the believer, convinced 
of his identity with the impersonal Brahma, awaits 
death and absorption forever. This pantheistic 
scheme constitutes the present-day orthodox Brah- 
man doctrine. The popular desire for a personal 
deity gave rebirth to the traditional gods. One was 
Rudra, or Shiva, destroyer and producer; another 
was Vishnu, fructifier. All other deities and heroes 
were manifestations of these gods. From this wor- 
ship sprang two rival sects: the Vishnuites, and the 
Shivaites. To preserve Brahmanism, the priests 
associated Vishnu and Shiva with Brahma in a 
Trimurti or trinity, each as an aspect of the im- 



personal Brahma. Intimately bound up with the 
religious teaching of Brahmanism is the division of 
society into rigidly defined castes. Four such castes 
are recognized: the Brahmans or priests; the 
Kshatriyas or warriors; the Vaishyas or common 
people; the Sutri or servile class. The Brahman 
caste is revered and any offense rigorously pun- 
ished. Of the 200,000,000 adherents of Hinduism 
today only a few hundred thousand are orthodox 
Brahmans. Shivaism and Vishnuism with their 
minor schismatic divisions prevail. For later out- 
growth see Buddhism; Hinduism; Jainism. — C.E.; 
U.K.; Monier-Williams, Brahmanism and Hindu- 
ism, Lond., 1891. 

Braille, Louis (1809-52), educator of the blind, 
b. Coupvray, France; d. Paris. Blind from the age 
of three, he was educated at the Institute for the 
Blind in Paris, became a teacher in the institute, 
1828, and in 1829 invented a system of point writ- 
ing for the blind, based on the sound system of 
Charles Barbier, but representing alphabetical let- 
ters, signs of punctuation, and of music. This sys- 
tem, famous under the name of Braille, soon spread 
throughout Europe and the United States and in a 
somewhat revised form is in general use today. 
—C.E. 

Bramante, bra-man'ta, Donato (1444-1514), 
architect and painter, b. Monte Asdrualdo, Italy; 
d. Rome. Milan and Rome were the centers of his 
artistic activities, his style at Milan being decora- 
tive and picturesque, at Rome classically simple, 
finely proportioned, grandiose, and powerful. About 
1499 he designed in the classic spirit the little cir- 
cular temple in the court of S. Pietro in Montorio, 
Rome, and became a leader of the High Renaissance. 
His chief work was the plan for St. Peter's, which 
he did not live to execute. It was somewhat modi- 
fied by his successors, but Michelangelo returned 
to his fundamental ideas and completed the work. 
—C.E. 

Branch, emblem in art associated with Sts. 
Bruno, Joseph, and Christopher. It represents the 
beam of St. Joseph as carpenter, and the palm-staff 
of St. Christopher as ferryman. The association 
with St. Bruno is obscure. 

Branch Theory, The, theory, or fiction, of some 
Anglo-Catholics that the one true Church of Christ 
is made up of certain separated churches, the 
Anglican, Catholic, and Orthodox, because they as- 
sume, episcopal and priestly orders validly trans- 
mitted are found only in these three churches. This 
theory is wholly modern and quite untenable, these 
churches being distinct bodies with no common au- 
thority, no one profession of faith, no common re- 
ligious rites and sacraments. Each charges the 
others with heresy and schism, counts it a duty to 
gain converts from them, and disagrees with them 
on fundamental points of constitution and teaching. 
The true Church of Christ, on the other hand, must, 
as the Catholic Church is, be linked together in 
unity of faith, of sacraments, of communion, and, 
above all, of government. — Finlay, The Church of 
Christ, Lond., 1928. 

Branly, Edouard (1846 — ), physicist and in- 
ventor, b. Amiens, France. He was professor of 
physics at the Catholic University, Paris, and dis- 



BRANLY 



138 



BREAD 



\\a<r* irxaf*us7rwm.e.<o* m m e^ n« tr^+ 



coverer of the coherer, which first made wireless 
telegraphy possible. — C.E. 

Brasses, Memorial or Monumental, deeply in- 
cised sheets of a hard alloy of brass, called latten, 
used on account of their durability, as memorial 
slabs over graves in churches, or let into the wall 
of churches as memorials, from about the 13th to 
the 18th century, in England and on the Continent. 
They were usually engraved with a life-sized effigy 
of the person commemorated and the accurate repre- 
sentation of the costumes and the armorial bear- 
ings, together with the border inscription, makes a 
valuable record for antiquarians. The lines were 
often filled in with a 
black substance, or in some 
cases with a black or 
red enamel; more rarely 
bright, varicolored enamels 
were used. Iconoclasm after 
the Reformation, vandal- 
ism, and neglect, have con- 
tributed to the disappear- 
ance of most of the brasses 
in Germany, France, and 
in Flanders where some 

SI (/// fffl\l ^=^1H[1 -^ think the art originated 
Iff I J VITTIiI ' anc ^ wnere existing speci- 
mens are unusually fine. 
Even in England, where 
they were especially nu- 
merous in the eastern 
counties, there are only 
about 4000 left. Among the 
best of those still exist- 
ing are those of Sir John 
d'Aubernoun, at Stoke d'Abernon, Surrey (1277); 
of Nicholas, Lord Burnell, at Acton Burnell, 
Shropshire (1382); and of Thomas Beauchamp, 
Earl of Warwick, and his wife Margaret, formerly 
in St. Mary's church, Warwick (1401). — C.E. ; 
U.K.; Gawthorp, The Brasses of Our Homeland 
Churches, Lond., 1923. 

Brazil, independent republic of central South 
America; area, 3,286,173 sq. m.; est. pop., 38,870,- 
972, about 99% Catholic. Conversion of the Indians 
began under the Jesuit missionaries who accom- 
panied Thome de Sousa in 1549; they were followed 
by many more and later joined by Benedictines, 
Carmelites, and Franciscans. Catholicism was the 
official religion until 1890, when Church and State 
were separated and equal recognition given to all 
religions. The country is represented at the Holy 
See by an ambassador, and a papal nuncio besides at 
Rio de Janeiro. Church administration is thus 
divided : 




^^^Um^in^ mi <? w*> m 



MEMORIAL BRASSES 



Year 

Belem do Para, A 1906 

Amazones, D 1892 

Labrea, P.N 1925 

Porto Velho, P.N.. 1925 

Rio Negro, P.N 1925 

Santa Conceisao do 

Araguaya, P.N. . 1911 

Santarem," P.N. . . 1903 
Sao Peregrino La- 

ziosi, P.N 1926 

Alto Solimoes, P. A. . . 1910 

Teffe, P.A 1910 

Bello Horizonte, A. . . 1924 

Aterrado, D 1918 



Chs. 



Pp. 

87 
32 



JSrs. 



Caths. 
480,000 
350,000 

50,000 



359 
97 



200,000 

56,468 

1,537 

33,500 



25,000 



Chs. 

174 

90 

302 



Pp. Srs. 
49 



Caths. 
300,000 
375,000 
496,538 



27 
14 



3 
154 



6,000 

199,559 

7,000 



83 13 
37 5 



234 
140 



176 
611 



649 



163 
158 



33 
165 



365 
47 

68 
68 



77 
43 

lio 



150 

81 

206 

770 

335 
56 

61 

105 

17 



115,000 
440,000 
419,000 
530,000 
286,960 



771,120 
627,128 
304,100 
800,000 
550,000 



2,000,000 
398,543 



280,000 



245 400 

82 120 

53 50 
42 



87 



Tear 

Guaxupe, D 1916 

Uberaba, D 1907 

Curityba, A 1926 

Jacarezinho, D. ... 1926 

Ponta Grossa, D. . . 1926 

Foz de Iguassu, P.N. 1926 

Cuyaba, A 1910 

Corumba, D 1910 

Sao Luiz de Ca- 

ceres, D 1910 

Registro do Ara- 
guaya, P.N 1914 

Diamantina, A 1917 

Arassuahy, D 1913 

Montes Claros, D. . 1910 

Florianopolis, A 1927 

Joinville, D 1927 

Lages, D 1927 

Fortaleza, A 1915 

Crato, D 1914 

Sobral, D 1915 

Maceio, A 1920 

Aracaju, D 1909 

Penedo, D 1916 

Marianna, A 1906 

Campanha, D 1908 

Caratinga, D 1915 

Goyaz, D 1826 

Juiz de Fora, D. . . 1924 

Porto Nacional, D. 1915 

Pouso Alegre, D. . . 1900 
Sao Jose do Alto 

Tocantins, P.N. . 1924 

Olinda, A 1910 

Garanhuns, D 1918 

Nazareth, D 1918 

Pesqueira, D 1918 

Petrolina, D 1923 

Parahyba do Norte A. 1914 

Cajazeiras, D 1914 

Natal, D 1909 

Porto Alegre, A 1910 

Pelotas, D 1910 

Santa Maria, D. . . 1910 

Uruguayana, D. . . . 1910 

Sao Luiz do Maran- 

hao, A 1921 

Piaiihy, D 1902 

Bom Jesus, P.N. . . 1920 
Sao Jose do Gra- 

jahu, P.N 1921 

Sao Paulo, A 1908 

Botucatu. D 1908 

Braganga, D 1925 

Cafelandia, D 1926 

Campinas, D 1908 

Ribeirao Preto, D. 1908 

Santos, D 1924 

Siio Carlos do Pin- 

hal, D 1908 

Sorocaba, D 1924 

Taubate, D 1908 

Sao Salvador da Ba- 
hia de Todos os 

Santos, A 1676 

Barra do Rio 

Grande, D 1913 

Caetite, D 1913 

Ilheos, D 1913 

Sao Sebastiao do Rio 

de Janeiro, A. . . 1892 

Barra do Pirahy, D. 1922 

Campos, D 1922 

Espirito Santo, D. 1895 

Nictheroy, D 1893 

Rio Branco, P.N. . . 1907 
Santa Maria de 

Monserrato, P.N. 1909 

Valenca, D 1925 

— C.E.; U.K. 



Bread, Liturgical Use of. In Christian liturgy 
bread (wheaten) is used chiefly as an element of 
the Eucharistic Sacrifice. There are also, however, 
several other uses amongst which are the following. 
( 1 ) Formerly popes and bishops sent blessed bread 
to their priests to symbolize union. (2) At the Of- 
fertory, in the rite of consecration of a bishop, or 
canonization of a saint, two loaves are presented to 
the celebrant. (3) Little loaves or cakes were for- 
merly blessed, and sent by bishops and priests to 
others in sign of fraternal affection. (4) Bread 



500 
81 



588 



361 
61 



210 
50 60 



106 
110 



73 
159 



153 



114 

59 

130 

4 



29 
123 



1,028,541 
450,000 
500,000 
285,854 
200,000 
735,572 
300,000 
500,000 
580,000 
280,000 
400,000 
210,000 

597,000 

374,000 

75,000 



1,800,000 
500,000 



17,000 
567,832 
799,000 
268,152 

910,000 
337,600 
400,000 



220 910,000 



750,000 



790,000 
60,000 



133.782 
800,000 



BREAD 



139 



BREST 



blessed at the Offertory is distributed to the faith- 
ful (see Antidoron Eulogia). (5) Bread brought 
by the faithful is blessed at the Sunday parochial 
Mass. The custom is common among the French 
who call the bread pain benit. — C.E.; U.K. 

Bread of Life, the Eucharist, the Sacrament of 
the Body and Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, con- 
tained really and substantially under the appear- 
ances of bread and wine. It is called bread from 
the matter from which it is confected and as bread, 
i.e., food in general, keeps the life in the body, so 
the Holy Eucharist increases the spiritual life of 
the soul (John, 6). (e. f. d.) 

Breaking of Bread (Fractio Panis), the name 
given to a fresco in the catacomb of St. Priscilla 
( 2nd century ) . It is found on an arch over an altar 
tomb. Seven persons, six men and a woman, are 
at a table; one of the men sits apart and is break- 
ing a loaf; in front is a two-handled cup, and on 
the table, two plates, one containing two fishes, the 
other five loaves. All the accessories bear out the 
Eucharistic significance. The breaking of bread was 
the climax of the ritual in early liturgies. Its scrip- 
tural basis is Luke, 24; the Apostles at Emmaus 
recognized Our Lord when He blessed and broke 
the bread.— C.E., VI, 165. 

Breast, Striking of the, a symbol of sorrow for 
sin. During the Mass the priest strikes his breast 
moderately with his right hand at times when the 
prayers express consciousness of sin, for instance, 
at the confession and at the thrice-repeated words 
"Lord, I am not worthy." Catholics ordinarily do 
this also at Mass. — C.E. (j. c. T.) 

Brebeuf College, Outremont, Montreal, Canada, 
conducted by the Jesuits; faculty, 17; students, 
560. 

Brechin, bre'gin, ancient diocese, Scotland; com- 
prised the territory between the South Esk and 
the River Dee, bounded w. by Angus, E. by Mearns; 
founded before 1150 by King David. The first bishop 
was Samson (1158), and the last pre-Reforma- 
tion bishop, John Sinclair (1565-66). The Cathedral 
of the Holy Trinity, now a Presbyterian Church, 
dates from the 13th century; it is in the Pointed 
style and is famous for its stained glass windows; 
all that remains of the original structure is the 
western gable with a great Gothic door and square 
tower; adjoining it is one of the three round 
towers of Scotland, which is 86% ft. high. Brechin 
is at present a diocese in the Scottish Episcopal 
Church. 

Bremen, free state, Germany, formerly seat of 
an archdiocese. It was made a bishopric with Wille- 
had as first bishop, 787. In 848 it united with Ham- 
burg, and two centuries later the archiepiscopal see 
was transferred to Bremen. The work of converting 
the northern tribes was carried on from the city. 
It was burned by the Hungarians, 918. The tem- 
poral power of the archbishops, beginning with 
Adalbert (1043-72), included all the countships in 
the diocese, but declined during the 14th century. 
Bremen was a center of the Reformation, and joined 
the Smalkaldic League; by the 16th century the 
cathedral chapter had become Protestant. The re- 
vival of Catholicism in 1625 was temporary, for the 
archdiocese was captured by the Swedes, who se- 



cularized it, 1648, and suppressed the cathedral 
chapter. In 1712 it belonged to Denmark, and in 
1715 it was purchased by Prince George of Han- 
over. In 1731 it was recognized as a free city; it 
joined the German Confederation, 1815, the North 
German Confederation, 1866, and the German Em- 
pire, 1871. A greater part of it was ceded to Han- 
over. Ecclesiastically the state is divided among 
several dioceses; the city and vicinity is subject to 
the Vicar Apostolic of Northern Missions, and the 
remaining territory to Hildesheim, Osnabriick, and 
Minister. — C.E. 

Brenach, Saint, Irish missionary in Wales, con- 
temporary of St. Patrick. He was responsible for 
the conversion of a great part of Wales, erected 
oratories, and converted Brecan, the ruler of South 
Wales, who founded many churches. Feast, 7 April. 
—C.E. 

Brendan, Saint, abbot (484-577), called the 
Voyager, and sometimes the Elder, to distinguish 
him from Brendan the Younger (490-573), b. near 
Tralee, Ireland; d. Annaghdown. He was ordained, 
512, and erected monastic cells at Ardfert and Sha- 
nakeel, near Brandon Hill, whence he set out on 
his famous voyage. He established the See of Ard- 
fert, erected a monastery at Inis-da-druin (now 
Coney Island, County Clare), 550, and made a 
missionary tour of three years through Britain, 
visiting Wales and Scotland. In 577 he founded a 
monastic school at Clonfert. According to what 
some consider legend and others fact, he is related 
to have sailed west from Kerry in quest of a land 
of promise and to have reached a distant beautiful 
region adorned with luxuriant vegetation; after a 
journey of seven years he returned to Ireland. The 
tradition which certainly dates from the 9th cen- 
tury is found in a 10th- or 11th-century MS. and 
was a little later current in the west of Europe. It 
probably had its foundation in a real sea-voyage, 
the destination of which is not known, possibly 
some part of the American Continent. Patron of 
sailors. Buried at Clonfert. Feast, 16 May. — C.E.; 
Butler. 

Brentwood, Diocese of, England, comprises the 
county of Essex; established, 1917; suffragan of 
Westminster. Bishops: Bernard Ward (1917-20); 
Arthur Doubleday (1920). Churches and chapels, 
105; priests, secular, 79; priests, regular, 32; ele- 
mentary schools, 32; other schools, 23; institutions, 
12; Catholics (est.), 47,000. 

Bressani, Francesco Giuseppe (1612-72), Jes- 
uit missionary, b. Rome ; d. Florence. He labored 
for many years among the Canadian Algonquins 
and Hurons. In 1644 he was seized by the Iroquois 
and cruelly tortured, but was finally ransomed by 
the Dutch at Fort Orange. The narrative of his 
captivity is one of the classic documents of the 
Jesuit Relations. — C.E. 

Brest, Union of. The Orthodox clergy of Ru- 
thenia, annexed to Poland in 1569, drew up at 
Brest, 24 June, 1590, a document by which they 
submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of the pope 
on condition that their Eastern rites and liturgical 
customs were to be preserved. The union of the 
Ruthenian Church with the Church of Rome was 
solemnly proclaimed, 9 Oct., 1596, after receiving 



BREST 



140 



BRIDEGROOM 



the approbation of Clement VIII and King Sigis- 
mund of Poland. — C.E. 

Brethren (German Baptist Dunkards), a re- 
ligious sect, popularly known as Dunkards or Dun- 
kers, composed of four bodies: Brethren Church 
( Progressive Dunkards ) ; Church of Brethren (Dun- 
kards) ; Church of God (New Dunkards) ; and Old 
Order German Baptist Brethren. In the United 
States in 1925 there were: 4024 ministers; 1314 
churches; and 150,160 communicants. 

Brethren of the Common Life, community 
founded by Geert de Groote (1340-84), a Dutch 
priest and mystic. After spending several years in 
solitude, he came forth and began to attack the 
evils of the clergy. A group of secular priests and 
lay persons, attached themselves to De Groote and 
became known as the Brethren of the Common 
Life. They took no vows, but aimed at the interior 
life and devoted themselves to education and litera- 
ture. They transcribed numerous manuscripts and 
founded free schools at Windesheim (1386), at 
Deventer, where there were 2000 students in 1500, 
and in many places in Germany and the Nether- 
lands. Men like Thomas a Kempis, who wrote a 
life of De Groote, Pope Adrian VI, and Gabriel 
Biel, were trained in their schools, which were 
almost all swept away during the Reformation. 
— C.E., IV, 166. 

Brethren of the Lord, certain relatives of 
Christ mentioned in several passages of the N.T. 
They are recognized as four in number. The most 
prominent member of the group is James the Less 
(Mark, 15), called "the brother of the Lord" (Gal., 
1 ) . He is to be distinguished from James, the 
brother of John, the son of Zebedee and Salome. 
His father was a certain Alphoous, equivalent to the 
Cleophas or Clopas of John, 19, according to the 
synoptic Gospels (Matt., 10; Mark, 3; Luke, 6), 
and his mother, Mary, was a close attendant on 
Jesus (Mark, 15), being a sister of the mother of 
Jesus (John, 19) or a sister-in-law (on Hegesip- 
pus's assertion that Cleophas was St. Joseph's 
brother ) . He became an ardent apostle of Our 
Lord (Gal., 2), prominent in the Church at Jeru- 
salem (Acts, 21, 12), and aide to St. Peter (Acts, 
15 and Gal., 2) in administering the affairs of the 
Church. The canonical Epistle of St. James is his. 
He was assassinated by the Jews about a.d. 62. 
Feast, 1 May. Joseph or Joses, probably next in 
age to James (Matt., 13), is only noteworthy be- 
cause his mother, at the scene of the Crucifixion, is 
identified by the use of his name (Mark, 15). 
Simon or Simeon is merely mentioned as the third 
of the four brothers (Matt., 13; Mark, 6). He is 
reputed the successor of James as Bp. of Jerusalem, 
"being proposed as the cousin of Our Lord." Jude 
or Judas Thaddeus was, like his elder brother James 
(Matt., 13; Jude, 1), slow to understand Jesus's 
true mission (as, indeed, all the brothers were, 
according to John, 7 ) , like him, drawn to the apos- 
tleship (Luke, 6), and, like him, the author of a 
catholic epistle. Hence we may recognize the "Breth- 
ren of the Lord" as cousins of Christ, children of 
Mary, wife of Cleophas, and nephews of the Blessed 
Virgin. There is no need to believe (like the Syrians 
and Greeks, moved by the "Protoevangelium Jacobi" 



and other apocryphals) that they are St. Joseph's 
children by a wife deceased, or (as Helvidius and 
other heretics thought) by Mary after Jesus's birth. 
— C.E.; U.K.; Breen, Harmonized Exposition of the 
Four Gospels, Rochester, 1908. (j. m. mcd. ) 

Breviary (Lat., breviarium, abridgment), in 
the Catholic Church, the liturgical book containing 
the Divine Office assigned to the Canonical Hours, 
the daily recitation of which is binding upon all 
in major orders and upon c°rtain religious. Be- 
sides the Boman Breviary, the use of which is im- 
measurably the most widespread, there also exist 
monastic breviaries, e.g., Benedictine and Domini- 
can, and books corresponding to the Breviary for 
those using rites other than the Boman, e.g., the 
Horologion of the Byzantine Bite. The Anglican 
form of the Breviary is based to some extent upon 
the Sarum Breviary, a variant of the early Boman 
Breviary, with later 'modifications. The Boman Bre- 
viary is usually issued in four volumes correspond- 
ing to the four seasons of the year. Prior to the 
1 1th century the various forms of prayer that 
constitute the Office were contained in separate 
books, Psalter, Antiphonary, Besponsoral, Lection- 
ary, Homiliary, Passionary, Collectorium, etc. To 
facilitate the private recitation of the Office, these 
books were compiled into a single volume, without 
musical notation, and abbreviated in other ways; 
the abridgment was known as a Breviary. This 
convenient volume, first used by the papal chapel, 
was adopted with modifications in the 13th century 
by the Franciscans, under whose influence its use 
became widely diffused. In 1568 Pope Pius V issued 
a new edition, the use of which was made obliga- 
tory upon all of the Boman Bite with the exception 
of some who might continue to use certain old local 
and monastic breviaries. Since the 16th century the 
Boman Breviary has undergone several revisions 
in the interest of critical scholarship and in accord- 
ance with the traditional spirit of the Liturgy: e.g., 
the introduction of the revised Vulgate text in 
1598; the simplification of the rubrics in 1602; the 
correction of the hymns in 1632. Pius X in the 
revision of 1911, shortened the Dominical and ferial 
offices, changed many rubrics regarding the rank of 
feasts, and redistributed the psalms to bring about 
the weekly recitation of the Psalter. From time 
to time new feasts are added. (See Divine Office.) 
— C.E. ; Sullivan, Externals of the Catholic Church, 
N. Y., 1917. (J. G. k.) 

Bribery, the payment or promise of anything 
valuable to induce another, while under obligation 
of acting without additional emolument, to act as 
the briber prescribes. It ordinarily refers to in- 
fluencing those bound by office to act for the com- 
mon good. Bribery in any form, legislative, execu- 
tive, or judicial, is immoral. Its tendency is to 
pervert justice at its source. The guilt rests upon 
both briber and bribed and all active agents, and 
varies with circumstances. — C.E. 

Bridegroom (A.-S., bryd, bride; guma, man), 
term used figuratively in the Bible. Comparisons 
taken from marriage are popular in the Scriptures. 
Our Lord employs the term in His parables, e.g., 
Matt., 25. He calls Himself the Bridegroom (Matt., 
9) and is so styled by the precursor (John, 3). 



BRIDEGROOM 



141 



BRIEUC 



This is a most beautiful and apt figure showing the 
relationship of Christ to His Church. — Fonck, tr. 
Leahy, Parables of the Gospel, Cin., 1915.. (r. k.) 

Bridegroom and the Wedding Guests, de- 
scriptive term for a short parable recorded by the 
three synoptic Gospels (Matt., 9; Mark, 2; Luke, 
5) It was spoken probably on the occasion of the 
banquet given by St. Matthew to Christ and His 
disciples along with many sinners and publicans, 
after his call to the Apostleship. The parable was 
provoked by the question of the disciples of John 
the Baptist and some of the scribes and Pharisees 
asking "Why do we and the Pharisees fast often, 
but thy disciples do not fast?" Jesus replies in a 
similitude, asking if the companions of the bridal- 
chamber, whose special task it was to provide for 
the merrymaking at the feast, could be expected 
at the same time to mourn and fast. But, Christ 
adds, the days shall come when the Bridegroom 
shall be taken away from these wedding guests and 
then they shall fast. The meaning of the parable 
was quite intelligible to His hearers. The disciples 
of the Baptist are reminded that their master had 
referred to Christ as the Bridegroom, and all the 
questioners are taught that the time of the visible 
presence of Jesus among His disciples should be for 
them a time of rejoicing and not of mourning and 
fasting; but when His visible presence is with- 
drawn, then they shall lament and be made sorrow- 
ful and then fasting and mourning shall be con- 
sistently their portion. The Fathers of the Church 
interpret the image of the bridegroom and bride as 
referring to Christ and His Church. Some explain 
it tropologically : as long as the Spouse is with 
us we are not able to mourn ; but when by sin He 
departs then is the time for tears and fasting. Yet 
others apply the words of Christ to the Holy Eu- 
charist. The parable does not condemn the strictness 
of John nor does it condemn fasting. The disciples 
of Christ kept the fasts prescribed by the Law but 
they did ignore those imposed by the Pharisees. 
This parable does stand against the spirit of the 
Pharisees who esteemed too highly external works 
and it shows to all that a new time had come and 
another spirit reigned in the Kingdom. It is held 
up as a splendid lesson on how to argue and how 
to convince. — Fonck, tr. Leahy, Parables of the 
Gospel, Cin., 1915. (r. k.) 

Bride or Spouse of Christ. (1) The Church, 
according to St. Paul (2 Cor., 11). (2) A woman 
who vows her chastity to God, foregoing marriage 
in order to be more united with Christ. (3) Mys- 
tical union of certain saints, Catherine of Alex- 
andria, Catherine of Siena, and Teresa, with Our 
Lord. — Sponsa Regis (monthly) , Collegeville, Minn.; 
O'Mahony, in Orate Fratres, 11 Aug., 1910. (ed.) 

Bridge=building Brotherhood, name given to 
several societies formed in southern France in the 
12th and 13th centuries to erect bridges. They re- 
sembled guilds, or possibly even Third Orders, but 
did not constitute religious congregations, as fre- 
quently supposed. Knights, clergy, and artisans 
made up the membership, and some women were 
admitted. Hospices were conducted by the brothers, 
where travelers were received and alms obtained. 
The Fratres Pontifices or Freres Pontifes were a 



well-known association. They constructed, among 
others, the bridges at Bonpas, Lourmarin, Malle- 
mort, and Mirabeau. St. Benezet was their legend- 
ary founder. In northern Italy there were similar 
associations. — C.E. 

Bridget of Sweden (Birgitta), Saint, widow 
(c. 1303-73), foundress of the Brigittines, b. near 
Upsala, Sweden; d. Rome. Her parents were among 
the wealthiest landholders in the country and were 
renowned for their piety; St. Ingrid was a near 
relative. In 1316 at the age of 13, she was married 
to Ulf Gudmarsson, by whom she had eight chil- 
dren, including St. Catherine of Sweden. About 1310 
she made a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela 
in Spain. After her husband's death, Bridget de- 
voted herself entirely to religion and asceticism; the 
heavenly visions she had had from early childhood 
became more frequent. She founded a religious 
order of nuns, called Brigittines, 1346, at Vad- 
stena, Sweden; approval of the order was granted, 
1370. In 1349 she journeyed to Rome and remained 
there until her death, except while absent on pil- 
grimages, the most important of which was to the 
Holy Land. She established a hospice for Swedish 
students and pilgrims at Rome, and played an im- 
portant part in influencing Urban V to return to 
Rome from Avignon (1367). Patroness of Sweden. 
She is represented praying before a crucifix, hold- 
ing an image of the Blessed Virgin. Canonized, 
1391. Relics in the monastery at Vadstena. Feast, 
R. Cal., 8 Oct.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Bridgett, Thomas Edward (1829-99), priest, 
author, b. Derby, England; d. Clapham. Educated 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, as a member of 
the Church of England, he left without a degree 
rather than take the Oath of Supremacy. In 1850 
he became a Catholic and joined the Redemptorists. 
For 40 years he was an active missionary and 
founded the Confraternity of the Holy Family at 
Limerick, Ireland. His writings include "Spirit and 
Truth," "Our Lady's Dowry," "The History of the 
Holy Eucharist in Great Britain," which contains 
the most eloquent plea for Catholic ceremonial ever 
written, "The Life of Blessed John Fisher," "The 
True Story of the Catholic Hierarchy deposed by 
Queen Elizabeth," "Blunders and Forgeries," "Life 
of Blessed Thomas More," "Lyra Hieratica," and 
"Sonnets and Epigrams." — C.E. 

Bridgewater, John (c. 1532-c. 1596), priest, 
historian, b. Yorkshire, England; d. Trier, Ger- 
many. He resigned the rectorship of Lincoln Col- 
lege, Oxford, for conscience's sake, and went into 
permanent exile on the Continent. He is best known 
as the martyrologist of the Catholic confessors 
under Elizabeth, his voluminous records appearing 
at Trier, 1588.— C.E. 

Brief (Lat., breve, short), a compendious papal 
letter lacking some of the solemnity and formality 
of a Bull (q.v. ), bearing the device or seal of the 
fisherman's ring. — C.E., III, 52. 

Brieuc (Briocus, Brioc, or Bru), Saint, con- 
fessor and bishop (410-502), b. probably Cardigan- 
shire; d. Saint-Brieuc-des-Vaux, France. Of pagan 
parents, he was converted in 430. He preached in 
Cardigan and on the coast of Alba, and founded a 
monastery at Landebaeron in Armorica, and another 



BRIEUC 



142 



BROAD CHURCH PARTY 



at Saint-Brieuc in upper Brittany, of which he be- 
came first bishop. Many churches in England and 
Scotland are dedicated to him. Patron of purse- 
makers. Emblems: a purse, alms-box. Relics in the 
Abbey of St. Sergius, Angers, and in the Cathedral 
of St. Brieuc. Feast, 1 May.— C.E.; Butler. 

Brighton. See Saint John's Boston Ecclesias- 
tical Seminary. 

Brigid (Bridget), Saint, virgin (451-525), 
popularly known as Mary of the Gael, b. Faug- 
hart, County Louth, Ireland; d. Kildare. Having 
received the veil from St. Macaille, she was pro- 
fessed by St. Mel of Ardagh from whom she re- 
ceived abbatial powers, 468. Her famous convent 
of Cill-Dara (church of the oak) at Druin Criadh 
became a center of religion and learning which 
developed later into the cathedral city of Kildare. 
She established a second monastery there for men, 
under Bp. St. Conleth, and also a school of art, 
needlework, and illumination. She became a friend 
of St. Patrick. Patroness of Ireland, and of scholars. 
Represented in art on her knees, holding a vase, 
with a cow nearby. Relics in the grave of St. Pat- 
rick and St. Columba near Down-Patrick; head in 
the Jesuit Church at Lisbon. Feast, 1 Feb. — C.E.; 
Butler. 



Oblates of St. Francis de Sales, when he established 
St. Bernard's College, 1869. He was biographer 
as well as director of Mother Marie de Sales. 

Bristol (M.E., Bristowe, place at the bridge), 
English diocese founded by Henry VIII, 1542, re- 
founded by Cardinal Pole, 1554. The sole Catholic 
incumbent was the Benedictine, John Holyman 
(1554-58), succeeded by an Anglican under Eliza- 
beth. The cathedral has a 14th-century chancel and 
15th-century transepts. — C.E. 

British Empire, territories united by common 
allegiance to the British crown. See articles on: 
England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Gibraltar, Malta, 
India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South 
Africa, Canada, Ceylon, Palestine, North Borneo, 
Shanghai, Weihaiwei, Hong Kong, Falkland Islands, 
British Guiana, British Honduras, Bahamas, Bar- 
bados, Jamaica, Antigua, Montserrat, St. Chris- 
topher, Dominica, Virgin Islands, Nevis, Grenada, 
St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Samoa. 

British Guiana, colony of the British Empire, 
South America, administered by a governor and an 
executive council; area, 89,480 sq. m. ; pop., 306,844. 
Christianity was introduced into Guiana by Spanish 
Franciscans early in the 16th century. The spread 
of the Faith however is due chiefly to Portuguese 

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part op AN" indulgence brief OF 1455 (see page 141) 



Brigittines. See Order of St. Saviour. 

Brinkley, Stephen (b. c. 1550), English con- 
fessor of the Faith, imprisoned and tortured as 
manager of a secret press for the publication of 
devotional and controversial works. Among these 
were a treatise by Parsons, and Campion's famous 
"Ten Reasons." He belonged to George Gilbert's 
association of unmarried men of property, who 
pledged their wealth to assist the Church, aiding 
disguised priests and laboring to convert heretics. 
On his release from prison, he continued to issue 
Catholic works in France. — C.E. 

Brisbane, Archdiocese of, Australia, comprises 
the colony of Queensland south of 24° s. lat. ; area, 
c. 200,000 sq. m. ; founded 1859 as an episcopal see; 
raised to an archdiocese, 1887; suffragan see, Rock- 
hampton. Missionaries of the 19th century were: 
Frs. John Therry, Luckie, Duncan McNab, McGin- 
nety, and Hanly. Bishops: James O'Quinn (1859- 
81), Robert Dunne (1882-1917), created arch- 
bishop, 1887, and James Duhig (1917). Churches, 
196; priests, secular, 124; priests, regular, 66; re- 
ligious women, 750 ; high schools, 23 ; primary 
schools, 72; boarding schools, 24; institutions, 7; 
Catholics, 127,500. 

Brisson, Louis Alexander Alphonse (1817- 
1908), reorganizer of the Oblates of St. Francis de 
Sales, b. Plancy, France; d. there. After studying 
at the seminary of Troyes, he was admitted to the 
priesthood, 1840. With Marie de Sales Chappuis of 
the Visitandines of Troyes, whose confessor he had 
been for 30 years, he revived the congregation of 



missionaries who arrived the following century. 
Their labors were continued by Dominicans, Ca- 
puchins, and finally by Jesuits, who established 
most of the permanent missions and settlements 
here. Ecclesiastically the colony, together with the 
Barbados, is included in the Vicariate Apostolic 
of British Guiana or Demerara, established 1837. 
Vicar Apostolic: Compton Theodore Galton, S.J. 
(1902), residence at Georgetown. Churches, 37; 
stations, 10; priests, 21; high school, 1; ele- 
mentary schools, 32; asylums, 2; Catholics, 55,- 
000. 

British Honduras, crown colony of the British 
Empire, Central America, administered by an exec- 
utive and a legislative council; area, 8598 sq. m. ; 
est. pop., 48,584. Founded in 1638 by Peter Wallis, 
a Scottish adventurer, it was settled by woodcutters 
from Jamaica, who enlarged their domains at the 
expense of the Spanish colonists. Boundaries were 
fixed by treaty in 1859. The whole of British Hon- 
duras is comprised in the Vicariate Apostolic of 
Belize (q.v. ). 

Bro. = Brother. 

Broad Church Party, members of the Church 
of England who interpret its doctrines in a broad 
and liberal sense and hold that the Church should 
be comprehensive and tolerant. They lay stress on 
ethical teaching and minimize the value of or- 
thodoxy. They were never a clearly-defined party 
and of late years have developed an extreme mod- 
ernist wing, some of whose leaders, e.g., E. W. 
Barnes, Bp. of Birmingham, appear to deny all 



BROAD CHURCH PARTY 



143 



BROTHERS OF CHARITY 



dogma, and are openly accused of heresy by certain 
High Churchmen. 

Brogan (Brochan, BROCCAisr, Bracan, or Bear- 
chan), Saint (6th or 7th century), Bp. of Mothil, 
Waterford, Ireland. He is mentioned in the Irish 
Martyrologium of Aengus where he is described as 
Brocan the scribe. Modern hagiographers regard him 
as the secretary and possibly the nephew of St. 
Patrick. Feast, 8 July. A second saint mentioned 
in the Martyrologium, St. Brogan Cloen, Abbot of 
Rosstuirc, is probably identical with the Abbot 
Brochanus, referred to in the Life of St. Abban. 
He is said to have written the hymn in honor of 
St. Brigid. Feast, 17 Sept. Other saints of this 
name occur in the Martyrology of Gorman under 
1 Jan., 9 April, 27 June, 1 Aug., and 20 Aug. — 
C.E. 

Broglie, Maurice Jean de (1766-1821), Bp. of 
Ghent, b. Paris; d. there. Son of Marshal Victor 
Frangois, Duke de Broglie, in 1803 he supported 
Napoleon who nominated him to the See of Acqui, 
Italy, and later to Ghent (1807). Later, however, 
for his vigorous opposition to Napoleon's plans 
against the pope and clergy at the Council of 
Paris, 1811, he was imprisoned, exiled, and de- 
ported. His resignation of his see, signed under 
compulsion, was not accepted by the pope. After 
Napoleon's downfall, he defended Catholic prin- 
ciples against King William of Holland, a Protes- 
tant, who imposed on Belgium a constitution that 
deprived the Catholics of all their civil rights. 
In 1817 he was forced to flee to France, where until 
his death, he continued to work for his Belgian 
flock.— C.E. 

— Jacques Victor Albert, 4th Duke de Broglie 
(1821-1901), great-nephew of preceding, academi- 
cian, b. Paris; d. there. His history of the Church 
and the Roman Empire in the 4th century, and his 
works on Louis XV's diplomacy have placed him 
in the first rank of historians. — C.E. 
— Auguste Theodore Paul (1834-95), brother of 
preceding, abbe. He held the chair of apologetics 
at the Catholic Institute, Paris, and wrote a his- 
tory of religions, and several philosophical trea- 
tises. — C.E. 

Broken Hill, Prefecture Apostolic of, Rho- 
desia, Africa; established, 1927; entrusted to the 
care of the Polish Jesuits. Prefect Apostolic : Bruno 
Wolnik, S.J. (1927). Catholics, 5757. 

Brooklyn, Diocese of, New York, embracing 
Long Island (counties of Kings, Queens, Nassau, 
and Suffolk); area, 1007 sq. m.; established, 1853; 
suffragan of New York. Bishops: John Loughlin 
(1853-91); Charles E. McDonnell (1892-1921); 
Thomas E. Molloy (1921). Churches, 397; priests, 
secular, 574; priests, regular, 154; religious women 
(not including novices and postulants), 2916; col- 
leges, 3; seminaries, 3; high schools, 37; primary 
schools, 193; students in primary schools, 100,945; 
institutions, 33; Catholics, 857,183. 

Brotherhood. The Christian concept rates all 
men, of every race and nation and type, as pos- 
sessed of the same human nature and essential 
worth and dignity. God creates the soul of each 
man and infuses it into a body; this implies a 
special divine choice and a special value in the 



beginning of natural life. Further, God has called 
every man to a supernatural destiny, dependent on 
the probationary period of life on earth, which con- 
sists in the perfect union of mind and will with 
the Divine Essence for all eternity, which is Heaven. 
As the necessary means to secure this salvation of 
men, God became incarnate, suffered, and died, and 
instituted His Church and His sacramental system. 
These divine acts, of infinite value, are directly 
related to each individual man, and give to each 
individual man an eternal value and worth. Since 
each man is so constituted, it follows that each man 
must live and act with due reference to these facts, 
both in his purely individual acts and in acts 
which involve others. Social life reveals differences 
of race, culture, nationality, and temperament, 
which lead to divisions and separations; but these 
are accidental and superficial as compared with the 
basic equality of all in the divine plan. To empha- 
size these differences to such an extent as to lose 
sight of the essential human dignity of any indi- 
vidual, race, or class, is an offense against human 
nature, and a violation of justice or charity or 
both. The notion of the brotherhood of men, thus 
worked out by Christian theology, is supported by 
natural reasonings, such as those of the humani- 
tarian philosophy. However these natural argu- 
ments, appealing only to general notions of 
sympathy, are apt to be countered by self-interest, 
and by conflicting arguments supporting claims of 
nationalism, race, and special culture, (e. f. MacK.) 
Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God, 
religious institution founded at Granada, Spain, 
1537, by St. John of God, for the care of the sick 
and other works of charity. They follow the Rule 
of St. Augustine, and to the three solemn vows of 
religion they add a fourth, of serving the sick for 
life in their hospitals. The first hospital of the 
order was built at Granada, 1540, and the society 
soon spread to England, Ireland, and the other 
countries of Europe, and even into distant colonies. 
In 1584 Pope Gregory XIII called some of the 
Brothers to Home and gave them the Hospital of 
St. John Calybita which then became the mother- 
house of the whole order. During the French Revo- 
lution the Brothers were expelled from their 40 
establishments in France but they have since re- 
turned and erected new hospitals. The members of 
this institution are not in Holy Orders, but priests 
wishing to devote their sacred ministry to the 
Brothers and patients are received. They have 
charge of a mental hospital for gentlemen at Stillor- 
gan, near Dublin, Ireland, and a hospital for incur- 
ables at Scorton near Darlington, Yorkshire, Eng- 
land. Statistics: 11 provinces and 2 delegations 
(Portugal and Yugoslavia), 115 hospitals, 2022 
religious, and 303 aspirant-postulants. 
I Brothers of Charity, founded at Ghent, Bel- 
gium, in 1807, by Canon Peter J. Triest. The special 
aim of this congregation is the sanctification of its 
members by the exercise of works of charity, such 
as tending the sick, sheltering poor workmen, car- 
ing for the aged, insane, or idiotic, and instructing 
the young. So rapid was the expansion of this 
brotherhood that its members were invited to Eng- 
land, Holland, America, and Ireland. The novitiate 



BROTHERS OF CHARITY 



144 



BROWNSON 



for the American province is at the S. Benoit 
Asylum, Longue-Pointe, near Montreal, Canada, and 
the Brothers conduct an orphanage and industrial 
institute at Boston, Mass. Statistics : 50 houses, 
of which 17 are lunatic asylums, in Belgium, Eng- 
land, Canada, the United States, and Belgian 
Congo. 

Brothers of Christ, a title of the faithful. 

Brothers of Christian Instruction of Ploer= 
mel, congregation founded 1817 at Saint-Brieuc, 
C6tes-du-Nord, France, by Jean Marie de la Men- 
nais, for the instruction of youth. The first novices 
were trained by the Christian Brothers, whose rule 
was largely adopted. Primarily intended to furnish 
religious teachers to the schools of Brittany, this 
community soon sent missionaries and founded 
houses in England, Africa, Asia, America, and Oce- 
ania. Owing to the French Law of Associations of 
1901, the mother-house was transferred fromPloer- 
mel, France, to Taunton, England. Statistics: 262 
houses, 1403 professed religious, 151 novices, 507 
postulants. — C.E., III, 711. 

Brothers of Christian Instruction of Saint 
Gabriel, Congregation of the, or Brothers of 
Saint Gabriel, founded at Saint-Laurent-sur-Sevre, 
France, 1705, by the missionary priest, Louis Grig- 
nion de Montfort, as the Brothers of the Holy 
Ghost. Their work consists in the instruction of 
the young, the blind, the deaf, the dumb, the care 
of orphans, and the administering of the temporal- 
ities of the Fathers of the Company of Mary. The 
Revolution interrupted the progress of the order, 
but under Gabriel Deshayes, named superior in 
1821, it revived and spread rapidly. In 1835 the 
members devoted to work in schools were separately 
established in the House of St. Gabriel and in 
1842 they became autonomous, adopting the title of 
Brothers of St. Gabriel in 1853. The society was 
introduced into Canada, 1888, and the provincial 
house for North America is located at Sault-au- 
Recollet, near Montreal. Statistics: 1100 members 
and 117 foundations in Canada, France, Belgium, 
Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Venezuela, and 
the United States; and missions in the Congo, 
Abyssinia, Madagascar, India, and Siam. — C.E., VI, 
330. 

Brothers of Our Lady of the Fields, con- 
gregation founded at St. Damien de Buckland in 
the Diocese of Quebec, 1902, by Rev. J. O. Brous- 
seau, to train orphans in industrial and agricul- 
tural pursuits, and the arts of colonization. In 1924 
the mother-house was transferred to Squatteck in 
the Diocese of Rimouski. The novitiate is located 
at Rimouski.— C.E., XI, 361. 

Brothers of the Christian Schools of Ire= 
land, an institute founded in 1802 at Waterford, 
by Edmund Ignatius Rice, to provide for the edu- 
cation of boys after the enactment of the penal 
laws; constituted a religious institute, 1820. There 
are, besides the teaching Brothers, those who per- 
form domestic and farm duties. The society conducts 
primary, secondary, and industrial schools, colleges, 
orphanages, and institutions for the deaf and dumb. 
The Superior-General resides at Dublin. Statistics: 
200 houses in Ireland, England, Australia, and 
India; also established in Rome and China; 9' 



houses and 90 Brothers in the United States; foun- 
dations in Canada and Newfoundland form part of 
the American province. — U.K. 

Brothers of the Cross of Jesus, a congrega- 
tion founded in 1830 at Lyons, France, by Rev. 
C. M. Bochard, Vicar-General of Lyons, for the 
Christian education of the young. The growth of 
the congregation in France and Switzerland ceased 
with the persecution of 1903, but the institution, 
incorporated in Canada in 1905, now conducts a 
number of Canadian houses. — C.E., IV, 539. 

Brothers of the Holy Infancy and Youth of 
Jesus, society founded in 1853 by Rt. Rev. John 
Timon, Bp. of Buffalo, for the care of poor and 
wayward boys. They maintain a working boys' home 
in Buffalo and a protectory and trade school at 
Lackawanna, where the mother-house and novitiate 
are also located. The protectory cares for about 
560 boys who receive instruction in various arts and 
industries.— C.E., VII, 418. 

Brothers of the Sacred Heart, a religious 
educational institute founded at Lyons, France, 
1821, by Rev. Andre Coindre, Its constitutions mod- 
eled upon those of St. Ignatius based on the Rule of 
St. Augustine, bind the members to the teaching of 
boys in asylums, parochial and select schools, and 
commercial colleges. The superior-general, chosen 
from among the Brothers, resides at Renteria, Spain. 
Statistics: about 1620 members and 137 colleges and 
schools in France, Belgium, Spain, the United 
States, and Canada.— C.E., XIII, 305; C.E. Suppl., 
648. 

Browne, Charles Faerae, humorist, best known 
under the pseudonym of Artemus Ward (1834-67). 
His literary apprenticeship was served as compos- 
itor and reporter on various newspapers, and in 
1858 his burlesque descriptions of prize-fights, po- 
litical meetings, etc., in the "Cleveland Plain- 
dealer," won national attention. Shortly afterwards 
he went to New York and subsequently became the 
editor of "Vanity Fair" in which paper many of 
his humorous sketches appeared. His success as a 
lecturer, however, distracted his attention from his 
journalistic work, and in 1866 he sailed for Eng- 
land, where a successful engagement in London was 
cut short by the illness which caused his death a 
few months later. His humor was spontaneous, 
wholesome, and distinctly American. He died a 
Catholic— C.E. 

Brownson, Orestes Augustus (1803-76), phi- 
losopher, essayist, and reviewer, b. Stockbridge, Vt. ; 
d. Detroit, Mich. He was ordained a Universalist 
minister, but later denying all Divine revelation, 
left the ministry and adopted Robert Dale Owen's 
communistic theories of property and marriage. 
In 1831 sympathy for the working classes led him 
to preach as an independent minister. For the next 
12 years he was associated with the Unitarians. 
Through the "Boston Quarterly Review" (event- 
ually "Brownson's Quarterly Review") his political 
theories excited much attention. In 1844 he became 
a Catholic, thereafter devoting his pen to the de- 
fense of his Faith. He is the author of numerous 
works, several of them in the form of novels. He 
disclaimed having originated any form of phi- 
losophy, and acknowledged freely what he borrowed 



BROWNSON 



145 



BRUNO 



from others Principal works: "New Views of Chris- 
tianity, Society and the Church"; "Charles El- 
wood"; "The Mediatorial Life of Jesus"; "The 
Spirit Rapper"; "The Convert, or Leaves from my 
Experience"; "The American Republic, its Con- 
stitution, Tendencies and Destiny." His works were 
edited and his biography written by his son Henry 
F. Brownson ( 1835-1914).— C.E. 

Bruges, bruzh (Flemish, Brugge, bridges), city, 
West Flanders, Belgium. It prospered during the 
Crusades, at which time the relics of St. Basil and 
of the Holy Blood were brought there; in 1356 was 
the chief emporium of the Hanseatic League; and 
in 1384 passed to the House of Burgundy. Its de- 
cline, which began under Austrian rule ( 1477 ) , was 
hastened by the natural closing up of the harbor, 
the rise of Antwerp, the religious disturbances of 
the Reformation, and the severe rule of Charles V. 
It suffered further under the Duke of Alva, and in 
1578 was captured by the Calvinists who pro- 
scribed Catholic worship until 1584. At present the 
government of the province and the city is entirely 
in the hands of Catholics. It is the seat of a bishop 
and includes among buildings of Catholic interest 
a 12th-century church of Notre Dame, Cathedral of 
Saint Sauveur, and chapel of St. Basil. — C.E.; 
Gilliat-Smith, The Story of Bruges, Lond., 1901. 

Brunelleschi, broo-nel-les'ke (Brunellesco), 
Filippq (1377-1446), architect and sculptor, b. 
Florence; d. there. 
Several examples of 
his sculptural work 
are extant, and his 
model for the reliefs 
of the second bronze 
door of the baptistery 
at Florence was 
awarded second prize. 
He revived the classi- 
cal style of architec- 
ture in Italy, and was 
the first to apply per- 
spective to art accord- 
ing to definitely 
formulated rules. His 
masterpiece was the 
dome erected according to his designs to complete 
the cathedral church of Florence, Santa Maria del 
Fiore. Other examples of his work are the polygonal 
dome of S. Lorenzo, the Pazzi chapel, and the 
church of Santo Spirito, Florence. — C. E. 

Brunetiere, brfm-tyar', Ferdinand (1849-1906), 
critic and professor, b. Toulon, France; d. Paris. 
His critical ability, wide learning and trenchant 
style won early recognition and he became editor- 
in-chief of the "Revue des Deux Mondes." For several 
years he held the position of professor of French 
literature and language at the Ecole Normale, being 
dropped from the list of professors, owing to his 
conversion to Catholicism, when the school was 
reorganized in 1905. He lectured in the United 
States in 1897. The greatest French critic of the last 
twenty years of the 19th century, his earlier method 
was dogmatic, literary works being judged accord- 
ing to certain principles he had laid down as crite- 
ria. About 1889 he changed his method and applied 




FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI 



to literature the theory of development. His con- 
version to Catholicism was the result of long and 
thorough study of Bossuet, and for 10 years he de- 
fended his faith against the attacks of free-thinkers. 
—C.E. 

Brunforte, Ugolino, also called Ugolino of 
Monte Giorgio (c. 1262-c. 1348), Italian Friar 
Minor and chronicler. He spent most of his life at 
the convent of Santa Maria in Monte Giorgio. In 
1225 he was chosen Bp. of Abruzzi under Celestine 
V, but Boniface VIII, who succeeded before his 
consecration, annulled the appointment. Recent re- 
search has led most scholars to agree in regarding 
Ugolino as the author of the "Fioretti" or "Little 
Flowers of St. Francis."— C.E. 

Bruno, Saint (925-965), Abp. of Cologne, d. 
Reims. He was the youngest son of Emperor 
Henry I and St. Mathilda. Educated at Utrecht 
and at the court of his brother Otto I, he was 
appointed archchancellor to Otto in 951. For his loy- 
alty during the revolt of Otto's eldest son, Ludolf, 
and Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, the emperor caused 
him to be elected Abp. of Cologne and entrusted to 
him the administration of the Duchy of Lorraine. 
Through his mediation the disturbances were 
quelled. A great bishop and zealous pastor, he ruled 
by personal piety and holiness of life. He lavished 
his resources on monastic and ecclesiastical insti- 
tutions. He founded the monastery of St. Pantaleon 
at Cologne, where he is buried. Feast, 11 Oct. — • 
C.E. 

Bruno, Saint, confessor and abbot (c. 1030- 
1101), founder of the Carthusian Order, b. Cologne, 
Germany; d. Torre, Calabria, Italy. Educated at 
Reims, he was ordained, c. 1055. He presided over 
the cathedral -school at Reims, 1057-75, and was 
made chancellor of the church of Reims. He opposed 
Manasses, Abp. of Reims, because of his laxity and 
mismanagement. In 1084 he withdrew to Chartreuse, 
and, with his little band of followers, founded the 
Carthusian Order. There he lived for some time in 
solitude and prayer until he was summoned to 
Rome, 1090, by Urban II, a former pupil. He 
resided in the papal palace, sat in the councils, and 
seconded the pope's efforts for the reform of the 
clergy. Retiring from public life, he and his com- 
panions built a hermitage at Torre, where, 1095, 
the monastery of St. Stephen was built. Bruno com- 
bined in the religious life the eremetical and the 
cenobitic; his learning is apparent from his scrip- 
tural commentaries. Patron of those possessed. Em- 
blems : a chalice, cross in hand, branch, star, death's 
head. Equipollent canonization, 1623. Buried in 
church of St. Stephen at Torre. Feast, R. Cal., 6 Oct. 
— C.E.; Butler. 

Bruno, Giordano (1548-1600), heretic, b. Nola, 
Italy; d. Rome. He became a Dominican in 1563, 
and a priest, 1572. Accused of heresy, 1576, he left 
his order and began attacking the Church, and was 
excommunicated by the Calvinist Council of Geneva. 
A restless wanderer, he was favored by Elizabeth, 
and when in England, dedicated to Sir Philip Sid- 
ney his book: "The Expulsion of the Triumphant 
Beast," viz. the Church, and vilely abused the Ox- 
ford professors when refused an invitation to lecture 
there. Excommunicated by the Lutherans at Helm- 



BRUNO 



146 



BUDDHA 



stadt, he abjured his uncatholic doctrine and 
practises at Venice. Imprisoned by the Roman In- 
quisition, he was tried, condemned, and burned at 
the stake for his violent denunciations of religion 
and abuse of the Catholic Church. — C.E.; Turner, 
History of Philosophy, Bost., 1903. 

Bruno of Querfurt (Brun or Boniface), 
Saint, martyr (c. 970-1009), Abp. of the Slavs, 
and second Apostle of the Prussians. In 996 he 
accompanied Emperor Otto III to Rome, where he 
became acquainted with St. Adalbert and St. Rom- 
uald who directed him in the ascetic life. He was 
consecrated archbishop of the heathen Slavs in 
1004; preached to the Hungarian, Petshenges, and 
pagan Prussians by whom he was killed. He is 
the author of the life of St. Adalbert, and also of 
the lives of the martyred monks known as the five 
Polish brothers. Represented in art, crossing a 
red-hot furnace, and blessing the Chalice of the 
Mass with his hands cut off. Relics in Poland. 
Feast, 15 Oct.— C.E. 

Brussels (Ger., Bruch, marsh; Lat., selle, seat), 
capital of Belgium. Its foundation is traditionally 
attributed to St. Gery, Bp. of Cambrai, in the 6th 
century. In the 8th century it was the residence 
of the Frankish kings, and from the 10th century 
belonged to the Dukes of Lower Lorraine and Bra- 
bant. Duke Charles of Lorraine brought to Brussels 
the relics of St. Gudule (979) who has since then 
been the patroness of the city. In 1386 it became 
the capital of Brabant; under Charles V the capital 
of the Low Countries; and under Philip II the 
center of opposition to the Spanish rule. It was 
ceded to Austria in 1714, taken by the French, 1794, 
became part of the Netherlands in 1815, and in 
1830 was the scene of a revolutionary outbreak 
which resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom 
of Belgium. During the World War it was occupied 
by the Germans. Among the buildings of Catholic 
interest are the churches of St. Gudule, Notre Dame 
du Sablon, Notre Dame de la Chapelle, and St. 
Jacques sur Caudenberg. The Jesuit College of 
Saint Michel is the seat of the publication of the 
"Acta Sanctorum" by the Bollandists, and there 
are now kept the library and archives of the enter- 
prise. A statue of St. Michael, also a patron of 
Brussels, surmounts the Hotel de Ville. It is in- 
cluded in the Archdiocese of Mechlin. — C.E.; 
U.K.; Gilliat-Smith. The Story of Brussels, N. Y., 
1906. 

Brute, Simon Gabriel (1779-1839), first Bp. of 
Vincennes (present see, Indianapolis), b. Rennes, 
France; d. Vincennes. After studying medicine from 
1796-1803, he entered the Seminary of St. Sulpice 
and was ordained, 1808. In 1810 he sailed with 
Bp. -elect Flaget, of Bardstown, for America. He 
taught philosophy two years at St. Mary's Sem- 
inary, Baltimore, removing in 1812 to St. Mary's, 
Emmitsburg. For several years he directed Mother 
Elizabeth Seton, foundress of the Sisters of Charity 
in the United States. He was consecrated Bp. of 
Vincennes in 1834, his diocese comprising Indiana 
and northern Illinois. In 1836, with funds collected 
in Europe, he established a seminary in which he 
taught, an orphan asylum, and a free school. At 
his death there were 23 churches in his diocese. I 



Bucer, bu'ser (Butzer), Martin (1491-1551), 
reformer, b. Schlettstadt, Alsace; d. Cambridge, 
England. He left the Dominican Order to join 
Luther, and became the chief reformer of Stras- 
bourg. In 1549 he went to England at the invita- 
tion of Abp. Thomas Cranmer and was called to 
Cambridge as regius professor of divinity. After 
Luther and Melanchthon, he was the most influen- 
tial of the German reformers, and the link between 
the German and the English Reformation. — C.E. 

Buckfast Abbey, near Ashburton, England, 
founded probably about the middle of the 10th 
century; incorporated into the Benedictine Congre- 
gation of Savigny (later part of the Cistercian 
Order) in the 12th century; and suppressed, 1538. 
It was reclaimed by the Benedictines, and legally 
conveyed to them, 1882. The community, number- 
ing 29 priests, is occupied in parochial work at 
Buckfastleigh and Totnes. 

Buckler, emblem in art associated with St. 
George of England as soldier. 

Buckler, Reginald (1840-1927), author and 
preacher, b. London; d. St. George's, Grenada, Brit- 
ish West Indies. One of four brothers who became 
converts, he entered the Church, 1855, joined the 
Dominican Order, 1856, and was ordained, 1863. 
He was the author of widely read books on the 
spiritual life, among them: "The Perfection of Man 
by Charity," "Spiritual Considerations," "A Few 
First Principles of Religious Life," "A Good Prac- 
tical Catholic," "Dispositions to Catholic Faith," 
"A Spiritual Retreat," "The Life of Faith and 
Love," "The Love of God and Prayer," and "Spir- 
itual Instruction on Religious Life." 

Buckley, Sir Patrick Alphonsus (1841-96), 
soldier, lawyer, and statesman, b. near Castletowns- 
end, County Cork, Ireland; d. Lower Hutt, New 
Zealand. In 1860 he served under General Lamo- 
riciere in the papal army, was decorated for 
services, and taken prisoner. After the war he emi- 
grated first to Queensland, then to New Zealand, 
where he filled posts of distinction in the legal pro- 
fession, finally becoming judge of the Supreme 
Court.— C.E. 

Budapest (Buda, brother of Attila; Old Slavic, 
pesti, oven), capital of Hungary, comprising Buda 
on the right bank of the Danube and Pest on the 
left, united, 1872. Old Buda, originally a Roman 
colony, Aquincum, was captured by the Magyars in 
the 10th century. The Turks held it, 1541-1686, 
during which time Pest was almost destroyed. The 
city made great progress in the 19th century. 
Among buildings of Catholic interest are the Coro- 
nation or Matthias church, begun in the 13th cen- 
tury and finished in the 15th, and the St. Stephen 
Basilica. The predominant religion is Catholic, of 
which there has been a remarkable revival since 
the World War. Budapest is included in the Arch- 
diocese of Gran. — U.K. 

Buddha (Skt., budh, to know, the enlightened 
one), a prince named Siddhartha (c. 560-480 B.C.), 
called also by his family names of Gautama or 
Sakya-Muni, the son of a local ruler in modern 
Nepal. Of ascetic tendencies and Brahmanistic edu- 
cation he cast aside luxuries to seek perfection, 
and spent years as an austere hermit. Finding peace 



BUDDHA 



147 



BUENOS AIRES 



elusive lie turned to meditation am"! the formulation 
of his religious system. Enthusiastically he set out 
to spread his doctrine, and won numerous disciples 
with whom he went about preaching, and whom he 
finally formed into a brotherhood of monks. After 
forty years of zealous labor he died in his eightieth 
year. After cremation his remains were preserved 
in mounds called topes, stupas, or dagobas. Tradi- 
tion depicts him as the most exalted character of 
pagan antiquity. A great and good man of magnetic 
personality, he was absorbed with the idea of liber- 
ating men from misery. Buddha left no writings. 
Soon after his death followers codified his teachings 
comprising the three classes of the Tripitaka (triple 
basket) forming the canon of Southern Buddhists. 
Extra-canonical books include the "Commentaries 
of Buddhagosa," "Questions of King Milinda," and 
a history of Buddhism to the 4th century a.d. The 
Tripitaka of Northern Buddhists includes the 
"Lotus of the True Laws," "Book of Exploits," and 
two legendary lives of Buddha. 

Buddhism is the religious and monastic system 
founded about 500 B.C. by Buddha, on the basis of 
pantheistic Brahmanism. Its end is liberation from 
misery by freeing from attachment to conscious 
existence. In common with Brahmanism it holds: 
belief in Karma, that the acts of a previous exist- 
ence determine the character of this present life; 
belief in a constant series of rebirths for all set 
on preserving individual existence; belief that the 
ultimate end consists in a state of eternal, uncon- 
scious repose. It differs in the rejection of the 
Vedas and of Vedic rites. It ignores the all-god 
Brahma. The gods are realities but dependence on 
them is denied, hence prayer and offering are 
useless. It differs in its conception of the final state 
and of the method of attainment. All desire must 
be extinguished; whence follows cessation of misery, 
a final state called Nirvana (a blowing out), one of 
eternal, unconscious repose. For the imperfect the 
various Brahmanistic heavens of positive delight 
were retained. Buddha formed his disciples into 
communities of monks leading a contemplative life 
of poverty, celibacy, and self-denial. Destruction of 
all forms of life was forbidden. Communities of 
nuns were also formed. Buddha did not advocate 
social reform, but his religion ignores caste; virtue 
constitutes superiority. Buddha was venerated after 
death, but being in Nirvana and insensible to hon- 
ors, for the popular need of a conscious personality 
to whom to pray Buddhist monks produced Met- 
teyya (Maitreya), the living one, a divine bodhisat- 
tva destined to incarnation and leadership, and 
honored as future saviour. Such is the Southern 
Buddhism of southern India, Ceylon, Burma, and 
Siam, the closest in orthodoxy to original Bud- 
dhism. 

About A.d. 100 Northern Buddhism was modified 
to include worship of an eternal, supreme deity, 
Adi-Budclha, of whom Buddha was regarded as an 
incarnation. Around this supreme deity were count- 
less bodhisattvas destined to become future incar- 
nate Buddhas; to rank among these became the 
ideal end. In place of Nirvana, Sukhavati, the 
heaven of sensuous delight where reigned Amitabha, 
an emanation of the eternal Buddha, became the 



goal of longing. To attain to this end virtue plus 
an extravagant worship of relics and statues, pil- 
grimages, and recitation of sacred names and of 
magic formulas were practised, together with other 
forms of superstition. This innovation subversive 
of Buddha's teaching and known as Mahayana or 
Great Vehicle, supplanted the older system of the 
south contemptuously styled Hinayana or Little 
Vehicle. 

Buddhism soon became a formidable rival of 
Brahmanism. About 250 B.C. missionaries were sent 
to evangelize. In a.d. 67 they penetrated China 
where conversions multiplied. With the supplanting 
of Southern Buddhism in the north in the 2nd 
century a.d. a corresponding change took place in 
China. Two bodhisattvas of Mahayana became fa- 
vorite subjects of worship. Amitabha and Avalokit- 
esvara or Fousa Kwanyin, preserver from evil. 
Confined mostly to the masses, Buddhism is regarded 
as an accretion to professed Confucianism. Excessive 
devotion to statues and relics, magic arts, and 
many superstitions of Taoism are practised. Chinese 
Buddhism was introduced into Korea 4th century 
a.d., and into Japan 6th century a.d., and spread 
over central and eastern Asia with local additions 
and changes. In original purity Buddhism can be 
associated only with the Southern Buddhists num- 
bering at most 30,000,000. Widespread Northern 
Buddhism with its local accretions and variations 
is a confusion of beliefs and practises. The spread 
of Buddhism was accomplished only by subversion, 
and accommodation to local superstitions. — C.E.; 
Barth, The Religions of India, Lond., 1891; Olden- 
burg, Buddha, Lond., 1892; Herold, Life of Buddha, 
N. Y., 1928. 

Buddhism. See Buddha. 

Budkiewicz, bud-kya'-vitch, Constantine (1867- 
1923), ecclesiastic and political martyr, b. Lithu- 
ania, Russia; d. Moscow. Vicar of St. Catherine's 
church in St. Petersburg (Leningrad), he headed 
every religious and philanthropic undertaking of 
the Catholic Poles. In opposition to socialistic anti- 
religious teachings, he founded the Christian Demo- ^ 
cratic movement. During the World War, he was 
president of the Polish Relief Commission. In 1918 
he was created monsignor, and made dean of 
Mohileff with jurisdiction over the churches of 
northern Russia. He was seized by the Bolshevists, 
1923. At a farcical trial in Moscow, he was charged 
with counter-revolutionary activities for having 
resisted Soviet decrees which forbade religious in- 
struction, ordered the signing over of the churches 
to the government,, and the surrender of sacred 
vessels. He was condemned to death, and in spite 
of protests sent by practically every civilized nation 
he was executed. — U.K. 

Buea, Prefecture Apostolic of, Cameroon, west 
Africa; established, 1923; entrusted to the Foreign 
Missionaries of St. Joseph of Mill Hill. Prefect Ap- 
ostolic: Peter Rogan, M.E. (1925) ; residence, Sasse. 
Buenos Aires, capital of Argentina, first 
founded, 1536, and depopulated, 1541, when the 
governor transferred the population to Asuncion; 
re-founded, 1580, by Juan de Garay, and called 
Santisima Trinidad, from Trinity Sunday, the day 
upon which he landed. Within the year he built a 



BUENOS AIRES 



148 



BUKOBA 



church, and when the city was transferred from 
the jurisdiction of Paraguay and made an episcopal 
see, 1620, this church was dedicated as the cathe- 
dral, 1622. Upon the site stands the new cathedral, 
built 1791, and modeled upon the Madeleine of 
Paris. The Franciscans were already established in 
the country before the foundation of the city, and 
there is evidence that the church and convent of 
Mercy in charge of the Fathers of Mercy until 1821, 
were standing when Garay founded the hospital of 
St. Martin, in the neighborhood. The present church 
of the Franciscans dates from 1731; their library 
of 7000 volumes is open to the public. The Jesuits, 
pioneers in educational work in Buenos Aires, 
brought architects from Europe to erect the church 
of St. Ignatius, 1722, and resided here until their 
expulsion, 1767; returning later, they built the 
church of the Saviour, 1872, and now conduct a 
college in connection with it. Other notable build- 
ings are the Dominican church and the chapels of 
Mount Carmel and of the Passionists. In 1855 the 
city was raised to an archiepiscopal see. The Cath- 
olic University was founded in 1910, and in 1915 
the seminary was authorized to confer degrees in 
philosophy and theology. A national Eucharistic 
Congress was held here, 1916. 

Buffalo, city, New York. A few Recollect and 
Jesuit missionaries and their interpreters, early in 
the 17th century, are thought to have been the 
first white men who saw this region. As their 
routes are not known in detail, it is uncertain 
whether they visited the exact site of Buffalo, as 
did La Salle and his companions in the winter of 
1678-79. Early in the 19th century the small num- 
ber of white settlers here included a few Catholics, 
especially Alsatians. Though without a priest they 
assembled for prayer at the home of Louis Le 
Couteulx, at the corner of Main and Exchange 
streets. In 1821 Fr. Patrick Kelly of New York 
came to the village and conducted a public service. 
It is recorded also that Fr. Stephen Badin (q.v. ) 
said Mass in the court-house and at the Le Cou- 
teulx home. When Bp. Dubois of New York visited 
' Buffalo in 1829 he found between 700 and 800 
Catholics but no church. For this purpose the land 
at the corner of Main and Edward streets was 
donated by Le Couteulx, and after singing a solemn 
high Mass in the court-house the bishop went in 
procession to the site and blessed it. The same year 
he sent the first pastor, Fr. John Nicholas Mertzy 
and in 1832 a small rough timber church was com- 
pleted and was called the church of the Lamb of 
God. The churches of St. Louis, St. Patrick, and 
St. Mary had been erected by 1847, when the 1 
Diocese of Buffalo (q.v.) was established. In 1849 
the Christian Brothers opened St. Joseph's College, 
and in 1851 the Oblates of Mary Immaculate estab- 
lished a college and seminary. The first boarding- 
school for girls was opened by the Grey Nuns in 
1857. In 1872 the weekly "Catholic Union and 
Times" was founded. From the time of the com- 
pletion of the Erie Canal Buffalo grew rapidly in 
commerce and industry; this caused a great in- 
crease in immigrant population, and in 1897, of 
the 31 Catholic churches in the city, 11 held some 
services in German, 6 in Polish, 1 in French, and 



I in Italian. In 1915 the new cathedral was com- 
pleted. The same year the Jesuits opened a seismo- 
logical observatory in connection with Canisius 
College. The city now has 74 Catholic churches with 
67 parochial schools; 15 private academies and spe- 
cial schools, including one for deaf mutes and 
one settlement house; Canisius College for young 
men; D'Youville College for women; 5 hospitals; 

II homes and asylums; and 3 day nurseries. There 
are also 2 churches and 2 schools belonging to the 
Ukrainian Greek Catholic diocese. Catholic popu- 
lation (est.), 318,000. 

Buffalo, Diocese of, New York, embraces coun- 
ties of Erie, Niagara, Genesee, Orleans, Chautauqua, 
Wyoming, Cattaraugus, and Allegheny; area, 6357 
sq. m. ; established, 1847; suffragan of New York, 
Bishops: John Timon (1847-67), Stephen V. Ryan 

(1868-96), James E. Quigley, later Abp. of Chi- 
cago (1897-1903), Charles H. Colton (1903-15), 
Dennis J. Dougherty, later Abp. of Philadelphia 

(1915-18), William Turner (1919). Churches, 255; 
priests, secular, 399; priests, regular, 177; religious 
women, 3284 ; university, 1 ; colleges, 3 ; seminaries, 
6; high schools, 6; academies, 12; primary schools, 
146; institutional schools, 9; pupils in parochial 
schools, 54,698; institutions, 37; Catholics, 385,438. 
Builder, Parable of the (Luke, 14), Gospel of 
the second Mass of a martyr-bishop and of St. Basil 

(14 June). Christ bade the people to reflect that to 
follow Him required utter self-sacrifice, detach- 
ment from all earthly ties, and carrying the cross. 
To stress the seriousness of the choice He proposed 
a parable, taken from everyday life. Before a man 
proceeds to build, he ought to ascertain both the 
cost and his own financial standing, lest becoming 
insolvent before the building be completed he be 
made the butt of ridicule by his fellows. The literal 
meaning is: "Ere you decide to follow Me and 
become My disciples, reflect whether you are ready 
to bring the required sacrifices." This parable may 
be applied to the striving after perfection, and to 
the common Christian life, since both are building 
up towers of faith and character. — Fonck, tr. Leahy, 
Parables of the Gospel, Cin., 1915. (u. f. m, ) 

Builder's Rule, emblem in art associated with 
St. Thomas the Apostle. It signifies spiritual 
building. 

Buisson de Saint«Cdme, Jean FRANgois, mar- 
tyr (o. 1667-1706), b. Pointe-Levi, Canada; d. near 
Donaldsonville, La. He studied at the Seminary of 
Quebec, and was ordained, 1690. Sent on a mission 
to the West, he labored at the Cahokia (Tamaroa) 
mission in Illinois until c. 1698, when he accom- 
panied Frs. Montigny and Davion to the lower 
Mississippi to work among the Natchez. After a 
short time he returned to the Tamaroa, remaining 
there until 1701, when he again took up residence 
among the Natchez. While traveling to Mobile to 
seek relief from a serious illness from which he 
suffered, he and his party were murdered by savage 
Sitimaches, about 50 miles from the mouth of the 
Mississippi. 

Bukoba, Vicariate Apostolic of, province of 
East Africa; by a decree of 1929, two new vicari- 
ates (Mwanza and Bukoba) were formed from old 
Victoria Nyanza; entrusted to the White Fathers. 



BUKOBA 



149 



BURLINGTON 



Vicar Apostolic: Burcardo Howiler (1929). Cath- 
olics, 29,000. 

Bulgaria, independent monarchy in the eastern 
part of the Balkan Peninsula; area, 39,814 sq. m.; 
pop., 5,483,125. The region was inhabited in Roman 
times by Thraco-Illyrians, later by Slavs, and 
towards the end of the 7th century was overrun by 
the Bulgars, a people akin to the Huns and Tatars, 
who adopted the language of the conquered Slavs. 
Christianity was introduced by disciples of Sts. 
Cyril and Methodius who are considered the na- 
tional apostles. In 864 the Khan Boris became a 
Christian for political reasons and favored the 
pope in the dispute between Rome and the Eastern 
Church, but turned to the Greek Church upon the 
pope's refusal to make the Bulgarian Church an in- 
dependent patriarchate. In 1870 the Bulgarian 
Church, which resembles the Orthodox in doctrine 
and worship, was declared independent. The clergy 
of all denominations are paid by the state. The 
Catholic Church is represented by: 



Year 


Ch. 


Pp. 


Srs. 


Caths. 


1724 


20 


28 


89 


14,825 


1848 


20 


40 




19,000 




Nicopolis, D 

Sofia and Philippopolis, V.A. 

— C.E.; U.K. 

Bull, emblem in art associated with Sts. Blan- 
dina, Saturninus, and Eustachius. With St. Blan- 
dina it was the means of martyrdom. It symbolizes 
the martyrdom of St. Eustachius and his family in 
a brazen bull. With reference to St. Saturninus the 
meaning is obscure. 

Bull (Lat., bulla, seal), Papal, at the present 
time the document used by the pope in appointing 
a bishop; the name is derived from the disk-like 
leaden seals attached. For- 
merly all important papal let- 
ters including canonization 
decrees were called Bulls. 
Even the Code makes Bull 
synonymous with major papal 
letter, but the "Acta Apos- 
tolic* Sedis" gives these other 
letters diverse names. — C.E. ; 
P.C. Augustine. (J. D.) 

Bullfight, the national 
sport of Spain. It is thought 
to have originated in a custom of the Arabo- 
Spanish horsemen, who in times of peace fought 
with wild bulls. These contests reached their 
height under John II of Castile (1405-54). After 
the Spanish reconquest the bull-fight became a pop- 
ular amusement. Professional participants date* 
back to the band of bull-fighters organized by Juan 
Romero in the 18th century. In the present bull- 
fight, after the strength of the bull has been weak- 
ened by the capeadores, picadores, and banderilleros 
(men who enrage the bull in various ways), he is 
slain by the matador. On account of the dexterity 
of the performers casualties are not of frequent oc- 
currence. Bull-fighting has often been condemned 
by ecclesiastical authorities and the clergy are for- 
bidden to attend. — C.E.; U.K.; Moore, In the Heart 
of Spain, N. Y., 1927. 

Bullion, Angelique, benefactress, b. Paris, at 
commencement of 17th century. The wife of Claude 
de Bullion, keeper of seals and superintendent of 



SEAL OF BULL OF 

CANONl'ZATION OF 

THE LITTLE 

FLOWER 



finances under Louis XIII, after his death she gave 
large sums to what is now the city of Montreal, 
Canada, and founded and endowed the hospital of 
that city, known as the Hotel-Dieu. Her identity 
as benefactress was revealed only after her death. 
—C.E. 

Burchard, Saint, confessor (d. 754), Bp. of 
Wiirzburg, b. England; d. Germany. Inspired by St. 
Boniface, he offered himself as an assistant mis- 
sionar}^. He was consecrated the first Bishop of the 
See of Wiirzburg in Franconia, 741. Under his 
zealous ministry that entire country was converted. 
Held in high esteem by Pepin the Short, he was 
appointed as head of an embassy to lay before Pope 
Zachary the question who should be the King of 
the Franks. After ten years of exhausting labors 
he resigned his bishopric to retire to a life of soli- 
tude, 752. Patron of Wiirzburg. He was buried at 
Mount St. Mary or Old Wiirzburg where he had 
built a monastery. Feast, 14 Oct. — CE.; Butler. 

Burgos, city, Spain. It was founded, c. 884, and 
reached its highest importance in the 15th century. 
In 1808 it was the scene of the defeat of the Spanish 
army by the French. Several councils have been 
held there from the 11th to the 19th centuries. It is 
the seat of an archbishop. Buildings of Catholic in- 
terest include the cathedral, founded, 1221, the 
churches of Santa Agueda, San Esteban, and San 
Nicolas, and in the vicinity, the 12th-century con- 
vent of Santa Maria de las Huelgas and the Car- 
thusian monastery of Miraflores. Est. pop., 33,000. 
—C.E. 

Burial, Ecclesiastical, the interment of a de- 
ceased person with ecclesiastical rites in consecrated 
ground. Since it is an honor granted by the Church, 
it follows that the Church may determine who is 
worthy of it. All persons baptized in any of the 
three ways baptism may be conferred (desire, blood, 
water) and catechumens or converts, if they have 
died without baptism through no fault of their own, 
must be buried ecclesiastically. The law excludes 
from ecclesiastical burial : apostates from the Chris- 
tian faith; heretics; schismatics; Freemasons or 
members of similar societies; persons excommuni- 
cated and interdicted after a condemnatory or 
declaratory sentence; deliberate suicides; those who 
died in a duel or from a wound received in a duel; 
those who have ordered their bodies to be cre- 
mated; and public sinners. The general practise of 
the Church is to interpret these prohibitions as 
mildly as possible; doubtful cases should be referred 
to the bishop (can. 1204, 1239, 1240).— C.E. ; P.C. 
Augustine. (c. A.) 

Burke, Thomas Nicholas (1830-82), Domini- 
can orator, b. Galway, Ireland; d. Tallaght. After 
his ordination he founded the novitiate of the Irish 
Dominican province at Tallaght. His first notable 
sermon was on "Church Music," preached in 1859, 
and thereafter his preaching attracted throngs. He 
met with very great success while preaching and 
lecturing in the United States, 1871. Returning to 
Ireland he preached continually, despite his im- 
paired health, until death. — C.E. 

Burlington, Diocese of, Vermont, comprises 
the State of Vermont; area, 9135 sq. m.; estab- 
lished, 1853; suffragan of Boston. Bishops: Louis 



BURLINGTON 



150 



BUTEUX 



De Goesbriand (1853-99), John S. Miehaud (1899- 
1908), Joseph J. Rice (1910). Churches, 97; priests, 
secular, 83; priests, regular, 14; religious women, 
480; seminary, 1; colleges, 2; academies, 9; pri- 
mary schools, 20; pupils in parochial schools, 1636; 
institutions, 7; Catholics, 89,568. 

Burnand, Sir Francis Cowley (1836-1917), 
editor and humorist, b. London; d. Ramsgate, Eng- 
land. After graduating from Cambridge and study- 
ing for the Anglican ministry, he became converted 
to Catholicity. The success of his play, "Dido," en- 
couraged him to continue writing, and in all he 
wrote about 120 farces, burlesque librettos of opera, 
and adaptations from the French. He was editor of 
"Punch," 1880-1906. His editing of the valuable 
English "Catholic Who's Who" contributed largely 
to its success. He was knighted in 1902. — U.K. 

Burnett, Peter Hardeman (1807-95), first gov- 
ernor of California after its admission to the Union, 
b. Nashville, Tenn.; d. San Francisco. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1839. He lost faith in Alexander 
Campbell, whose church he had joined, on reading 
Campbell's published debate with Abp. Purcell. 
Having taken a prominent part in the formation of 
the territory of Oregon, he later removed to Cali- 
fornia (1848), where he held a succession of im- 
portant public positions, being elected governor in 
1849. He became a Catholic in 1856, his most 
famous work being "The Path which Led a Protes- 
tant Lawyer to the Catholic Church." — C.E. 

Burning Bush, a miraculous feature in the 
scene, described in Exodus, 3, where Jehovah ap- 
pears to Moses at the foot of Mount Horeb in a bush 
which is "on fire" and yet is "not burnt." The 
commission, given to Moses on this occasion, marks 
the beginning of the formation of the national life 
of the Chosen People. The kind of bush is not iden- 
tified ; tradition regards it as the bramble or black- 
berry bush. ( J. A. N. ) 
Burse or Bursary (L.L., bursa, purse or pouch). 
(1) A part of the set of vestments for the Mass 
and Benediction, being placed upon the chalice at 
the beginning and end of the Holy Sacrifice, and 
on the altar at Benediction. It contains the cor* 
poral, which is spread on the altar beneath the 
chalice or the ostensorium. In medieval England it 
was called the "corporas case." (2) A leather case 
containing the pyx, in which the Holy Eucharist is 
brought to the sick. (3) The name for a foundation 
or endowment fund, especially for scholarships for 
candidates for the priesthood. — C.E. (J. F. s.) 
Bursfeld, Abbey of, near Gottingen, Germany, 
founded, 1093, by Duke Henry of Nordheim and 
his wife Gertrude. The first abbot, Almericus, came 
with his monks from Corvey, and founded one of 
the most famous schools in Germany. In 1331 a 
period of decline set in, but in the 15th century the 
Benedictine, John Dederoth, Abbot of Clus, encour- 
aged by success in his own abbey, undertook the 
reform of Bursfeld. Unexpectedly satisfying results 
led him on to Reinhausen, and these three monas- 
teries formed the nucleus of the Bursfeld Union. 
The foundation of the union, however, is attributed 
to John of Hagen, who restored the Divine Office 
to the original form of the Benedictine Breviary, 
and introduced liturgical and disciplinary uniform- 



ity in the monasteries, according to the reform 
followed at Bursfeld. When approved by the Council 
of Basel, 1446, the Abbot of Bursfeld was ex officio 
one of the three presidents of the congregation, 
which became a powerful force of reform among 
the monasteries of Germany, numbering 36 monas- 
teries at the death of its founder, and at its height, 
over 135. The last Abbot of Bursfeld was evicted, 
1579, and replaced by a Lutheran, but the union 
continued until the secularization of the monas- 
teries in the 18th century. — C.E. 

Bury St. Edmunds, abbey, Suffolk, England, 
founded c. 637 by Sigebert, King of the East Angles. 
Relics of the martyred King Edmund were en- 
shrined there in 903. Early in the 11th century the 
secular canons were replaced by Benedictines, who 
built a magnificent church and extensive monastery 
buildings. Only a few ruins remain, including Nor- 
man and Decorated gateways. Abbot Samson (d. 
1211 ) founded a hospital and free school and aided 
the townspeople in obtaining a charter. Two 15th- 
century monks of this congregation were the bibli- 
ographer John Boston and John Lydgate, a poet. 
—C.E. 

Busembaum, Hermann (1600-68), moral theo- 
logian, b. Notteln, Westphalia; d. Minister. He en- 
tered the Society of Jesus, c. 1619. As confessor 
to Bp. von Galen of Miinster, he was instrumental 
in furthering the growth of spiritual activity of 
the diocese. His work on moral theology is a classic, 
and has been used by the leading moralists, among 
them St. Alphonsus Liguori, as the basis of their 
treatises. — C.E. 

Bushmen or Bosjemans (Dutch, Bosjesman* 
nen), a people found in Great Namaqualand, South 
Africa, kindred to the Hottentots. They are of 
diminutive stature with yellow skin and slanting 
eyes. There is no tribal organization. Their religion 
is animistic. A native aesthetic sense is indicated by 
a curious folklore. The missionaries of the Orange 
River Prefecture Apostolic have brought some of 
them under Christian influence. 

Buskins, ceremonial stockings of silk, some- 
times ornamented, worn by the celebrant of a 
Pontifical Mass. — C.E. 

Butcher's Knife, emblem in art associated with 
St. Bartholomew, representing the instrument by 
which he was martyred. 

Bute, John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd 
Marquess of (1847-1900), b. Mountstuart, Bute, 
Scotland; d. Dumfries House, Ayrshire. In 1868, 
he was received into the Church, and after settling 
on his estates in Scotland, lived thenceforth as a 
devout Catholic, munificent in his benefactions to 
poor missions and a generous patron of learning. 
As a scholar, he is best known for his translation 
of the Roman Breviary into English, in collabora- 
tion with the Rev. James McSwiney, S.J. — C.E. 

Buteux, Jacques (1600-52), Jesuit missionary, 
b. Abbeville, France; d. Canada. His career as a 
missionary was distinguished by an ardent desire 
for suffering, and his converts were recognized by 
an unusual spirit of faith. He was martyred by 
the Iroquois. His writings include an account of 
the captivity and tortures of Bl. Isaac Jogues. — 
C.E. ^_ 



BUTLER 



151 



BYZANTINE ART 



Butler, Alban (1710-63), historian, b. Apple- 
tree, Northamptonshire, England; d. St-Omer, 
France. After ordination he taught at the English 
College at Douai, and devoted himself to compiling 
"The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Prin- 
cipal Saints," the work by which he is best known. 
He was appointed to the presidency of the English 
college at St-Omer, 1766, and was also called up- 
on to devote himself to active diocesan work. 
— C.E. 

— Charles (1750-1832), lawyer, writer, and Cath- 
olic leader, nephew of preceding, b. London; d. 
there. He was educated at the English College, 
Douai, studied law in England, and as his religious 
affiliations constituted ineligibility for the bar, be- 
came a conveyancer. He joined the agitation for 
repeal of the Penal Laws, was made secretary to 
the committee to promote the repeal, and in 1791 
on the passing of the bill for partial relief he was 
called to the bar. He was a conspicuous figure in 
the controversies among the Catholic laymen and 
clergy in connection with the Catholic Committee 
and was the leading opponent of Bp. Milner. His 
works include "Reminiscences," "Hora^ Biblicae," 
"Hargrave's Coke on Littleton," "On Impressing 
Seamen," "Historical Memoir of English, Scottish, 
and Irish Catholics," "Life of Erasmus," and a 
"Continuation of Alban Butler's Saints' Lives." — 
C.E. 

Buttress, a pile of masonry built at right angles 
to a wall to strengthen it at certain points to 
resist the thrust of vaulting. Its extensive use on 
the exterior of ecclesiastical buildings became nec- 
essary when the medieval builders substituted 
vaulting for wooden trabeated roofs, and variations 
ranged from massive supports embedded in the wall 
to graceful counter-thrusts touching it only at 
points. The flying buttress, which became the most 
distinctive characteristic of Gothic architecture, 
originated in France in the 12th century when 
ribbed vaulting was extended to the nave. It con- 
sists of a straight band of stone covered by a half- 
arch which transmits the thrust of a vault across 
an open space to a pier independent of the main 
structure. In five-aisled churches it sometimes 
crosses both aisles in a single span (Notre Dame, 
Paris) and sometimes in two spans (Reims; 
Amiens ) . — C.E. 

B.V. = Beata Virgo (Blessed Virgin). 

B.V.M. = Beata Virgo Maria (Blessed Virgin 
Mary ) . 

Byrd, William (c. 1543-1623), composer and 
organist, b. probably Lincoln, England; d. London. 
He became, in 1575, organist of the Chapel Royal, 
being an orthodox polyphonist. He excelled in litur- 
gical compositions although he also founded the 
English Madrigal School and was a prolific com- 
poser for the virginals. "Psalms, Sonnets and 
Songs," several masses, "Graduals," and "Sacred 
Songs," have survived. — C.E. 

Byrne, William (1780-1833), missionary and 
educator, b. County Wicklow, Ireland; d. Bards- 
town, Ky. He emigrated to the United States, where 
he studied in Sulpician institutions, and after or- 
dination became a missionary priest. In 1821 he 
opened St. Mary's College, Bardstown, which ex- 



erted a wide influence in spreading education 
throughout Kentucky. After 12 years he turned the 
college over to the Society of Jesus. — C.E. 

Byzantine Architecture, bi-zan'tm, Christian 
architecture of the East which supplanted the 
early forms held in common by East and West, 
characterized by exclusive use of vaulted roofs and 
rejection of wood in construction, balancing of 
thrusts by counter-thrusts instead of dead weight, 
and classic Roman structural elements modified by 
oriental ideas, of which the most important is the 
dome supported on pendentives. Oriental love of 
splendor found expression in the decoration of floor 
and walls with richly colored marbles and mosaics, 
but sculpture was devoid of high relief and the ex- 
terior was usually of plain brick. The dome was 
carried either on a circular or octagonal sub-struc- 
ture or on four piers and arches by means of 
pendentives, over the square central area of a 
rectangular or cruciform church. At the eastern 
end was a projecting apse for the chancel and altar 
separated from the nave by the iconostasis or 
screen; later a minor apse was placed at the 
eastern end of each aisle, and a narthex extended 
across the western front. The use of pendentives 
could be extended indefinitely to any number of 
domes, which also became characteristic of Byzan- 
tine churches. The style, which reached its height 
in the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople 
(early 6th century), also appeared in the architec- 
ture of the West where the most magnificent ex- 
ample is St. Mark's, Venice (978-1096), and the 
most notable of modern times the Cathedral of the 
Precious Blood, Westminster, England (consecrated, 
1910). After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 
the style continued in countries of the Greek Rite, 
becoming identified with the national church of 
Russia. — C.E.; U.K. ; Jackson, Byzantine and Ro- 
manesque Architecture, Camb., 1913. 

Byzantine Art, the art developed in Constanti- 
nople (Byzantium) after it had become Constan- 
tine's capital (a.d. 328) and the center of European 
and Eastern culture. Combining the elements of 
Greek and early Christian art with oriental love 
of color and lavish decoration, imported from Syria 
and Persia, it was characterized by formal rigidity 
in the angular figures, elaborate costume, and rich 
backgrounds of gold or blue. Devoted at first to 
expressing religious truths it followed laws strictly 
laid down by the Church. At the same time it was 
protected by the Church from the deadening influ- 
ence of the Iconoclasts of the 8th and 9th centuries, 
and lived to inspire the art of Italy through such 
centers as Ravenna, Palermo, and Venice, and to 
influence all European art after the Crusades had 
made its treasures known. The forms of Byzantine 
art embraced painting on wood and plaster, minia- 
tures, mosaic work which has never been surpassed, 
and a multitude of lesser arts such as the illumi- 
nation of missals, metal-work, jewelry, ivory-carv- 
ing, and the production of beautiful vestments. In 
sculpture, through the revulsion of feeling against 
the pagan glorification of the human form, it was 
limited to the carving of flat surfaces and intricate 
openwork capitals. — C.E.; Dalton, Byzantine Art 
and Archaeology, Oxford, 1911. 



BYZANTINE EMPIRE 



152 



BYZANTINE RITE 



Byzantine Empire, name given to the Roman 
Empire of the East, which flourished 395-1453, 
being founded upon the death of Theodosius by 
division of the Roman Empire between his two sons. 
In the 5th century the Nestorian heresy began to 
prevail in the East, and the empire was forced to 
pay tribute to Attila to escape invasion. Religious 
matters were of special importance in Byzantine 
history because of the politico-ecclesiastical powers 
of the rulers and the interest of all classes in ques- 
tions of doctrine and usage. Political and ecclesiasti- 
cal dissension caused by the introduction of the 
Monophysite heresy was increased by rivalry be- 
tween the patriarchs of Alexandria and Constan- 
tinople, until in 1215 the latter was declared 
second to Rome in honor by Pope Innocent III. The 
most brilliant period of the empire began under 
Justinian I (527-565), famous for his code of laws. 
His general, Belisarius, defeated the Persians and 
made conquests in Africa and Italy, and in 538 St. 
Sophia was erected. In 610 Heraclius overthrew 
the usurper Phocas and in 622 crushed the Persians, 
and during the 7th century Greek became the lan- 
guage of the empire. Under Constantine IV (668- 
685) the Saracens were forced to raise their siege 
of Constantinople, Bulgaria became a separate king- 
dom (680), and orthodoxy was reestablished. Under 
Leo the Isaurian (717-741) the last attack of the 
Saracens was repelled, army and finances were re- 
organized, and a campaign inaugurated for the 
destruction of sacred images which caused internal 
strife for a century. His successor Constantine V 
continued his policj^ of iconoclasm and persecution 
of monks, and though image-worship was restored 
by Irene (797-802), the Iconoclasts finally prevailed. 
With restoration of image-worship by Theodora 
(842-856) ecclesiastical authority became entirely 
subject to the throne. Theodora's brother Bardas 
deposed Ignatius from the Patriarchate of Constan- 
tinople and appointed the layman Photius whose 
defiance of Pope Nicholas I (867) brought about the 
Great Eastern Schism. Basil I the Macedonian (867- 
886) established a new dynasty, with a revival of 
literature, art, and commerce, had Justinian's code 
revised, and issued new law books, notably the 



Prochiron and the Basilica. Basil II (976-1025) de- 
feated the Bulgarians and Saracens, issued a 
"Novel" (supplementary decree) against great 
landed proprietors, regulations concerning church 
property and against public officials seizing crown 
lands, increased commerce, and brought the empire 
to the summit of power. Under Constantine IX 
(1042-55) Michael Cserularius, Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, attempted to create a patriarchate equal 
to Rome, and was condemned by Leo IX. With the 
burning of the Bull of condemnation in St. Sophia, 
Constantinople separated from Rome. Upon the ex- 
piration of the Macedonian dynasty in 1057 the 
throne was seized by Isaac Comnenus who re- 
nounced claim to spiritual jurisdiction while Caeru- 
larius encroached on temporal power. His suc- 
cessor, Constantine X, diminished the military 
forces, causing the loss of Italy, Croatia, Dalma- 
tia, and Asia Minor. With the coming of the 
Crusaders and establishment of a Latin empire 
in the 13th century, commercial prosperity de- 
clined, and under a succession of incompetent 
rulers Byzantium looked to the West for aid 
against the threatened invasions of the Turks. 
Reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches 
attempted in the Council of Lyons (1274) and the 
Council of Florence (1439) was rejected by the 
Greek people, and in 1453 Constantinople was sub- 
jugated by Mohammed II who brought the empire 
to an end. — C.E.; U.K.; Oman, The Byzantine 
Empire, Lond., 1892. 

Byzantine Rite, that used in the Church of 
Constantinople. It is the one most widely used 
after the Roman and has three forms. The oldest 
is the Liturgy of St. James modified by St. Basil 
the Great (d. 379) and named after him. St. John 
Chrysostom (d. 407) modified St. Basil's Liturgy. 
This, with later modifications, became the common 
Eucharistic service of Constantinople. It did not 
entirely displace St. Basil's, but limited its use to 
a few days each year. The third form is the Liturgy 
of the Presanctified, the essence of which is the 
distribution of the Blessed Sacrament consecrated 
the preceding Sunday. — C.E., IV, 312; Fortescue, 
The Mass, N. Y., 1914. (m.e. d.) 



C. = Confessor of the Faith. 

Cabal of Devotees, or Company of the Most 
Blessed Sacrament, a Catholic secret society 
founded in France, 1630, by Henri de Levis, Duke de 
Ventadour; Henri de Pichery; Jacques Adhemar de 
Monteil de Grignan; and Philippe d' Angoumois. 
The object of the company was to increase conver- 
sions, to organize the preaching of missions for 
Protestants, and to suppress the outrages per- 
petrated by Protestants against Catholics. In 1660 
the last general meeting was held and the society 
began to decline. The General Hospital and the 
Seminary of Foreign Missions owe their foundation 
to this association. — C.E., IV, 184. 

Cabral, Pedralvarez (Pedro Alvares; c. 1460- 
c. 1526), Portuguese navigator, discoverer of Brazil. 
In 1500 he was given command of a fleet about to 
sail for India, with the commission to establish 
commercial relations and introduce Christianity. 
They landed on the coast of Brazil which Cabral 
called Vera Cruz (true or real cross). He continued 
his course to India, and after an adventurous voy- 
age returned to Lisbon in 1501. — C.E. 

Gabrillo, Estevan (also called Juan), a Portu- 
guese in the naval service of Spain, d. San Ber- 
nardo, 1543. In the course of a voyage from Mexico 
in 1542 he discovered Oregon and the entire Cali- 
fornia coast. His treatment of the aborigines was 
kind and generous. — C.E. 

Cadalous, Pietro (Honorius II), antipope 
(1061-62), b. near Verona, Italy; d. Parma, 1072. 
Bp. of Parma, he was elected pope at the Diet of 
Basel in opposition to Alexander II, the lawful 
pope. He was excommunicated, 1063, and deposed 
by the Council of Mantua, 1064.— C.E. 

Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe (1657-1730), 
founder of Detroit, b. Toulouse, France; d. Castel- 
sarrasin. A young officer, experienced as pioneer 
in New France, he was made commandant of 
Michilimackinac. In 1701 he established a fortified 
post at Pont Chartrain, later known as Detroit, in 
order to monopolize Indian trade. Utilizing his posi- 
tion to carry on illegal traffic, he quarreled with the 
Jesuits who protested against his abuses in trans- 
actions with the Indians. He was recalled to France, 
appointed Governor of Louisiana in 1712, deposed 
in 1776, and sentenced to the Bastille. After his re- 
lease he w T as appointed governor of Castelsarrasin, 
and regained possession of his Detroit property. — 
C.E. 

Cadoc (Cadoctjs, Docus, Cathmael, Cattwg 
Ddoeth, or Cattwg the Wise), Saint, abbot (c. 
497-c. 577), d. Benevenna, Wales. He was the son 
of Gundleus (Gwynllyn), Prince of South Wales, 
studied under the Irish saint, Tathai, at Gwent, 
Monmouthshire, became a monk, and founded the 
Abbey of Llancarvan, near Cowbridge, Glamorgan- 
shire, c. 518, which soon became famous as a center 
of learning. He is invoked against scrofula and 
deafness. Feast, 23 Jan. — Butler, ed. Thurston. 



153 



Cadouin, Cistercian abbey, Diocese of Perigueux, 
France, founded, 1115, and famous for its possession 
of a relic said to be the Holy Shroud of Christ, 
brought from the East after the First Crusade. The 
abbey-church, erected to receive the relic, was con- 
secrated, 1154. The cloister is an excellent example 
of Flamboyant Gothic mingled with Early Renais- 
sance. 

Caedmon or Cedmon (d. c. 670), English poet. 
According to St. Bede, he was attached as a laborer 
to the double monastery of Whitby founded by St. 
Hilda, 657, and was commanded in a vision to 
glorify God in hymns. He was thereupon urged by 
Hilda to take the Columban habit and entered the 
monastery as a lay brother. He put the history of 
the Old and New Testament into alliterative verses. 
Only one short Northumbrian hymn is now extant. 
—C.E. 

Caslestis Agni nuptias, or To be the Lamb's 
celestial bride, hymn for Vespers and Matins on 
19 June, feast of St. Juliana Falconieri. It was 
written by Francesco M. Lorenzini (1680-1743). 
There are four translations. The English title given 
is by E. Caswall. — Britt. 

Caelestis aulas nuntius, or The Messenger 
from God's high throne, hymn for Vespers on 7 
Oct., feast of the Most Holy Rosary. It was written 
in the 18th century by Augustine Ricchini. There 
are five translations. The English title given is by 
A. McDougall. — Britt. 

Caelestis urbs Jerusalem, or Thou heavenly, 
new Jerusalem, hymn for Vespers and Matins on 
the feast of the dedication of a church. It is not 
known who the author was, but it was written in 
the 6th or 7th century. There are about 30 transla- 
tions. The one given in Britt is by W. Irons; the 
fourth verse reads : 

By many a salutary stroke, 

By many a weary blow that broke, 

Or polished with a workman's skill, 

The stones that form that glorious pile, 

They all are fitly framed to lie 

In their appointed place on high. 

Caeli Deus Sanctissime, or O God, whose hand 
hath spread the sky, hymn for Vespers on 
Wednesday. This hymn was probably written by 
Pope St. Gregory the Great (540-604). There are 
13 translations. The English title given is by J. 
Neale.— Britt. 

Caelitum Joseph decus, atque nostras, or 
Joseph, the praise and glory of the heavens, 
hymn for Matins on 19 March, feast of St. Joseph. 
It is also used in the Office of the Solemnity of St. 
Joseph, observed on the Wednesday preceding the 
third Sunday after Easter. It was written in the 
17th century by an unknown author. There are 
six translations. The English title given is by A. 
McDougall. — Britt. 

Caeremoniale Episcoporum, a book containing 
the rites and ceremonies to be observed at Mass 
and other functions by bishops and prelates of 



CffiREMONIALE EPISCOPORUM 154 



CAJETAN 



lower rank, treating also of the manner of preced- 
ence among ecclesiastics and official lay persons. It 
is obligatory in metropolitan, cathedral, and col- 
legiate churches. — C.E. 

Caerleon (Celtic, caer, fortress; Lat., legionum, 
of the legions : from its being the headquarters 
for over 200 years of the Roman Second Legion), 
town, Monmouthshire, England, on Usk River, as- 
sociated with the legends of King Arthur. It was 
the seat of a bishopric, afterwards transferred to 
St. Davids. In 973 King Edgar was rowed by eight 
kings at Caerleon. The remains of a Roman amphi- 
theater are to be found here. Pop., 2000. 

Caesar, the name of all the Roman emperors 
from the time of Julius Caesar to the fall of the 
Roman empire. It was the family name of Caius 
Julius Caesar. The Caesar of Luke, 2, is Augustus; of 
Matthew, 22, Tiberius; of Acts, 25, Nero. (e. F. D.) 

Csesarea, sez'a-re-a, town on the east shore of 
the Mediterranean, about 70 m. from Jerusalem, 
ancient capital of Judea. St. Paul was imprisoned 
here for two years (Acts, 24), and from here be- 
gan his journey to Rome (Acts, 27). 

Cccsarius of Aries, Saint (470-543), Abp. of 
Aries, b. Chalons, Burgundy; d. Aries. He became 
Bp. of Aries in 502 and for 40 years was the fore- 
most bishop of Gaul. Twice accused of treason by 
the barbarian conquerors of his episcopal city, he 
was finally exculpated by the Ostrogothic King 
Theodoric. He visited Pope Symmachus at Rome, 
received from him the pallium and the use of the 
dalmatic for the deacons of his diocese, and was 
made Apostolic Vicar of Gaul and Spain. He con- 
voked an important series of councils. Prior to this 
he published the famous adaptation of the Roman 
law known as the "Breviary of Alaric," which 
eventually became the civil code of Gaul. He was a 
popular preacher, many of his sermons having come 
down to us. They are brief, clear, and simply ex- 
pressed. He composed two religious rules, one for 
men which was subsequently superseded by that of 
St. Benedict, the other for women, which was the 
first of its kind. It was adopted outright by nu- 
merous monasteries of women. He added several 
hymns to the Divine Office. Feast, 27 Aug. — C.E. ; 
Butler. 

Csesaropapism, a term used to designate the 
policy of kingly or civil supremacy in church af- 
fairs. In the pagan Roman Empire, the emperors 
were not only the civil heads of the state but also 
the religious heads, holding the office of Pontifex 
Maximus. Some Christian emperors and kings, as 
well as states, have endeavored to meddle in the 
purely ecclesiastical affairs of the Church, thus un- 
consciously emulating the pagan priest-emperors. 
Any such endeavor to encroach upon the powers 
of the Church, especially the executive and doc- 
trinal powers, has come to be designated as 
Caesaropapism. — C.E., XII, 498. (m. p. h. ) 

Cain, the first-born of Adam and Eve. He be- 
came a husbandman while his brother Abel tended 
flocks. Each offered a sacrifice to God, who ac- 
cepted that of Abel and rejected that of Cain. Either 
Cain offered to God imperfect gifts, or in offering 
a part of his goods he withheld his heart. Angered 
by the Divine rejection Cain slew his brother; to 



avenge his blood God pronounced a curse against 
Cain, banished him to the land of Nod, and marked 
him with a sign as a promise of special protection 
in his banishment. Cain founded a city named 
Henoch after one of his sons. — C.E. 

Cainites, a name used for the descendants of 
Cain, of whom nine in the direct line are men- 
tioned in the Bible: Henoch, Irad, Maviael, Ma- 
thusael, Lamech, and Lamech's four children, Jabel 
and Jubal by his wife Ada, Tubalcain and his sister 
Noemi by his second wife Sella. — C.E. 

Caiphas (Caiaphas), Joseph, Jewish high 
priest (a.d. 18-36). As official head of the San- 
hedrin, he was responsible for the travesty of a 
trial to which Christ was submitted by the Jewish 
authorities before they handed Him over to Pilate. 
After the Crucifixion Caiphas persecuted Christ's 
followers. He was deposed by the Roman au- 
thorities. — C.E. 

Caithness, ancient diocese, Scotland, comprised 
the territory now included in the counties of Caith- 
ness and Sutherland; founded by Malcolm III, 
1066; restored by David I; first bishop, Andrew 
(1150-84). Bp. Gilbert de Moray (1235-45), who 
built its cathedral at Dornoch in Sutherland, is 
regarded as a saint in the Scottish church; feast, 
1 April. Andrew Stewart II (1518-42) was its 
last pre-Reformation bishop. Cathedral now in 
ruins. 

Caius, Saint, Pope (283-96), b. probably Salona, 
Dalmatia; d. Rome. Little is known of his reign. 
Feast, R. Cal., 22 April.— C.E. 

Caius, 3rd-century Christian author. He held a 
disputation at Rome with Proclus, a Montanist 
leader, in the course of which he gives valuable 
evidence of the death of Sts. Peter and Paul at 
Rome and the public veneration of their remains. 
—C.E. 

Caius (Kay or Key), John (1510-73), physi- 
cian and scholar, b. Norwich, England; d. London. 
He lectured on anatomy, wrote medical treatises 
and translations and a history of Cambridge Uni- 
versity, and was president of the College of Physi- 
cians. He refounded Gonville College, renamed Gon- 
ville and Caius College (1558). Under Edward VI 
he became royal physician, but was dismissed under 
Elizabeth because he was a Catholic. — C.E. 

Cajetan (Gaetano), Saint, confessor (1480- 
1547), founder of the Theatines, b. Vicenza, Italy; 
d. Naples. He was made prothonotary Apostolic at 
the court of Pope Julius II in 1506 and was instru- 
mental in effecting a reconciliation between the 
Holy See and the Republic of Venice. Retiring from 
court life in 1513 he founded a society of priests 
and prelates called the Oratory of Divine Love, 
and was himself ordained priest, 1516. On his re- 
turn to his native city he founded a hospital for 
incurables. In 1523 he went to Rome where he estab- 
lished the Congregation of Clerks Regular, known 
as Theatines, combining the spirit of monasticism 
with active ministry. At Venice he became asso- 
ciated with St. Jerome Emiliani, whom he aided 
in founding another order of clerks regular, the 
Somaschi. Emblem: apparition of the Blessed Vir- 
gin. Canonized, 1671. Relics in church of St. Paul, 
Naples. Feast, R. Cal., 7 Aug.— C.E. ; Butler. 



CAJETAN 



155 



CALENDAR 



Cajetan, Tommaso De Vio Gaetani (1469- 
1534), cardinal, philosopher, theologian, and exegete, 
b. Gaeta, Italy; d. Rome. He was of noble birth, 
and from his youth was devout and studious, en- 
tering the Dominican Order before the age of 16. 
He soon attracted attention by his writings and 
discourses. Courageously he faced the trying issues 
of his day, and by tact, education and tolerance, 
he endeavored to appease the antagonistic, to reform 
the sinners, to check the spread of heresy, and to 
avert schism. He is one of the greatest defenders 
of the Thomistic School. Leo XIII ordered his com- 
mentaries to be incorporated with the text of the 
"Summa" in the official Leonine edition of the com- 
plete works of St. Thomas. — C.E. (r. j. m.) 
Calamus (Lat., reed). (1) Fistula, or Siphon, 
a pipe or reed used in ancient days for the Com- 
munion of the clergy and people, a custom which 
survived among the Cistercians until the Reforma- 
tion. Now at solemn papal high Mass, the chalice 
is brought from the altar to the throne of the pope 
where he absorbs its contents through a golden pipe. 
(2) In the Old Testament, a scented reed yielding 
perfume, used in the composition of spices burned 
in sacrifices (Is., 43; Jer., 6), and in the oil of 
unction (Ex., 30). 

Calatrava, Military Order of, a branch of the 
Cistercians founded in Castile in the 12th century. 
The name is derived from 
that of a castle recovered from 
the Moslems by King Alfonso 
of Castile in 1147. At first it 
was composed of lay brothers 
of the monastery of Fitero 
and subject to Morimond, in 
Burgundy. The order was de- 
feated by the Almohades at 
Alarcos in 1195 and then took 
the name of the new strong- 
hold of Salvatierra which was 
lost to the Moslems in 1209. 

KNIGHT OF CALATRAVA -r> ji • j £ £ • r\ 

By the aid of foreign Cru- 
saders Calatrava was reconquered in 1212. In 
the same year the order took part in the great 
victory of Las Navas de Tolosa, which broke the 
Moslem power. The name of Calatrava was resumed 
by the order and Calatrava la Nueva made its head- 
quarters. Two new orders, Alcantara in Leon, and 
Aviz in Portugal, were founded. The last inde- 
pendent grand master was Lopez de Padilla (1482- 
87 ) who fought with distinction in the last Moorish 
War. In 1487 Ferdinand of Aragon by a papal Bull 
obtained administrative authority. The canonical 
bond with Morimond was then relaxed and the 
order became secularized by release from vows of 
poverty and chastity. Their property was con- 
fiscated by Charles III in 1775, and general seculari- 
zation was finally accomplished in 1838. — C.E. 

Calbayog, Diocese of, Philippine Islands, com- 
prises the islands of Samar, Leyte, Biliran, and 
Capul; area, 9598 sq. m. ; established, 1910; suf- 
fragan of Manila. Bishops: Pablo Singzon de la 
Anunciacion (1910-20), and Sofronio Hacbang 
(1923). Parishes, 87; missions, 197; priests, secular, 
79; priests, regular, 25; seminary, 1; educational 
institutions, 6; Catholics, 1,117,308. 




Calcutta, Archdiocese of, India, extends along 
the Bay of Bengal from the Kabadak to the Ma- 
hanadi rivers; established, 1886; suffragan sees, 
Dacca, Chittagong, Dinajpur, Krishnagar, Patna, 
and the Prefecture Apostolic of Assam; entrusted 
to the Society of Jesus and diocesan clergy. The 
Jesuits visited the region in the 16th century, 
towards the close of which the territory was placed 
under the care of the Augustinians. Archbishops: 
Paul Goethals (1886-1901), Brice Meuleman (1902- 
24), and Ferdinand Perier (1924). Churches and 
chapels, 797; priests, secular, 23; priests, regular, 
168; colleges, 2; high schools for boys, 4; schools 
for girls, 15; numerous mission schools; institu- 
tions, 7; Catholics, 265,940. 

Caldani, Leopoldo Marco Antonio (1725-1813), 
anatomist and physiologist, b. Bologna; d. Padua. 
He is noted for his experimental studies on the 
function of the spinal cord and for the introduction 
of electricity in the physiology of the nerves. His 
most celebrated work is his anatomical atlas made 
in collaboration with his nephew. — C.E. 

Calderon de La Barca, Pedro (1600-81), dram- 
atist, b. Madrid; d. there. He attended the Uni- 
versity of Sala- 
manca, and after 
participating in the 
Spanish campaigns 
in Italy and the 
Netherlands, was 
given charge of the 
Buen Retiro theater 
in Madrid. In 1651 
he was ordained 
priest, and became 
superior of the Con- 
gregation of St. 
Peter, 1666. His 
dramatic labors 
mark the second 
half of the golden age of Spanish literature and are 
typical of the sentiments and ideas of 17th-century 
Spain. His autos sacramentales (sacred allegorical 
dramas on the Eucharist) are unsurpassed, and his 
religious fervor is exemplified in his comedias de- 
votas (sacred non-allegorical dramas) of which the 
most noteworthy is "The Purgatory of St. Patrick." 
His secular works are notable only by virtue of his 
lyricism; his extant publications embrace about 120 
dramas and 70-80 autos. — C.E. 

Caldron, emblem in art associated with St. John 
the Evangelist, because of the legend that, under 
Domitian, he was thrown into a caldron of boiling 
oil, but miraculously preserved. 

Calefactory (Lat., calefacere, to warm). (1) 
The heated room in an English monastery where 
the monks retired occasionally to warm themselves, 
especially after Matins. (2) A hollow globe of 
precious metal containing hot water, to warm the 
priest's fingers when administering Holy Com- 
munion in cold weather; a silver one, gilded and 
carved with leaves, and weighing 9^2 ounces, was 
in use at Lincoln Cathedral in 1281. 

Calendar, Christian, a liturgical cycle embrac- 
ing the seasons, feasts, weeks, and days of the 
entire year in uninterrupted continuity. The va- 




CALDERON DE LA BARCA 



CALENDAR 



156 



CALIFORNIA 



riable and oldest part centers about Easter. The 
custom of celebrating Easter on the Sunday after 
the full moon following the vernal equinox finally 
prevailed. Upon the date of Easter depends the 
entire period from Septuagesima Sunday to Easter 
including Lent and Passiontide. The date of Easter 
also determines the whole festal period after Easter, 
including the Ascension and closing with Pentecost, 
and its octave. Furthermore it determines the fol- 
lowing feasts that were introduced much later: Pa- 
tronage of St. Joseph, Trinity Sunday, Corpus 
Christi, and the Sacred Heart. Like Easter, Christ- 
mas exercised an important influence upon the 
Christian calendar; Epiphany, 6 Jan., originally 
commemorated Christ's Nativity. When the com- 
memoration was placed 25 Dec. (before 354), it 
determined the date of other feasts: Purification 
(2 Feb.); the Annunciation (25 March); and the 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist (24 June). The 
four Sundays before Christmas are counted in order 
as Sundays of Advent. To join Pentecost with Ad- 
vent, it was determined eventually to count the 
Sundays of this period as Sundays after Pentecost. 
Regarding the feasts of saints fixed to almost every 
day of the year, those of martyrs were first added 
to the calendar, later also those of non-martyrs. 
Ancient documents containing lists of feasts are 
divided into calendars and martyrologies. One of 
the most important is the so-called Philocalian Cal- 
endar, compiled by Furius Dionysius Philocalus 
(354). — C.E.; Gueranger, tr. Shepherd, The Liturgi- 
cal Year, Dub., 1883; Kellner, Heortology, St. L., 
1908. (d. B.) 

Calgary, Diocese of, Canada, comprises the 
southern part of the Province of Alberta, bounded 
N. by the line dividing the 30th and 31st townships, 
E. by the Province of Saskatchewan, s. by the U. S. 
border, and w. by the Province of British Colum- 
bia; established 1912; suffragan of Edmonton. 
Bishops: John Thomas McNally (1913-24); John 
Thomas Kidd (1925). Churches, 90; priests, secu- 
lar, 54; priests, regular, 9; religious women, 199; 
college, 1 ; academies, 3 ; high school, 1 ; primary 
schools, 23; pupils in primary schools, 2930; Indian 
schools, 3; institutions, 5; Catholics, 37,000. 

Calicut, Diocese of, India, comprises part of the 
District of Malabar; erected 1923; suffragan of 
Bombay; entrusted to the Jesuits; bishop, Paul 
Perini (1923). Churches and chapels, 17; priests, 
secular, 5; priests, regular, 17; religious women, 
54; high schools, 6; elementary schools, 13; in- 
stitutions, 9; Catholics, 8780. 

California, the 2nd state of the United States 
in size, the 8th in population, and the 31st to be 
admitted to the Union, 9 Sept., 1850, which date 
is still a legal holiday in California, under the name 
of "Admission Day"; area, 158,297 sq. m.; pop. 
(1920), 3,426,861; Catholics (1927), 765,761. In 
Spanish colonial times California included also the 
peninsula of Lower California; this never was a 
part of the United States, and now belongs to 
Mexico. As the earliest missionaries came by way 
of Mexico, they first evangelized Lower California, 
Fr. Juan Salvatierra, S.J., founding the mission 
of Loreto on San Dionisio Bay, 19 Oct., 1697, the 
first of a chain of 18 Jesuit missions in Lower 



California. The first mission within the limits of 
the present State of California was founded at San 
Diego, 16 July, 1769, by the Franciscan Fr. Juni- 
pero Serra, who also founded eight other missions. 
The Franciscans not only Christianized the Indians, 
but also civilized them and taught them useful 
trades; many non-Catholic writers, e.g., C. F. Lum- 
mis and A. Forbes, have praised the wisdom and 
humanity of the Franciscan system of treating the 
aborigines. Locations of the Missions (in the order 
of their foundation) : San Diego, 1769, 6 m. from 
present city; San Carlos de Monterey (or Car- 
melo), 1770, near Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey 
County; San Antonio de Padua, 1771, 6 m. from 
Jolon, Monterey County; San Gabriel, 1771, 10 m. 
E. of Los Angeles; San Francisco (or Dolores), 
1776, in present City of San Francisco, at Dolores 
and Sixteenth Streets; San Juan Capistrano, 1776, 
Orange County; Santa Clara, 1777, in present city; 
San Buenaventura, 1782, Ventura; Santa Barbara, 
1786, now restored, in present city; Purisima Con- 
cepcion, 1787, near Lompoc, Santa Barbara County; 
Santa Cruz, 1791, Santa Clara County; Soledad, 

1791, 4 m. from present city; San Luis Obispo, 

1792, now restored, in present city; San Jose, 1797, 
4 m. from Irvington, Alameda County; San Juan 
Bautista, 1797, 6 m. from Sargent, San Benito 
County; San Miguel, 1797, in present city; San 
Fernando, 1797, Los Angeles County; San Luis Bey, 
1798, now restored, near Oceanside, San Diego 
County; Santa Ines, 1804, now restored, Santa Bar- 
bara County; San Antonio de Pala, 1816, now re- 
stored, Pala, San Diego County; San Rafael, 1817, 
in present city; San Francisco Solano (or Sonoma), 
1823, in city of Sonoma. 

The early Spanish missionaries left their mark 
on Californian place-names; the cities and towns 
existing today called after male saints (i.e., names 
preceded by the word "San") number over 40, 
e.g., San Andreas, Anselmo, Ardo, Benito, Ber- 
nardino, Bruno, Carlos, Clemente, Diego, Dimas, 
Fernando, Francisco, Gabriel, Geronimo, Gregorio, 
Jacinto, Joaquin, Jose, Juan Bautista, Juan Capis- 
trano, Leandro, Lorenzo, Lucas, Luis Obispo, Luis 
Rey, Marcos, Marino, Martin, Mateo, Miguel, 
Onofre, Pablo, Pedro, Quentin, Rafael, Ramon, Sim- 
eon, Ysidro. Names of female saints (i.e., preceded 
by the word "Santa") occur in about twenty places, 
e.g., Santa Ana, Anita, Barbara, Clara, Margarita, 
Maria, Monica, Paula, Rosa, Susana, Ynez, Ysabel. 
There are also: Santa Cruz (Holy Cross), and 
Santa Fe (Holy Faith) ; the state capital is Sacra- 
mento ; the largest city, Los Angeles ( The Angels ) . 
Two of Our Lady's feasts are commemorated by 
Carmel and Concepcion; other names with a re- 
ligious significance are: Bethany, Camp Angelus, 
Cupertino, Guadalupe, Trinidad. Many of the above 
names, and several similar ones, occur also in Cali- 
fornia as names of counties, and of natural features 
such as islands, mountains, bays, rivers, etc. Cali- 
fornia is divided ecclesiastically into the Archdiocese 
of San Francisco (1853), and the dioceses of Los 
Angeles and San Diego (1850), Monterey-Fresno 
(1922), and Sacramento (1886). The U. S. Re- 
ligious Census of 1916 gave the following statistics 
for church membership in California; 



CALIFORNIA 



157 



CALUMNY 



Catholic Church 494,539 



84,642 
54,011 
39,570 
34,180 
32,211 
30,018 
12,176 
10,973 
8,178 
7,582 



85,286 



Methodist Episcopal Church 

Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A 

Northern Baptist Convention 

Congregational Churches 

Disciples of Christ 

Protestant Episcopal Church 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

Seventh-day Adventist 

Jewish Congregations 

Lutheran Synodical Conference 

All Other Denominations (including Christian 
Scientists, Spiritualists, and Theosophists ) . . 
Total Church Membership 893,366 

— C.E.; Shea. 

California Missions. Missionary work in Upper 
California was entrusted to the Franciscans, who 
had made several settlements in Lower California 
after the expulsion of the Jesuits (1767). Fr. 
Junipero Scrra, under the direction of the Spanish 
inspector-general, founded, 16 July, 1769, San 
Diego. This noted priest labored among the natives 
for fifteeen years, until his death in 1784, and 
founded eight other missions. These settlements 
increased rapidly and in 1823 there were 22, ex- 
tending from Sonoma in the north to San Diego in 
the south. At each mission were established a 
church, a residence for the 
priests, a military guard, and 
shops and workrooms for the 
Indians, who were taught all 
kinds of useful trades. The 
missionaries managed the spir- 
itual and temporal affairs, and 
endeavored to maintain them- 
selves independently of the 
government. From 1769 till 
1845, 146 Friars Minor, all 
priests, labored in California. 
The decline of these missions 
began in 1822, when California 
became part of Mexico. In 1834 
the Mexican government turned 
them over to hired commis- 
rho deprived the 





A CALIFORNIA MISSION 
. ,. (SAN CARLOS BORROMEO) 

sioners, who deprived the 

priests of their land, and enriched themselves with 
the possessions of the missions, which were utterly 
destroyed. Consequently the Indians, freed of the 
benevolent government of the friars, were 
scattered and many lapsed into barbarism. For 
enumeration and location of missions, see Cali- 
fornia. — C.E.; Engelhardt, The Missions and Mis- 
sionaries of California, 4 vols., San Francisco, 
1908-15. 

Calixtines. See Hussites. 

Calixtus. See Callisttjs. 

Callieres, Louis _, „ „ *, ,« 

3£tt pfcfcongntan (pintutlwftmpjtelfcifcfeonp 
ppes oCttto andt^tmmmomci5$D£(atirbutii)(e 
:cnpr£ntfo after ifctiyimt o£ tfjis ptrfet fctttctd^i^ 
imtotlan&twlpojnect/hfc^mtiotmtottrilmo^ 
neOtecin to tfp almoner*;* attfcm&jftfean&fefljat 
Jjaue tljem 300a ^pe . v 



Calligraphy (Gr., kalligraphia, beautiful hand- 
writing), the art of fine handwriting, the greatest 
masterpieces of which are found in MSS. of the 
Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The most beau- 
tiful of these, with letters more perfect and regu- 
lar than much of the machine-made type we have 
today, were mainly the work of monks. 

Callistus I, Saint, Pope (218-223), martyr, 
Roman of the "gens Domitia"; d. Rome. He was 
an archdeacon. As pope he regulated the marriage 
laws and granted communion to the adulterous 
after due penance had been undergone. Feast, R. 
Cal., 14 Oct.— C.E.; Butler. 

Callistus II (Guido, son of Count William of 
Burgundy), Pope (1119-24), b. Quin- 
gey, France; d. Rome. He was a Bene- 
dictine, Abp. of Vienne, and cardinal. 
As pope he disciplined the French 
clergy, decreed against investiture, 
simony, and concubinage of the clergy. 
The question of investiture between 
him and Henry V was settled by the arms of 
Concordat of Worms, 1122, and con- CALLISTUS n 
firmed by the First Lateran 
Council, 1123. He regained a 
portion of the diminished 
Patrimony of St. Peter, and 
beautified Rome. — C.E.; Mann. 
Callistus III (Alfonso de 
Boeja or Borgia). Pope (1455- 
58) ; b. Xativa, Spain, 1378; d. 
Rome. He was Bp. of Valencia, 
then cardinal. As pope he or- 
ganized Christian Europe 
against the Turks who were 
defeated at Belgrade, 1456. He 
revised the trial of St. Joan of 
Arc and had her innocence 
proclaimed. — C.E. ; Pastor. 

Callistus HI, antipope. See 
John, Abbot of Struma. 
Augustine (1672- 




Hector de (1646-1705), 
13th Governor of New 
France, b. Cherbourg, 
France. Appointed gov- 
ernor of Montreal 
1684, at the request of 
the Sulpicians, he aided 
Frontenac in saving 
New France from the 
Iroquois, and succeeded 
him as governor, 1698. 



CALLIGRAPHY FROM A CAXTON MS. 



Cal met, Dom 

1757), Benedictine exegete, b. near Com- 
mercy, France; d. Abbey of Senones, 
near Saint-Die. Ordained 1696, he 
taught philosophy and theology and 
exegesis. In his "Commentary on all the 
Books of the Old and New Testament," 
he confines himself to the literal inter- arms of 
pretation of the text. He also wrote a callistus hi 
history of the Old and New Testament and of the 
Jews, and compiled a biblical dictionary and a num- 
ber of historical works. 
—C.E. 

Calumny, (Lat., 
calvor, to use artifice, 
deception ) , any decep- 
tion of another, espe- 
cially in judicial mat- 
ters, commonly used to 
mean unjust damaging 
of another's character 
by imputing to him 
something of which he 



He is celebrated for the treaty with the Iroquois, I is not guilty. It is an act which varies in sinfulness 
drawn up at Montreal, 1701. — C.E. according to the gravity of the fault or crime im- 



CALUMNY 



158 



CAMALDOLESE ORDER 




CALVARY CROSS 



puted and the damage done. It calls for retraction 
and for reparation of the damage done, provided 
this had been foreseen. In canon law, the oath taken 
to attest that the litigation on both sides is in good 
faith is called juramentum calumnice (oath dis- 
claiming calumny) . — C.E. (ed. ) 
Calvary (Lat., calvaria, skull) or Golgotha 
(Aramaic, skull), the place where Jesus was cruci- 
fied (Luke, 23), so called on account of its resem- 
blance to a head or skull. The Mount of Calvary was 
near Jerusalem and was the place where criminals 
usually were executed. — C.E. (e. f. d. ) 
Calvert, George (1580-1632), 1st Lord Balti- 
more, statesman and colonizer, b. Kipling, York- 
shire, England; d. London. He held important diplo- 
matic posts under James I, was 
knighted, 1617, and appointed 
principal secretary of state, but 
resigned his secretaryship in 
1624 upon his conversion to the 
Catholic faith. In 1613 he was 
one of the committee sent to 
Ireland to examine into the 
grievances of the Catholics, and 
for his good offices he was, in 
1625, raised to the Irish peer- 
age as Baron Baltimore of Baltimore (Gael., Baile 
Tigh Mor, town of the big house), in County Cork. 
In 1627 he visited a plantation in Newfoundland, 
later the Province of Avalon, which he had pur- 
chased in 1620, and established a colony there. 
About 1628 he obtained land in northern Virginia 
(the present Maryland), but died before the charter 
was granted/ — C.E. ; Shea. 

• — Cecilius or Cecil, 2nd Lord Baltimore (1605- 
75 ) , proprietor of Maryland, eldest son of preceding. 
At his father's death he was granted the charter 
of Maryland, thus becoming the first proprietor, 
by virtue of which office he was empowered to 
make laws. This right he 
later abrogated in favor of 
the colonists, reserving only 
that of absolute veto. Oppo- 
sition at home prevented his 
accompanying the coloniz- 
ing expedition of 1633, and 
during his long rule he 
never visited the colony. 
Although his policy was al- 
ways that of religious tol- 
eration, he came into con- 
flict with the Jesuits over 
Indian grants of land to the 
latter and certain privileges 
claimed by them. In 1659 he founded in London a 
Maryland mint, from which was struck the Lord 
Baltimore penny. — C.E.; Shea. 

— Leonard (1607-47), founder of Maryland and 
first proprietary governor, brother of preceding, b. 
England; d. Maryland. He commanded the expedi- 
tion which established the settlement at St. Mary's, 
1634. The colonists were opposed by William Clai- 
borne of Virginia, the conflicting claims being set- 
tled in favor of Lord Baltimore. In 1643 the gov- 
ernor went to England and upon his return, 1644, 
found the colony torn by disturbances resulting from 



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CECIL CALVERT 




JOHN CALVIN 



the civil war in England. After two years of con- 
fusion, Calvert regained control. — C.E.; Shea. 

Calvin, John (1509-64), the first to give Prot- 
estantism a system of theology, b. Noyon, France; 
d. Geneva. He was never an ardent Catholic, though 
he became a cleric and by family influence obtained 
a benefice. He became cure of St. Martin de Marte- 
ville in 1527 and of 
Pont l'Eveque in 1529. 
In 1528 he was a law- 
student at Orleans, 
then went to Bourges 
(where in 1529 oc- 
curred his conversion) 
and in 1531 to Paris; 
he gave up his bene- 
fice at Noyon in 1534. 
Calvin published the 
"Institutes," 1536, in 
Latin; a French 
translation appeared, 
1541. It is an exposi- 
tion of his theological belief, including his doctrine 
of predestination, and was the first definite and 
systematic formulation of Protestantism. He next 
taught theology at Geneva, and gained influence 
there, his children's catechism appearing at this 
time. Exiled from Geneva in 1538, Calvin went to 
Strasbourg to preach. Returning to Geneva in 1541, 
he instituted an intolerant regime of discipline, 
administered despotically by the clergy. Castellio 
and Bolsec opposed his extreme views, and were 
banished. Servetus entered into controversy with 
Calvin, and published his "Restitutio" in 1553, 
whereupon he was imprisoned at Vienne, but es- 
caped and went to Geneva, where he was arrested 
and burnt at the stake for his doctrinal views. 
Gentile was also condemned for his Unitarianism, 
and beheaded. Calvin was untiring in preaching 
and controversy. He founded the University of 
Geneva, and made the city the Rome of Protestan- 
tism. — C.E. ; Belloc, How the Reformation Hap- 
pened, Lond., 1928. 

Calvinism, a system of religion, introduced by 
John Calvin, the French reformer, in opposition 
to Catholic teaching, the distinctive doctrines of 
which, in addition to his Presbyterian idea of the 
church, are as follows: Man, as a result of Adam's 
fall, has no freedom of will, but is an absolute 
slave of God; God has predestined each one of us, 
some to hell, and some to heaven from eternity, 
absolutely independently of our own efforts; the 
elect cannot be lost. Calvin's doctrines, which were 
based on the assumption that God, being Infinite, is 
alone a real agent, and creatures are solely His 
instruments, are set forth in his "Institutes." His 
followers split into two sects : the Supralapsarians 
(Lat., supra lapsum, before the fall) who together 
with Calvin regarded God's decree of reprobation 
as absolute, and unconditioned by the Fall; the 
Infralapsarians, or Sublapsarians (Lat., infra, or 
sub, after), regarded God's positive condemnation 
as consequent to and conditioned by the Fall. — C.E. 

Camaldolese Order, hermits and cenobites liv- 
ing under a modified form of the Rule of St. Ro- 
muald by whom they were founded at Camaldoli, 



CAMALDOLESE ORDER 



159 CAMBRIDGE SUMMER SCHOOL 



Italy, c. 1012. The object of the founder was to in- 
troduce into the West the eremitical life led by the 
Eastern monks and the Fathers of the Desert. For 
six centuries the order steadily increased as one 
community but in time it became divided into the 
five congregations of: the Holy Hermitage, San Mi- 
chele di Murano, Monte Corona, the Congregation of 
Turin, and Notre Dame de Consolation (France). 
There are at the present date (1929) three congrega- 
tions in the Camaldolese order: the Congregation of 
Cenobites, which possesses 3 abbeys, 2 priories, 4 
parishes, and 60 religious; the Congregation of 
Hermits of Etruria, comprising 7 residences and 65 
religious; and the Congregation of Hermits of 
Monte Corona, with 10 houses, 1 novitiate, and 130 
religious. — C.E. 

Camboue, Paul (1849-1929), Jesuit missionary 
and geologist, native of Pau, France. He served in 
the Franco-Prussian war, and was sent later to 
Madagascar to do missionary work. Here he made 
valuable investigations on the large Madagascar 
spiders and discovered the silk thread spun by them. 
He devised a portable contrivance on which to roll 
the webs of the spider, and the work of spinning 
and weaving was undertaken by the Ecole Pro- 
fessionelle at Tananarivo. 

Cambrai, League of, name given to league 
formed in 1508 between Pope Julius II, Louis XII 
of France, Ferdinand of Aragon, and Emperor 
Maximilian I, against Venice. Victory of Agnadello 
was gained by allies over Venetians in 1509. — 
Pastor. 

Cambrai, Peace of, the so-called Ladies' Peace, 
negotiated in 1529 by Louise of Savoy, mother of 
Francis I of France, and Margaret of Austria, aunt 
of Emperor Charles V. According to the terms Fran- 
cis renounced his claims upon Italy, Burgundy, and 
Artois and paid indemnity; Charles released the 
French princes and agreed not to press claims upon 
Burgundy at once. — Hayes, History of Modern 
Europe, N. Y., 1925. 

Cambridge, University of, England. The actual 
date of its foundation is unknown, but in the 13th cen- 
tury religious orders began settling at Cambridge and 
attracted numerous students, the Benedictines es- 
tablishing the first college, St. Peter's or Peterhouse, 
in 1284. The university was incorporated under 
Queen Elizabeth, 1571, and was an Anglican insti- 
tution until 1881, when all religious tests were 
abolished except for degrees in divinity. Thirteen 
of the existing colleges, which are listed below, are 
of Catholic foundation. 

Colleges. St. Catherine's, founded 1473 by Dr. 
Robert Woodlark (Wodelarke). Christ's, founded 
1505 by Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry 
VII, incorporating God's House, established by Wil- 
liam Bingham, 1439, and refounded by Henry VI, 
1448. Clare, known as University Hall, founded 
1326, endowed 1338 by Elizabeth de Burgh, Coun- 
tess of Clare, and noted for a strong ecclesiastical 
tendency. Corpus Christi (called Corpus), founded 
1352, by the guilds of Corpus Christi and of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, and known in early times as 
St. Benet's from the church connected with the 
Corpus guild, which served as the college chapel 
for nearly three centuries. It has a famous collec- 



tion of books confiscated from the dissolved mon- 
asteries. Downing, founded 1800, according to the 
will of Sir George Downing. Emmanuel, founded 
1584 on the site of a Dominican monastery, by Sir 
William Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer under 
Queen Elizabeth; for centuries a stronghold of 
Puritanism. Gonville and Caius known as Caius, 
pronounced Keys), founded 1348, as the "Hall of 
the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary" by 
Edmund Gonvil (Gonevill); refounded and en- 
larged by John Caius, 1557; the chief medical col- 
lege. Jesus, founded on the site of the Benedictine 
convent of St. Badigund, 1498, by John Alcock, Bp. 
of Ely, as the college of "the most Blessed Virgin 
Mary, St. John the Evangelist, and the glorious 
virgin St. Badigund"; Bl. John Fisher (q.v.) 
was an alumnus. King's, founded 1441, by Henry 
VI, in connection with Eton. Magdalene (pronounced 
Maudlin), founded 1519, by the Benedictines. Pem- 
broke, founded 1347, by Mary de St. Paul, Countess 
of Pembroke, endowed by Henry VI; a noted nur- 
sery of Anglican bishops. Peterhouse or St. Peter's, 
founded 1284, by Hugh de Balsham, prior of the 
Benedictine monastery of Ely, and Bp. of Ely; 
modelled on Merton College, Oxford; the scholars 
were housed in St. John's Hospital. St. John's, 
founded 1511, by Lady Margaret Beaufort to replace 
the Hospital of St. John (13th century), and whose 
designs were carried out by her executor, Bl. 
John Fisher. Queen's, founded 1448, by Margaret of 
Anjou, wife of Henry VI, and endowed 1465 by 
Elizabeth Woodville, consort of Edward IV; Eras- 
mus was an alumnus. Selwyn, a public hostel, 
founded 1882, in memory of George Augustus Sel- 
wyn, Anglican bishop of New Zealand and Lich- 
field; restricted to members of the Church of Eng- 
land. Sidney Sussex, founded 1595, by Lady Frances 
Sidney, Countess of Sussex, on the site of a Fran- 
ciscan monastery. Trinity, founded 1546, by Henry 
VIII, absorbed several earlier institutions includ- 
ing King's Hall (1336), St. Michael's or Michael- 
house (1323), and Fyswick or Physick's Hostel, be- 
longing to Gonville Hall; the largest college in any 
English university and the principal legal college 
of Cambridge. Trinity Hall, founded 1350, by Sir 
William Bateman, Bp. of Norwich, on the site 
of the former school of the monastic students from 
Ely. 

Catholic Houses. St. Edmund's, institution for 
students preparing for the secular priesthood, oc- 
cupying a house purchased for them by the Duke 
of Norfolk. St. Benet's, founded 1896, by the Bene- 
dictine community of Downside, as a small house of 
studies for their members. — C.E. 

Cambridge Summer School of Catholic Stu= 
dies, The, Cambridge, England, a development, 
with papal approval, of the Catholic Bible Con- 
gress held at Cambridge in 1921, but with a wider 
scope so as to comprehend the explanation of the 
truths of the Faith by competent lecturers from the 
secular and regular clergy. The papers read and 
discussed are subsequently published in book form 
under the editorship of the Rev. C. Lattey, S.J. 
The character of the work accomplished by the 
Cambridge Summer School may be estimated from 
the following volumes already published: "The Re- 



CAMBRIDGE SUMMER SCHOOL 160 



CAMORRA 



ligion of the Scriptures," 1921; "Catholic Faith in 
the Holy Eucharist," 1922; "The Papacy," 1923; 
u St. Thomas Aquinas," 1924; "The Incarnation," 
1925; "The Atonement," 1926; "The Church," 1927; 
and "The English Martyrs" (edited by Rev. Dom 
Bede Camm, O.S.B.) , 1928. It has been well said that 
every volume contains contributions from scholars 
"who in every instance represent the best Catholic 
culture in English science and letters." (e. V. W. ) 

Camel (Kamel), George Joseph (1661-1706), 
botanist, b. Briinn, Moravia; d. Manila. He entered 
the Society of Jesus as a lay brother, 1682, and in 
1688, was sent to the Philippines as a missionary. 
He made valuable investigations of the plants and 
natural history of the islands which were published 
in the "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal So- 
ciety," and wrote an extensive work on "Medicinal 
Plants of the Philippines." A genus of evergreen 
shrubs is named in his honor Camellia. — C.E. 

Camerlengo (It., chamberlain), title borne at 
Rome by three ecclesiastics : ( 1 ) The Camerlengo of 
the Holy Roman Church administers the property 
and revenue of the Holy See, verifies the death of 
the pope, directs the preparations for the conclave, 
and manages the same. (2) The Camerlengo of the 
Sacred College administers all fees and revenues 
belonging to the College of Cardinals, pontificates 
at the requiem Mass for a deceased cardinal, and is 
charged with the registry of the Consistorial Acts. 
(3) The Camerlengo of the Roman Clergy is elected 
by the canons and parish priests of Rome. He pre- 
sides over the ecclesiastical conferences of the paro- 
chial clergy and acts as arbiter in all questions of 
precedence. — C.E. 

Cameron ians, group of Scotch Covenanters 
under the leadership of Richard Cameron who 
separated from the Scotch Presbyterian Church. 
Cameronian Societies were organized c. 1681 to 
maintain the Presbyterian form of worship. Wishing 
to restore the ecclesiastical order which had existed 
between 1639 and 1649, they strictly upheld the 
National Covenant of 1580 and the Solemn League 
and Covenant of 1643, being dissatisfied with the 
moderate character of the religious settlement of 
1690. Some of the congregations seceded in 1863 
when the Cameronians decided not to inflict any 
penalties upon members who had taken oaths or 
practised civil functions. Three years later the 
Cameronians united with the Free Church of Scot- 
land. 

Camillians. See Fathers of a Good Death. 

Camillus de Lellis, Saint, confessor (1550- 
1614), b. Bacchianico, Italy; d. Rome. While still 
a youth he became a soldier in the service of Venice 
and later of Naples, remaining there until 1574, and 
becoming a confirmed gambler. He went to Rome 
and was employed in the hospital for incurables, 
of which he later was made director. After the fail- 
ure of his plan to found an order of lay infirma- 
rians, he decided to become a priest, and was or- 
dained in 1584. He established his order, the Fathers 
of a Good Death (q.v.), for the care of the sick. 
Throughout his life Camillus suffered from ab- 
scesses on his feet, but in spite of this infirmity 
he was active in organizing his order. The gift of 
miracles and prophecy has been attributed to him. 



Patron of hospitals and the sick. Represented as- 
sisted by angels, and before a crucifix, from which 
the Saviour descends to embrace him. Relics in 
Church of St. Mary Magdalen, Rome. Feast, R. Cal., 
18 July.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Camisards, kam'i-zardz (probably from Fr., 
camise, a black blouse worn as a uniform), a sect 
of French Protestant fanatics influenced by the 
literature and preaching of the French Calvinists, 
who originated after the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes (1685), and existed in the beginning of the 
18th century. In defense of their civil and religious 
liberties they started an insurrection in the Ce- 
vennes, and much suffering and persecution fol- 
lowed. By 1729 no traces of the Camisards could 
be found in the French Court, and although they 
fled to England they were soon wiped out. A band 
of Catholics known as the Cadets of the Cross or 
White Camisards, organized to check the black 
Camisards, eventually fell into the same atrocities 
and were disowned by Montrevel. — C.E. 

Camisia (L.L., shirt), name for the alb, from 
its shirt-like appearance. Also the name given to 
the shrine in which the Book of Gospels used at 
High Mass was anciently preserved; it was fre- 
quently made of gold and richly jewelled. 

Camoens, kam-o'ens or Camoes, ka-moinsh', 
Luis Vaz de (c. 1524-80), poet and dramatist, b. 
probably Lisbon. He was educated at the University 
of Coimbra. After a varied career spent mostly in 
exile, he returned to Lisbon, 1570, where he published 
his epic poem "The Lusiads," dedicating it to the 
king, for which he received a small pension. The cen- 
tral point of his work is the voyage and discovery of 
his kinsman, Vasco da Gama. He is the outstanding 
figure of Portuguese literature, a master of poetic 
style and diction and is remarkable for his lyrics, 
but less noteworthy for his dramas. — C.E. 

Camorra, a Neapolitan secret society with ex- 
tortion as its aim, founded originally as a fraternal 
organization among convicts, c. 1820. It first came 
into prominence as a criminal association under the 
Bourbons, c. 1830. A highly organized body, its 
membership embraced all ranks of society, and by 
1848 it had assumed considerable proportions as a 
corrupt political organization. It controlled the 
municipal government of Naples until conditions 
became so notorious that the Italian government 
was compelled to make an investigation in 1900. 
As a result the Honest Government League, which 
was instrumental in overthrowing the Carnorra as 
a political machine, was formed. The society then 
reverted to its former status and gained extraordi- 
nary power. It extended its field of activity to the 
United States, particularly to New York City, 
where the Calabrian Camorra operated widely in 
conjunction with the Black Hand Society. For the 
most part its crimes were confined to members of 
the Italian race who were too terrorized to complain 
to American authorities, but the notoriety attendant 
upon several kidnapping and murder cases in New 
York, 1911-12, brought about its suppression by the 
government. No trace of the historic Camorra re- 
mains, although the name still exists in Italian 
prisons where the older criminals exact fees known 
as camorra from the newcomers. — C.E. 



140 A 130 i3,o C no ° too t. 90 




CAN 






CANADA 




Vicariates Apostolic 




Cc 




Gulf of St. Lawrence: 


Calgary 


Ccd 




res. Havre- St.-Pierre 


Halifax 
AntigonisTl 
Chariot let own 
Chatham 
St. John 


Hi 
Hd 
Hd 

Hd 

Hd 




Hcd 
Grouard Cc 
Keewatin: res. Le Pas 

DEc 
Mackenzie: res. Fort 
Smith Cb 


Kingston 


Gd 




Ontario Upper: res. 


Alexandria 


Gd 




Hearst Fed 


Peterborough 


Gd 






Sault-Ste.- Marie 


Fd 




Rupert: res. Prince 


Montreal 


Gd 




Rupert ABc 


Joliette 


Gd 


Prefectures Apostolic 


St. Hyacinthe 

Slicrbrnohe 


Cd 




Hudson Bay : res. 


Gd 




Chesterfield Inlet Eb 


Valley field 


Gd 




Islands of St. Pierre 


Ottawa 


Cd 




and Miquclon: res. 


Hailcybury 


FGd 




St. Pierre Id 


Mt. Laurier 


Gd 


VIII. 


St. Boniface Ecd 


Tem broke 


Gd 




Keewatin Ecd 


Quebec 

Chiccmtiml 


GHd 


IX. 


Toronto FGd 


CHd 




Hamilton FGd 


Gasp6 


Hd 




London FGd 


Nicolet 
Rimouski 
Three Rivers 


Gd 

Gtfd 

Gd 


X. 


Vancouver Bd 
Victoria Bd 
Yukon ABc 


Regina 

Prince Albert and 


Dcd 
Dc 


XI. 
XII. 


Winnipeg Ecd 
Newfoundland Id 
St. John's Id 
Harbour Grace Id 
St. George Id 


St. Peter of Munster 




(abbey) 


Dc 






ADA 




CH 



fr izo H >2$- 1 >3Q U 13r M ifto N 1*5- O 170 




Kiangsu 


GFfd- 


Haimen 


Kd" 


Nanking 


Git 


Kwangst 


EF{ 


Kanning 


EC 


Kwangtung 


FG( 


Canton 


FT 


Hongkong 


Fl 


Pakhoi 


Ef 


Shiukow 


Fcf 


Swatow 


C( 


Kweichow 


Ee 


Ktotiytng 


Ee 


Langlong 


Eel 


Shansi 


Fc 


1' enyang 


Fc 


Luanfu 


Fc 


Taiyuanfu 


Fc 


Shangtung 


GHc 


Chef 00 


He 


Tsinanfti 


Gc 


Ycnchowlu 


Gcd 


Shensi 


Eds 


Manchungfu 


Ed 


Sianiu 


Ecd 


Yenanfu 


EFt 


Szechwan 


, I- le 


Chcngtu 




Chungking 


Ede 


\ingyuanfu 


De 


Sulfa 


DEde 


Tatstcel 1 


Dde 


Yunnan 


Def 


Yunnan Cu 


Def 


Manchuria 


.Hab 


Kirin 


lb 


Mukden 


Hb 


Mongolia 


C-H ac 


jehol 


Gb 


Ningsh,i 




Siwantze 


FGb 


Suiyuan 


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>3o 



«3S 



[NA 



CAMPANILE 



161 



CANADA 




CAMPANILE 



Campanile, kam-pa-ne'la (L.L., campana, bell), 
the form of bell tower which was developed by 
Lombard architects and has prevailed in Italy; 
usually a tall slender tower, more or less detached 
from the church, without buttresses 
and crowned with a turret contain- 
ing the belfry chamber. The town 
hall of Siena is an example of civic 
building with campanile. The same 
general proportions were preserved 
at the Renaissance. Celebrated cam- 
paniles are found in Cremona, Flor- 
ence, Pisa, and Venice. — C.E., Vol. 
II, p. 394. 

Campbell, James (1812-93), 
lawyer, b. Philadelphia; d. there. 
Nominated for judge of the supreme 
court, he was defeated by anti- 
Catholic prejudice, but became at- 
torney-general of Pennsylvania, and 
postmaster-general in Pierce's cabi- 
net, 1853. He was a member of the 
board of city trusts, Philadelphia, 
president of the board of trustees 
of Jefferson Medical School for 25 
years, and for 45 years vice-presi- 
dent of St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum.— C.E., XVI, 16. 
Campbell, Thomas (1848-1925), writer, b. New 
York; d. Monroe, N. Y. Educated at St. Francis 
Xavier's College, N. Y., he entered the Jesuit novi- 
tiate near Montreal, 1867, and after teaching at 
various colleges of the order, studied theology at 
Louvain, 1878-82, where he was ordained. He was 
provincial of the Maryland-New York Province, 1888- 
93, twice rector of Fordham University, 1885-88 and 
1896-1901, associate editor of "The Messenger of the 
Sacred Heart," 1901-08, and editor of "America," 
1910-14. He was the author of "Pioneer Priests of 
North America," "Names of God," a translation from 
Lessius, "Pioneer Laymen of North America," 
"Various Discourses," a collection of sermons, and 
the important historical work, "The Jesuits." 
Campbellites. See Disciples of Christ. 
Campeggio, kam-pej'6, Lorenzo (c. 1472-1539), 
cardinal, canonist, ecclesiastical diplomat, and re- 
former, b. Bologna; d. Rome. After the death of his 
wife, 1509, he entered the ecclesiastical state and 
was appointed Bp. of Feltre, 1512, and auditor of 
the Rota. He was nominated cardinal, 1517, while in 
Germany on a diplomatic mission to Maximilian I; 
the following year he was sent on a similar embassy 
to Henry VIII of England, sharing his legatine 
powers with Card. Wolsey. Under Pope Adrian VI 
he instigated the reform of the Curia. Clement VII 
appointed him to the See of Bologna and sent him 
as cardinal legate to Germany, but he was unsuc- 
cessful in checking the spread of Lutheranism. In 
1528 he was sent to England to form jointly with 
Wolsey a court to try the divorce suit of Henry 
VIII. He endeavored to bring about the reconcili- 
ation of Henry and Catherine, and postponed a 
final decision, the case being reserved to the Holy 
See. He subsequently accompanied Charles V to the 
Diet of Augsburg as legate. He was appointed to 
the See of Praeneste by Paul III, and was sent to 
Vicenza for the opening of the Council of Trent. — C.E. 



Can. = canonicus (a canon). 

Cana, ka/na, city of Galilee, Palestine, near 
Nazareth, the scene of Our Lord's first miracle 
(John, 2) and His cure of the ruler's son (John, 4) 
and the birthplace of Nathaniel or St. Bartholo- 
mew (John, 21). The miracle of the marriage feast 
of Cana which has made the city forever famous, 
when Christ turned water into wine, was performed 
before His public life had fully begun, and is one 
of the best-authenticated of Our Lord's miracles. 
His attendance at the marriage feast has always 
been taken as setting His seal on the sanctity of 
marriage. — C.E. 

Canada, self-governing dominion of the British 
Empire in North America; area, 3,684,723 sq. m.; 
est. pop., 9,519,220. Missionary work in Canada was 
introduced by Franciscan Recollects in 1615 and 
continued by Jesuits and Sulpicians. When English 
rule was established in 1629 all the missionaries 
withdrew to France but returned in 1632 when Can- 
ada was restored to France. Missions were started 
at Trois Rivieres (Three Rivers) and Miscou; the 
College of Quebec was opened in 1635, and Gaspe, 
Acadia, and Cape Breton were evangelized. Among 
the saints and martyrs of the country, the most 
famous are the five Jesuit missionaries whose heroic 
lives and stirring martyrdoms warranted their bea- 
tification in 1925. They are Blessed John de Bre- 
beuf, Gabriel Lalemant, Anthony Daniel, Charles 
Gamier, and Noel Chabanel. The first Ursulines 
and a band of nursing sisters settled in Quebec 
about 1639, and in 1653 Marguerite Bourgeoys 
founded the Congregation of Notre Dame at Mont- 
real. In 1659 Mgr. de Laval was appointed Vicar 
Apostolic of New France and became first Bp. of 
Quebec in 1674. The Jesuit Fr. Allouez travelled as 
far as Lake Superior in 1667 and there organized 
two missions. At Sault Sainte Marie the cross was 
planted by Frs. Dablon and Marquette, the western 
shores of Lake Huron were evangelized by the Jes- 
uits, and Fr. d'Albanel penetrated to Hudson Bay. 
The Iroquois missions south of Lake Ontario were 
reorganized by the Jesuits, who built the perma- 
nent mission of "La Prairie de la Madeleine," the 
home of Catherine Tekakwitha for many years. It 
was from Canada that Louis Joliet and Fr. Mar- 
quette set out on the trip which resulted in the 
discovery of the Mississippi River. By the Treaty of 
Paris, 1763, Canada was ceded to England. For a 
time under the new rulers, Catholic interests were 
menaced and ecclesiastical property was confiscated, 
but by the Quebec Act of 1774 and the Constitu- 
tional Act of 1791, the religious orders were con- 
firmed in the possession of their estates, freedom 
of worship was granted to Catholics, and the col- 
lection of the customary tithes was permitted to the 
clergy. In 1819 Joseph Octave Plessis became the 
first Canadian archbishop. The union of Upper and 
Lower Canada, accomplished in 1840, marked a for- 
ward step in the growth of the Church. The shrine 
of St. Anne de Beaupre (q.v. ) is a famous place of 
pilgrimage. Since 1899 Canada has had an Apostolic 
delegate who resides in Ottawa. 

Canada included in 1929 the following ecclesi- 
astical divisions: archdioceses of Edmonton, Hali- 
fax, Kingston, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec, Regina, 



CANADA 



162 



CANISIUS COLLEGE 



Saint Boniface, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg; dio- 
ceses of Alexandria, Antigonish, Calgary, Charlotte- 
town, Chatham, Chicoutimi, Gaspe, Haileybury, 
Hamilton, Joliette, London, Mont-Laurier, Nicolet, 
Pembroke, Peterborough, Prince Albert and Saska- 
toon, Rimouski, Saint Hyacinth, Saint John, Sault 
Sainte Marie, Sherbrooke, Trois Rivieres, Ukrainian 
Greek Catholic, Valleyfield, Victoria; Abbey nullius 
of Muenster; Vicariates Apostolic of Grouard, Kee- 
watin, Mackenzie, Northern Ontario, Saint Law- 
rence, Yukon and Prince Rupert; and Prefecture- 
Apostolic of Hudson Bay (qq.v.). Statistics: 3370 
churches, 4587 secular priests, 1648 regular priests, 
79 colleges and universities, 17 seminaries, 320 
high schools, 4270 primary schools, 326 charitable 
institutions, and 3,632,646 Catholics. — C.E. 

Cancer de Barbastro, Luis, Dominican martyr 
(1549), b. Saragossa, Aragon, Spain; d. Tampa 
Bay, Fla. In 1514 he came to America at the head 
of a band of Dominican missionaries and settled 
among the Indians of Vera Paz, Central America. 
He composed many religious hymns in the Zapote 
language. Returning to Spain, he obtained a vessel 
to accomplish his mission in Florida. When he ar- 
rived at the Bay of Tampa, Fr. Cancer went ashore 
and was killed by savages. — C.E. 

Candelabrum, name applied in early Christian 
times to a hanging chandelier for lamps, e.g., that 
presented by Constantine to the Lateran, Rome. 
Sometimes these chandeliers stood 
before the altar. In the Middle Ages 
the term was used to denote seven- 
branch candlesticks, e.g., the Candel- 
abrum of Reims and the "Virgin's 
Tree" of Milan, made in imitation of 
the candlestick of the Jewish Temple. 
Candle, Blessed, an important sac- 
ramental of the Church, used in all 
the services of her liturgy. It must 
be of yellow or unbleached beeswax, 
or more than 50 per cent thereof; 
bleached wax or other material is not 
permitted unless the proper kind is 
unobtainable. The use of lights in 
worship is older than the Church. 
Among the furnishings of the taber- 
candelabrum nacle of Moses and the Jewish Temple 
of bernward there wag ft seven _ branched candle- 
stick; and among pagans the use of lights in serv- 
ices and processions was common. In the Christian 
Church they were first employed to dispel darkness 
when the faithful met before dawn or in the gloom 
of the catacombs; but their beautiful symbolic 
meaning was soon recognized, and the custom of 
blessing them for Church services and private use 
is traceable back to an early period. Light is pure, 
penetrates darkness, fosters life, moves with in- 
credible velocity, and illumines all around it. There- 
fore it is an emblem of God, the All-Pure, the Giver 
of life and enlightenment. It represents Our Saviour, 
"the Light of the World." Wax is spotless, and 
typifies Christ's spotless Body. The wick enclosed 
in the wax is an image of His Soul. The candle- 
flame is a figure of the Divine Nature united to the 
human in one Divine Person. Candles are blessed 
solemnly, 2 Feb., the feast of the Purification of the 




Grains 

-of In- 

jy # . cense 



PASCHAL 
CANDLE 




Blessed Virgin. In pagan times this 
was a festival-day, with processions 
and lights in honor of the gods. The 
Church chose it for the blessing of 
candles because on that day Mary 
made an offering in the Temple, and 
because the prophet Simeon foretold 
that her Son would be "a light to the 
revelation of the Gentiles." This day 
is often called Candlemas Day, i.e., the 
Mass of the Candles. The blessing may 
be imparted, when desired, on other 
days. Candles are used at the admin- 
istration of all the sacraments that 
are given publicly; at Mass, in varying numbers; 
at other Church services; and on many other occa- 
sions. — C.E. ; Sullivan, Externals of the Catholic 
Church, N. Y., 1917. (j.f. s.) 

Candle-light Hymn (Phos hilaron), cele- 
brated hymn, sung every day at the end of Vespers. 
Candlemas. See Purification. 
Candlestick, a symbol of the Holy 
Eucharist; often depicted with a Host 
above it. Rubrical law prescribes that 
six great candlesticks be permanently 
stationed on the main altar, three on 
either side of the central crucifix. This 
custom dates from the 16th century, 
though there is evidence of candlesticks 
in use as early as the 5th century. An 
altar candlestick consists of five parts, 
the foot, stem, knob about the middle of 
the stem, bowl to receive the drippings of 
wax, and the pricket, i.e., the sharp point that ter- 
minates the stem on which the candle is fixed.— C.E. 

(j.f. s.) 
Candlestick, Apocaxyptic. St. John is shown 
(Apoc, 1) seven golden candlesticks, and in the 
midst of them one like to the Son of man, holding in 
His right hand seven stars. 
The candlesticks are the 
seven churches of Asia; the 
stars, the angels of those 
churches. 

Canice (Kenny) , Saint, 
confessor (c. 515-600), b. 
Glengiven, in the present 
County Kerry, Ireland; d. 
Aghaboe. He studied under 
St. Finian at Clonard, 543, 
and at Glasnevin under St. 
Mobbi, 544. In 545 he was 
ordained priest in the Mon- 
astery of Llancarvan. Gla- 
morganshire, and went to 
Rome for the papal blessing. 
In 550 he was again at Glen- 
given and in 565 went to 
Scotland where he built cells, an oratory and a 
monastery, and is known as St. Kenneth. His Irish 
foundations were Drumachose, Kilkenny West, and 
the great Abbey of Aghaboe. He wrote a commen- 
tary on the Gospel, known as Glas-Chainingh, Pa- 
tron of Kilkenny. Feast, 11 Oct.— C.E. ; Butler. 

Canisius College, Buffalo, N. Y., founded 1870; 
conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; col- 




CANDLE STICK 
(GERMANY) 



CANISIUS COLLEGE 



163 



CANON LAW 



lege of arts and sciences; teachers' courses; sum- 
mer school ; professors, 47 ; students, 959 ; degrees 
conferred in 1929, 159. 

Cannon=balI and Swords, emblems in Chris- 
tian art associated with Sts. Jean de Matha, Vin- 
cent de Paul, and Felix of Valois, for their charity 
in the ransom of prisoners of war. 

Cano, Melciiior (1509-60), Dominican theolo- 
gian, b. Tarancon, Spain; d. Toledo. Educated at 
Salamanca and the College of St. Gregory, Valla- 
dolid, he taught philosophy and theology, obtaining 
the first chair of theology at Alcala, and succeeding 
his former master, Francis de Victoria, at Sala- 
manca, 1546. He rendered important service in the 
deliberations and achievements of the Council of 
Trent. In 1552 Charles V presented him for the 
bishopric of the Canary Islands, but he resigned 
soon after preconization. He was rector of St. Gre- 
gory's College at Valladolid, 1553, and prior of St. 
Stephen's at Salamanca, 1557. His election as pro- 
vincial of his order was contested, but finally con- 
firmed by Pius IV. His great work "De locis theolo- 
gicis," ranking with the best productions of the Ren- 
aissance, is a treatise on theological method, the 
outcome of a movement to restore the best patristic 
learning and to give to theological science a purer 
diction and an improved literary form. — C.E. 

Canon (Gr., kanon, rule), a practical law or 
rule of guidance; a standard, or criterion; a cata- 
log or list of such rules. In art, an established 
rule. In biblical usage, the official catalog of 
inspired writings known as the Old and New Testa- 
ment (see Canon of the Holy Scriptures). In 
ecclesiastical usage, a short dogmatic definition, 
with an anathema attached, made by a general 
council; a rule of the Church (see Canon Law; 
Canon Law, New Code of) ; the fundamental part 
of the Mass, coming after the Offertory (see Canon 
of the Mass) ; the rules of religious orders and 
the books comprising these rules; the catalog of 
canonized saints; certain ecclesiastical persons 
(see Canons, Chapters of; Canon Penitentiary; 
Canons and Canonesses Regular; Canons Reg- 
ular of St. Augustine; Canons Regular of the 
Immaculate Conception; Canons Regular of the 
Lateran). In music, a composition consisting of 
the imitation or repetition of the same melody by 
one or more voices in turn, in such a manner as to 
produce harmony. In printing, a size of type al- 
most equal to four-line pica; 48-point type; it 
is said to be so called because it was used for print- 
ing the Canon of the Mass and church books. 

Canoness, the title first given in the 8th century 
to a member of a community of women professing 
the common life yet not fully observing the Rule 
of St. Augustine. The term corresponds to that of 
canon, the origin and rules being common to both. 
Among the canonesses, differences in the observance 
of the rule gave rise to a distinction between regu- 
lar and secular canonesses. — C.E. 

Canonesses Regular of the Holy Sepulcher, 
an ancient order connected by tradition with St. 
James the Less and the first establishment of holy 
women in Jerusalem. St. Helena is said to have been 
a member. The earliest date on record, however, is 
that of the foundation of the Saragossa monastery, I 



1276. Their first definite appearance dates from 
the establishment of Kinroy in Lower Germany, in 
1480, followed by that of Liege, Belgium, in 1496. 
A great revival in the West, begun with the foun- 
dation at Charleville, France, in 1622, gave rise 
to the English community, in 1642. The Canonesses 
took possession of their present historic home, New 
Hall, at Chelmsford, England, in 1799, having been 
driven from France by the Revolution. The Order 
follows the Rule of St. Augustine and, although 
contemplative, admits of educational work and the 
conducting of retreats. The Order has, approxi- 
mately, 20 houses, including schools, in England, 
Holland, Spain, Germany, Belgium, and Africa. 
There is no general mother-house of the order, each 
country having its own administration. The total 
number of religious probably exceeds 300. 

Canonical Life, a rule of life drawn up in an- 
cient times for canons and other clergy, especially 
cathedral assistants, living in community life, and 
so intermediate between the monastic and the ordi- 
nary secular clergy. Later many of these commu- 
nities became canons regular following the Rule of 
St. Augustine, who introduced this community life 
into his episcopal household. 

Canonicals, the vestments or ecclesiastical gar- 
ments ordered by church law to be worn by the 
clergy while officiating. 

Canonist, an authority on ecclesiastical law. 
Canonization (M.L., canonizare, to canonize), 
declaration of the Sovereign Pontiff that the faith- 
ful should venerate as a Saint one who had already 
been beatified. Beatification permits veneration of 
the Blessed one in certain places or communities: 
canonization commands it everywhere. The decree is 
issued only after the Congregation of Rites has ac- 
cepted proof of two miracles through the interces- 
sion of the Blessed who had been formally beatified, 
occurring after the beatification and of three mira- 
cles for one whose beatification had taken place 
without the ordinary process. The Saint is now en- 
titled to the full honors of the altar, though the 
Mass and Office may not be extended to the entire 
Church. The canonization is solemnly celebrated in 
St. Peter's and a solemn novena or triduum is made 
in another church of the city chosen for this pur- 
pose; this same nine or three days service may be 
also held elsewhere within a given time following 
the canonization. — C.E., II, 364. (ed.) 

Canon Law, the statutes and regulations en- 
acted by the highest church authorities for the gov- 
ernment of ecclesiastical affairs. — C.E., IX, 56. 

Canon Law, New Code of, the authentic com- 
pilation of the disciplinary laws of the Catholic 
Church which was officially promulgated by Pope 
Benedict XV, 27 May, 1917, and became binding 
throughout the Western Church 19 May, 1918. 
The Church has from Christ the power to legislate. 
She has exercised this in the course of centuries 
according to the varying conditions of society. In 
the 13th century especially canon law became the 
object of scientific study and different compilations 
were made by the Roman pontiffs. The most im- 
portant of these were the Five Books of the De- 
cretals of Gregory IX and the Sixth of Boniface 
VIII. Legislation grew with time. Some of it became 



CANON LAW 



164 



CANON OF THE MASS 



obsolete and contradictions crept in so that it be- 
came difficult in recent times to discover what 
was of obligation and where to find the law on a 
particular question. When the Vatican Council met 
in 1869 a number of bishops of different countries 
petitioned for a new compilation of church law 
that would be clear and easily studied. The coun- 
cil never finished its work and no attempt was 
made to bring the legislation up to date. Finally, 
Pope Pius X in his Letter, 19 March, 1904, an- 
nounced his intention of revising the unwieldy 
mass of past legislation and appointed a commis- 
sion of cardinals and learned consultors to under- 
take this difficult work. The Catholic universities 
of the world and the bishops of all countries were 
asked to cooperate. The scholars began the work 
and a copy of the first draft was sent to the bishops 
for suggestions. In 1916 the New Code was com- 
pleted and on Pentecost Sunday, 1917, officially 
promulgated. In order however to grant sufficient 
time for the study of the New Code the pope 
allowed a respite of a year. On Pentecost Sunday, 
19 May, 1918, it became operative. 

The New Code is divided into five books. The 
first treats of general rules; the second of ecclesi- 
astical persons; the third of sacred things such as 
sacramentals, altars, etc.; the fourth of canonical 
trials; and the last of crimes and punishments. 
The whole work contains 2414 canons. For the most 
part past legislation has been retained; in some 
cases the law modified, and in others entirely new. 
As the Code is not always easy of interpretation, 
Pope Benedict XV, in 1917, established a special 
commission with authority to interpret it. This 
body alone can give the authentic interpretation. 
The Code is universal in binding power in the 
Latin Church; it is authentic and the only source 
of universal legislation. It clears up many disputed 
points and has in view order, peace, and sanctity 
of life. — C.E. Suppl.; P.C. Augustine; Woywod; 
Ayrinhac. (p. j. l. ) 

Canon of the Holy Scriptures, the official 
catalog of inspired writings, known as the Old 
and New Testament. Before the close of the 4th 
century there was much uncertainty concerning this 
list of Divinely-inspired books, due to conflicting 
Jewish and Christian traditions. For the O.T. the 
Jews distinguished the books contained in the 
Hebrew Bible (see Protocanonical ) from the addi- 
tional writings (see Deuterocanonical) preserved 
by the Jews of Alexandria in their venerated Greek 
version, the Septuagint. Early Christian writers 
bear witness to a widespread influence of this dis- 
tinction within the Church, until official decrees 
established uniformity regarding the extent of the 
canon. The formation of the N.T. canon also shows 
a gradual development. The earliest collections of 
the Apostolic writings were made for the purpose 
of public reading in the churches (Col., 4). How- 
ever, since other edifying books were also so used 
by the first Christians, the special Divine character 
of some of the inspired writings was lost sight of 
in the approved reading-lists. Thus the Muratorian 
Canon (c. a.d. 170) mentions all the N.T. books, 
except Hebrews, James, and probably 1 and 2 Peter, 
but also includes, with reservations, the apocryphal 



Apocalypse of Peter and the Shepherd of Hernias. 
Forgeries of heretics under the imputed authorship 
of one or the other of the Apostles, as well as 
erroneous interpolations into the sacred text, made 
the faithful suspicious and, as a result, doubt was 
for some time cast upon the following books and 
passages: Hebrews; James; Jude; 2 Peter; 2 and 
3 John; Apocalypse; Mark, 16, 9-20; Luke, 22, 
43-44; and John, 7, 53, to 8, 11. The oldest extant 
catalog which includes all the canonical books is 
that of St. Athanasius (39th Festival Letter in 
367). 

The first official decision concerning the canon of 
the Holy Scriptures was given at a Roman synod 
under Pope Damasus in 382, approving without 
distinction the entire list of our present canon. In 
the same manner the Synod of Hippo in 392 and the 
Third Council of Carthage in 397 accepted the 
complete canon. In a letter to Exsuperius, Bp. of 
Toulouse, Pope Innocent I in 405 pronounced in 
favor of all the books. The question of a distinction 
was again discussed during the Council of Flor- 
ence, whereupon Pope Eugene IV published a Bull, 
1441, in which he attributed the inspiration of 
the same Holy Ghost to all the books received by 
the Church. With an appeal to these earlier voices, 
the Fathers of the Council of Trent in their famous 
decree of 8 April, 1546, definitely declared as 
"sacred and canonical" all the books of the Old 
and New Testament contained in the Vulgate, list- 
ing them as follows. Of the O.T. : the five books of 
Moses; Josue; Judges; Ruth; four books of Kings; 
two of Paralipomenon; two of Esdras; Tobias; Ju- 
dith; Esther; Job; the Psalter; Proverbs; Ecclesi- 
astes; Canticle of Canticles; Wisdom; Ecclesiasti- 
cus; Isaias; Jeremias with Baruch; Ezechiel; 
Daniel; the 12 minor prophets; and two books of 
Machabees. Of the N.T. : the four Gospels ; the Acts 
of the Apostles; 14 Epistles of the Apostle Paul; 
two Epistles of Peter the Apostle; three Epistles of 
John the Apostle; one of James the Apostle; one 
of Jude the Apostle; and the Apocalypse of John 
the Apostle. The Protestant reformers of the 16th 
century adhered to the narrower canon of the 
Hebrew Bible, and in the N.T. rejected Hebrews, 
James, Jude, and the Apocalypse. Modern Protes- 
tant Bibles, however, usually contain all the N.T. 
books. 
— C.E.; Grannan; Schumacher. (b. s.) 

Canon of the Mass, the most solemn part of the 
Mass in which the Sacrificial Act proper takes place, 
the Consecration and change of the bread and wine 
into the Body and Blood of Christ. It begins with an 
oblation and prayer for all the faithful, followed by 
commemorations of the living, and of the saints, a 
renewal of the oblation, the Consecration, a further 
offering of the consecrated species, a commemoration 
of the departed, recommendation of the priest and 
clergy, the little oblation, the Our Father, invocation 
to the Lamb of God, prayers before the Communion, 
and the consumption of the sacred species. In certain 
liturgies it is called the Action of the Mass, because 
during it the great Act of Sacrifice occurs. The essen- 
tial part, the Consecration, has always been the same 
from the time of the Apostles. The present arrange- 
ment of the ceremonies and prayers dates with 



CANON OF THE MASS 



165 



CANONS REGULAR 



very slight change from the 6th century. — Gueran- 
ger, tr. Shepherd, The Holy Mass, N. Y. (ed.) 

Canon Penitentiary (Lat., pamitentia, pen- 
ance), a member of the chapter at cathedral or 
collegiate churches, who acts as a general confessor 
of the diocese. He has ordinary jurisdiction in the 
internal forum, which power, however, he may not 
delegate to others, and may absolve residents and 
strangers in the diocese and subjects of the diocese 
also outside of same. His power extends also to 
sins and censures reserved to the bishop. The office 
of general confessor is foreshadowed in the early 
history of penitential discipline. Distinct legisla- 
tion concerning the office is found in the Fourth 
Lateran Council (1215), but especially in the Coun- 
cil of Trent (1545-03) .— P.C. Augustine, (h. l. m.) 

Canons, Apostolic, an ancient collection of ec- 
clesiastical decrees concerning the government and 
discipline of the Church. — C.E. 

Canons, Chapters of (Gr., kanon, rule), bodies 
of clerics instituted for the purpose of celebrating 
Divine worship with greater solemnity or to assist 
the bishop in ecclesiastical government. These 
clerics may be canons secular or regular, exempt 
or non-exempt, major (cathedral) or minor (col- 
legiate church) according to the chapter to which 
they belong. They are governed by general and 
particular legislation. Their origin is found in the 
presbytery of the early centuries. The principal 
development of canon chapters received its impetus 
from the Carolingian period, Charlemagne demand- 
ing that clerics live either in monasteries or in 
chapters. Louis the Pious enacted legislation to a 
similar effect. The 13th century brought this insti- 
tute to its juridical maturity. — C.E., III, 252. 

Canons and Canonesses Regular. Canons 
regular are clerics who live in community, per- 
forming work relating to the Divine mysteries, 
and presided over by one of their own order. Most 
canons regular follow the rule which St. Augustine 
gave to his own clergy, hence their name Austin 
Canons. They date their institute from Apostolic 
times, claiming to have been founded by Christ Him- 
self, though this seems to mean only that the vari- 
ous groups of canons established at different times 
adopted a mode of life like that of the Apostles. 
They include the Canons Regular of St. Augustine, 
the Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception, 
and the Canons Regular of the Lateran. Canonesses 
regular are congregations of religious women simi- 
lar to the canons regular, following the Rule of St. 
Augustine, sometimes modified according to local 
conditions. They include the Canonesses Regular of 
the Lateran, the Canonesses Regular of the Holy 
Sepulcher, and the Canonesses Regular of St. Augus- 
tine of the Congregation of Notre Dame. Engaged 
chiefly in educational work, they have convents in 
France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, 
Luxemburg, Germany, Hungary, England, Africa, 
the United States, Brazil, and Canada. The Con- 
gregation of the Poor Sisters of the Schools of 
Notre Dame, founded, 1809, by Bishop Wittman in 
Bavaria, has spread throughout Europe and Amer- 
ica. — C.E. 

Canons Regular of St. Augustine are divided 
into two congregations: the Congregation of 



St. Augustine, St. Bernard, and St. Nicholas, and 
that of the Abbey Nullius of Agaunum. The for- 
mer, established by St. Bernard of Menthon, c. 
1004, is in charge of the hospices of Great St. 
Bernard and Simplon. An agricultural school, a 
tuberculosis sanatorium, and parochial duties also 
engage the canons. Since the 12th century the Abbey 
Nullius of St. Maurice of Agaunum, the oldest 
monastery in the world, has been under the care 
of the canons regular, who engage in teaching and 
parochial duties. See Canons and Canonesses 
Regular. 

Canons Regular of the Holy Cross (Cro- 
siers), religious order founded, 1211, by Bl. Theo- 
dore de Celles at Clair-Lieu, near Huy, Belgium. 
The members of this order follow the Rule of St. 
Augustine and have as their patroness St. Odilia. 
They give missions and retreats, assist the secular 
clergy, and educate young men for the priesthood. 
In a short time the society spread to France, the 
Netherlands, Germany, and England. During the 
16th century the houses in England were destroyed: 
at the time of the Reformation all but two of the 
Dutch houses were despoiled; and during the 
French Revolution the order was expelled from 
France and Belgium. The two remaining convents 
in Holland were forbidden by King William to 
admit any novices. His successor retracted this edict 
(1840) and from that time the order commenced 
to flourish again. A province was formed in Can- 
ada, three large branches were established in Bel- 
gium, the convent of Uden, Holland, was com- 
pletely restored, and the mother-house at St. 
Agatha, Holland, was rebuilt. To these canons be- 
longs the privilege granted to them by Leo X and 
confirmed by Leo XIII of blessing beads with an 
indulgence of 500 days, called the Crosier indul- 
gence. To the members of the province of Canada is 
entrusted the Diocese of Chittagong. Statistics: 9 
convents; 200 religious. — -C.E. 

Canons Regular of the Immaculate Concept 
tion, a congregation founded, 1866, at St.-An- 
toine, France, by the Abbe Dom Adrien Grea, to 
combine the practises of ordinary religious life with 
the duties of the clerical state, and for the edu- 
cation of young clerics. St.-Antoine is the mother- 
house, but after the passage of the law banishing 
religious orders from France, the community was 
transferred to Andora Stazione, province of Genoa, 
Italy. The congregation has houses in France, Swit- 
zerland, Italy, Scotland, and Canada, and more 
than 100 religious. — C.E t 

Canons Regular of the Lateran originated 
when the clergy of the Roman Basilica of St. John 
Lateran adopted the Augustinian discipline in 492 
under Gelasius, disciple of St. Augustine. Known 
as the Congregation of the Holy Saviour, the canons 
served the Lateran until c. 1472 when they were 
replaced by secular canons, though they retained 
their title and certain privileges. In addition to 
canonical duties, they serve pilgrims, tend the sick, 
teach, and preach. The order spread to Italy, Po- 
land, France, Belgium, Spain, and America. In 
1910 they numbered 12 abbeys, 5 priories, and 250 
religious subject to the Abbe General at Rome. An 
affiliated congregation founded in Austria, 1140, 



CANONS REGULAR 



166 



CANTICLE 



numbered, in 1917, 7 abbeys and 334 religious. 
The Canons Regular of Reno were united to the 
Lateran Congregation in 1823.— C.E., III, 293. 

Canopy (Gr., konops, gnat: originally used as a 
protection against insects ) , an ornamental covering 
of cloth, stone, wood, or metal, used to crown an 
altar, throne, pulpit, statue, etc. In liturgical use: 
the structure covering an altar, called also balda- 
chinum (q.v. ); the covering suspended over the 
throne occupied by dignitaries of the Church or 
princes ; the covering, always white, under which the 
Blessed Sacrament is sometimes borne in proces- 
sions. For transporting the Blessed Sacrament from 
one altar to the other, or for taking the Holy Via- 
ticum to the sick, it is customary in some places 
to use a small canopy with a single staff. Relics ex- 
cepting rarely those of the True Cross or some in- 
strument of the Passion are not carried under a 
canopy in processions. A processional canopy is 
used for a bishop at his solemn reception into his 
cathedral city and when he makes his first pastoral 
visit to any town or parish within his jurisdiction. 
— C.E. 

Canossa, a castle of Matilda, Countess of Tus- 
cany, 12 m. from Reggio, where Henry IV of Ger- 
many did penance in presence of Pope Gregory VII 
(Jan., 1077). Henry, who had been excommunicated 
and whose excesses had prompted his subjects to 
demand his deposition, took the initiative of meet- 
ing the pope, who, hearing of his coming, but not 
knowing his intentions, had taken refuge at Can- 
ossa. After waiting three days in the garb of a 
penitent, Henry was received back into the Com- 
munion of the Church, but subsequent events 
proved he was not sincere. Canossa is now in 
ruins, the castle-well and "gate of penance" alone 
remain. — C.E. (p. p. d. ) 

Canova, Antonio (1757-1822), sculptor, b. Pos- 
sagno, Italy; d. Venice. A student in Venice and 
Rome, the latter city inspired his efforts to revive 
classic art after the 
decadent period of 
Bernini. Of his stat- 
uary three well- 
known examples are 
the "Theseus" of the 
Vatican, the "Per- 
seus" of the Belve- 
dere, and the "Cu- 
pid and Psyche" of 
the Louvre. He 
designed the colossal 
tomb of Clement 
XIII in St. Peter's, 
and that of Clement XIV in the church of the Santi 
Apostoli. A later work was the elaborate tomb of 
the Archduchess Maria Christina, in the Augus- 
tinian church in Vienna. His portrait busts in- 
cluded those of Pius VII and Napoleon. — C.E. 

Cantata (It., story set to music), musical term 
originally used for a vocal composition in the 17th 
century when instrumental music was coming into 
use. At first it connoted an arrangement for one 
or two voices, later a group of arias joined by 
recitative. It is now applied almost exclusively to 
choral music in general. The church music of 




ANTONIO CANOVA 



Giacomo Carissimi (1604-74) is an excellent ex- 
ample of the earlier type of cantata. 

Canterbury, ancient diocese, the mother-church 
and primatial see of all England, from 597 to the 
death of Card. Pole, the sixty-eighth and last Cath- 
olic archbishop. The first bishop was St. Augustine 
(597-604), and the first English bishop was Deus- 
dedit (655-664). At one time there were 22 suf- 
fragan sees, and the archbishop had the right of 
crowning and anointing the sovereign. The cathe- 
dral, begun by St. Augustine, was burned in 1067, 
and the restoration completed in 1495. The list of 
prelates includes: St. Theodore (668-690); St. 
Dunstan (960-988) ; Stigand (1052-70), last of the 
Saxons; Lanfranc (1070-89); St. Thomas of Can- 
terbury, martyr (11